The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo. The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin in 1569, shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty, which had ruled Poland for two centuries. In the Baltic Sea region, Poland maintained an ongoing conflict with the Teutonic Knights; the struggles led to a major battle, the Battle of Grunwald of 1410, but there was the milestone Peace of Thorn of 1466 under King Casimir IV Jagiellon. In the south, Poland confronted the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Tatars, in the east helped Lithuania fight the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Poland's and Lithuania's territorial expansion included the far north region of Livonia. In the Jagiellonian period, Poland developed as a feudal state with a predominantly agricultural economy and an dominant landed nobility; the Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm in 1505 transferred most of the legislative power in the state from the monarch to the Sejm.
This event marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" members of the Polish nobility. Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads into Polish Christianity, which resulted in unique policies of religious tolerance in the Europe of that time; the European Renaissance as fostered by the late Jagiellonian Kings Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus resulted in an immense cultural flowering. In 1385, the Union of Krewo was signed between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, the ruler of the last pagan state in Europe; the act arranged for Jogaila's baptism and the couple's marriage, which established the beginning of the Polish-Lithuanian union. After Jogaila's baptism, he was known in Poland by his baptismal name Władysław and the Polish version of his Lithuanian name, Jagiełło; the union strengthened both nations in their shared opposition to the Teutonic Knights and the growing threat of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Vast expanses of Rus' lands, including the Dnieper River basin and territories extending south to the Black Sea, were at that time under Lithuanian control. In order to gain control of these vast holdings, Lithuania had fought the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362 or 1363 against the invading Mongols and had taken advantage of the power vacuum to the south and east that resulted from the Mongol destruction of Kievan Rus'; the population of the Grand Duchy's enlarged territory was accordingly Ruthenian and Eastern Orthodox. The territorial expansion led to a confrontation between Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which found itself emerging from the Tatar rule and itself in a process of expansion. Uniquely in Europe, the union connected two states geographically located on the opposite sides of the great civilizational divide between the Western Christian or Latin world, the Eastern Christian or Byzantine world; the intention of the union was to create a common state under Władysław Jagiełło, but the ruling oligarchy of Poland learned that their goal of incorporating Lithuania into Poland was unrealistic.
Territorial disputes led to warfare between Lithuanian factions. Geographic consequences of the dynastic union and the preferences of the Jagiellonian kings instead created a process of orientating Polish territorial priorities to the east. Between 1386 and 1572, the Polish-Lithuanian union was ruled by a succession of constitutional monarchs of the Jagiellonian dynasty; the political influence of the Jagiellonian kings diminished during this period, while the landed nobility took over an ever-increasing role in central government and national affairs. The royal dynasty, had a stabilizing effect on Poland's politics; the Jagiellonian Era is regarded as a period of maximum political power, great prosperity, in its stage, a Golden Age of Polish culture. The feudal rent system prevalent in the 13th and 14th centuries, under which each estate had well defined rights and obligations, degenerated around the 15th century as the nobility tightened their control over manufacturing and other economic activities.
This created many directly owned agricultural enterprises known as folwarks in which feudal rent payments were replaced with forced labor on the lord's land. This forced most of the peasants into serfdom; such practices were sanctioned by the law. For example, the Piotrków Privilege of 1496, granted by King Jan I Albert, banned rural land purchases by townspeople and limited the ability of peasant farmers to leave their villages. Polish towns, lacking national representation protecting their class interests, preserved some degree of self-government, the trades were able to organize and form guilds; the nobility soon excused themselves from their principal duty: mandatory military service in case of war. The division of the nobility into two main layers was institutionalized, but never formalized, in the Nihil novi "constitution" of 1505, which required the king to consult the general sejm, the Senate, as well as the lower chamber of deputies, the Sejm proper, before enacting any changes; the masses of ordinary nobles szlachta competed or tried to compete against the uppermost rank of their class, the magnates, for the duration of Poland's independent existence.
