Solitaire is any tabletop game which one can play by oneself. The term "solitaire" is used for single-player games of concentration and skill using a set layout of tiles, pegs or stones rather than cards; these games include peg mahjong solitaire. Most solitaire games function as a puzzle which, due to a different starting position, may be solved in a different fashion each time. Patience known as "solitaire with cards" involves placing cards in a layout, sorting them according to specific rules. A common variant is Klondike, included with the Windows operating system under the title Solitaire. Mahjong solitaire Peg solitaire Concentration known as memory, shinkei-suijaku, pexeso or pairs, a card game in which all of the cards are laid face down on a surface and two cards are flipped face up over each turn; the object of the game is to turn over pairs of matching cards. A collection of Solitaire card games
King's Cross St Pancras tube station
King's Cross St Pancras is a London Underground station on Euston Road in the Borough of Camden, Central London. It serves King's Cross and St Pancras main line stations in fare zone 1, is an interchange between six Underground lines; the station was one of the first to open on the network. The station opened in 1863 along with the Metropolitan line, subsequently catering for the Hammersmith & City and Circle lines, it was expanded in 1868 with the opening of the City Widened Lines, the Northern and Piccadilly platforms opened in the early 20th century. During the 1930s and 1940s, the station was restructured and rebuilt to cater for expanded traffic; the Victoria line connection opened in 1968. The 1987 King's Cross fire that killed 31 people is the deadliest accident to occur on the Underground and resulted in widespread safety improvements and changes throughout the network; the station was extensively rebuilt in the early 21st century to cater for Eurostar services that moved from Waterloo to St Pancras in 2009.
The first underground station at King's Cross was planned in 1851, during construction of the mainline station. The intention was to connect the Great Western Railway at Paddington with the Great Northern Railway at King's Cross; the line was opened as part of the original section of the Metropolitan Railway on 10 January 1863. It was reorganised in August 1868 to accommodate the City Widened Lines which allowed GNR and Metropolitan traffic to run along the line simultaneously; the same year, the Metropolitan built a link to the newly opened St Pancras station. The Great Northern and Brompton Railway platforms opened with the rest of the line on 15 December 1906, while the City & South London Railway opened on 11 May 1907. In 1927, this part of the station was renamed as King's Cross for St Pancras. In 1933, the station was formally renamed King's Cross St Pancras, except for the Metropolitan line station, which continued to use the old name until 16 October 1940, when it was renamed. During this time, major rebuilding work took place, including a direct connection to St Pancras and a circular ticket hall.
The main concourse opened on 18 June 1939, the subway link to St Pancras opened two years later. The total cost of the work was £260,000; the Metropolitan line platforms were closed between 16 October and 9 December 1940 due to bomb damage during the Blitz. Further bomb damage to the Metropolitan line platforms occurred on 9 March 1941 when a train, the station roof, the signal box and the platforms were damaged and two railway staff were killed. New sub-surface platforms had been under construction as part of the station improvements begun in the 1930s and these were opened in an unfinished condition on 14 March 1941 250 m to the west; these were decorated with cream tiles featuring pale green edges. A subway was built between the sub-surface lines, running below Euston Road and joining with the tube lines, making interchanging between the various lines easier; the 1868 platforms became King's Cross Thameslink station. The Victoria line platforms were opened on 1 December 1968 as part of the line's second phase from Highbury & Islington to Warren Street.
Unlike some other interchange stations on the line, it was not possible to put the platforms on the same level with other lines. Two new escalators were constructed, connecting the Northern / Piccadilly ticket hall with an expanded concourse. A further subway and staircase connected the new platforms to this; the station was refurbished in conjunction with several others on the tube network. The Northern and Piccadilly platforms were decorated with multi-coloured tiles featuring the letters "K" and "X"; the underground network had been at risk of fire since opening, the limited amount of space and means of escape increased the possibility of fatalities. Following a serious fire at Finsbury Park in February 1976, staff had been trained to be alert for any possible causes of ignition or smouldering. At around 7:30 p.m. on 18 November 1987, a passenger reported a small fire on the Northern / Piccadilly up escalator and alerted staff. The incident was judged as minor, the Fire Brigade arrived at 7:43 p.m. with four pumps and a ladder.
By this time, the ticket hall had filled with smoke, trains passed through the station without stopping, passengers were being evacuated. At around 7:45 p.m. a fireball erupted from the Northern / Piccadilly escalators and set the ticket hall ablaze. The fire burned for several hours and was not properly contained until around 1:46 a.m. the following morning. It killed 31 people, including a fire officer; the then-unknown fire phenomenon of the trench effect made the fire develop upwards and caused it to explode into the station. As a result, fire safety procedures on the Underground were tightened, staff training was improved and wooden steps on escalators were replaced with metal ones. Smoking had been banned on subsurface areas of the Underground in February 1985; the fire caused extensive damage to the old wooden escalators where it had started. Repairs and rebuilding took over a year. In the aftermath of the fire, the Fennell Report recommended that London Underground should investigate "passenger flow and congestion in stations and take remedial action".
A Parliamentary bill was tabled in 1993 to permit London Underground to improve and expand the con
King's Cross Thameslink railway station
King's Cross Thameslink station is a closed railway station in central London, England. It was located on Pentonville Road, around 250 metres east of King's Cross mainline station and, at the time of closure in 2007, was on the Thameslink route between Farringdon and Kentish Town stations, it was included in the London station group from the its inception in 1983, remained so until closure. The station opened in 1863 as King's Cross Metropolitan, it was one of the initial seven stations on the Metropolitan Railway, London's first underground line, which ran between Paddington and Farringdon. The Metropolitan had been planning for the station since 1851, when King's Cross mainline station was constructed, to provide a connection between the Great Western Railway at Paddington and the Great Northern Railway out of King's Cross. Within a year