The first king of the new dynasty was Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, known as Władysław II Jagieł
Stephen Powers was an American journalist and historian of Native American tribes in California. He traveled extensively to study and learn about their cultures, wrote notable accounts of them, his articles were first published over a series of years in the Overland Monthly journal, but collected in The Tribes of California published by the US Geological Survey. Stephen Powers was born in Ohio, he attended and graduated from the established University of Michigan in 1863. During the American Civil War years, Powers served as a Union Army correspondent for the Cincinnati Commercial newspaper. In 1869 Powers left Ohio for the West, he walked across the Southern and Western United States to his destination of San Francisco, California. After arriving, Powers wrote about his experiences and observations, had his book published in 1871. Between 1871 and 1876, Stephen Powers traveled thousands of miles on foot and horseback through the Northern, Central Coast, great Central Valley regions of California.
Powers become familiar with the various distinctive Native Californian Indian population groups and tribes. He studied their crafts including: spiritual and religious beliefs and ceremonies, he studied their ways of interacting with plants and animals for food, clothing and tools. Powers observed and documented their adaptations to circumstances from a hundred years of homeland invasions by Spanish and European-American immigrants settling on their land, the resulting consequences. Stephen Powers published his diverse ethnographic studies in a series of articles, which appeared in the Overland Monthly journal from 1872-1877. Stephen Powers subsequently reworked his Tribes of California articles and other material for a book's publication, it was published in 1877 as part of the federally sponsored Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region series edited by the renowned western geologist John Wesley Powell Director of the Geological Survey of the Department of Interior, as well as the Bureau of Ethnological Studies at the Smithsonian Institution.
Alfred L. Kroeber, an anthropologist, director of the University of California, Berkeley's Museum of Anthropology and the dean of Native Californian ethnologists, said Stephen Powers' book Tribes of California: "... it will always remain the best introduction to the subject." His book and articles are held by his alma mater, the University of Michigan, which has put them online as part of the Making of America collaboration among major universities. Population of Native California Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Traditional narratives Category: Native American tribes in California Category: Native American history of California California mission clash of cultures Alfred Robinson - "Life in California" 1846 Golla, Victor. 2011. California Indian Languages. Berkeley: University of California Press. Heizer, Robert F.. 1975. "Letters of Stephen Powers to John Wesley Powell Concerning Tribes of California". In Stephen Powers, California's First Ethnologist, part 2. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 28.
Berkeley. Park, Susan. 1975. "The Life of Stephen Powers". In Stephen Powers, California's First Ethnologist, part 1. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 28. Berkeley. Powers, Stephen. 1871. Afoot and Alone: A Walk from Sea to Sea by the Southern Route and Observations in Southern California, New Mexico, Texas, etc. Columbian Book Company, Connecticut. Powers, Stephen. 1975. The Northern California Indians: A Reprinting of 19 Articles on California Indians Originally Published 1872-1877. Edited by Robert F. Heizer. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 25. Berkeley. Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. P. 21. Retrieved August 22, 2012. Reprinted 1976 Works by or about Stephen Powers at Internet ArchiveStephen Powers' "Overland Monthly" articlesAvailable on-line for the following cultural groups: Karuk -— "Overland-Karuk", "Overland-Karuk", Yurok —— "Overland-Yurok", Hupa —— "Overland-Hupa", Yuki —— "Overland-Yuki", Pomo —— "Overland-Pomo", Miwok —— "Overland-Miwok", Modoc —— "Overland-Modoc", Yokut —— "Overland-Yokuts", Maidu —— "Overland-Nisenan", Achomawi, Yana people —— "Overland-various groups", Wintu —— "Overland-Wintu", Patwin —— "Overland-Patwin", Cultures —— "Overland-General characteristics of the California Indians".
"Native Tribes, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770". Adapted from Heizer, California Prehistory Website
The Priya Pillai offloading of January 2015 was an incident in India where an environmental activist was offloaded from a flight in order to prevent her from testifying internationally on the activity of a firm registered in the UK. The Ministry of Home Affairs argued that her deposition before a British parliamentary committee would have been "prejudicial to national interest" In its judgment, the Delhi High Court observed that dissent "may not be palatable. International media has been critical of the Narendra Modi Government; the government was interested in promoting coal energy, in the work of the Mahan Coal Limited, a joint venture of the UK-registered firm Essar Energy with Hindalco, to mine coal in an old sal forest area in Madhya Pradesh. Priya Pillai, who works with Greenpeace India, had been campaigning in Mahan for several years. In January 2015, she was to testify before the British All-Party Parliamentary Group for Tribal Peoples chaired by Martin Horwood, looking at the role of Essar Power.
At the airport on 11 January, immigration officials offloaded her from the flight, but no reason was given to her for this act. Pillai wrote twice to the Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs wishing to know the legal basis for the offloading, but received no reply, she took the matter to Delhi High Court, with her lawyer Indira Jaising arguing that there had been a "simultaneous violation of the right to free speech, right to freedom of association and personal liberty of movement."In a leaked report from June 2014, Greenpeace was accused of mounting protests that had brought down India's GDP by 2-3%. In September 2014, a British greenpeace activist was deported from India despite having a valid visa; the Ministry of Home Affairs sought several extensions. The Ministry filed an affidavit stating that the action was based on a look-out circular issued the day before her flight, at the request of the Intelligence Bureau; the reason given was that Pillai "would project the image of Indian Government'negatively' at the international level."
The government claimed that "in-person testimony of local activists" dealing with sensitive subjects such as "religious freedom, tribal people, indigenous people, violence against women, human trafficking and dalit rights" damaged the country's reputation. This was problematic since India was at least two decades behind the west in the energy sector. A "negative image" of India would "whittle down foreign direct investments”, it was claimed that she was involved in "anti-national activities". At the same time, since the LOC is a "secret" document, it could not be shown to her. At one point, the Assistant Attorney General Sanjay Jain told the court: If there is an undertaking that she will not make this speech before the MPs the LOC will be withdrawn. There is no general curtailment of her movement. To this remark, Pillai said. I was exercising my fundamental right... If I accept that the government has a right to dictate what I can and can’t say India and all Indians would lose something priceless – our absolute right to free speech.
I will not accept that. Justice Shakdher wanted to know. "The Indian state is not powerless. You have a plethora of trained diplomats doing a commendable job of protecting national interests. I don’t see how the state cannot meet the challenge posed," In February, the Delhi High court expunged the ban on travel for Pillai, In his judgement, justice Rajiv Shakdher observed: The point in issue is, why must the State interfere with the freedom of an individual, as long as the individual concerned operates within the ambit of laws framed by the legislature; the core aspect of democracy is the freedom of an individual... The individual should be able to order his or her life any way he or she pleases, as long as it is not violative of the law... Amongst the varied freedoms conferred on an individual, is the right of free speech and expression, which includes the right to criticise and dissent. Criticism, by an individual, may not be palatable. Many civil right activists believe that they have the right, as citizens, to bring to the notice of the State the incongruity in the developmental policies of the State.
The State may not accept the views of the civil right activists, but that by itself, cannot be a good enough reason to do away with dissent. Therefore... There was no basis for the respondents to issue an LOC qua the petitioner; that being so, the decision taken to detain the petitioner at the airport on 11.01.2015, in my opinion, was illegal being violative of the Ms Pillai's right under Article 21 and 19 of the Constitution. While the judgment states that the process by which Look-Out Circulars are issued is not "enacted law", it did not strike it down. What was surprising about the incident that it was issued despite many earlier instances where the courts had stated that the right to issue LOC must be exercised with caution. In 2010, Justice S Muralidhar of the Delhi high court stated that "The power to suspend temporarily, a passport of a citizen, the power to issue an LOC, the power to offload a passenger and prevent him or her from travelling are all extraordinary powers, vested in the criminal law enforcement agencies by the statutory law.
These are powers that are required under the law, to be exercised with caution and only by the authorities who are empowered by law to do so and a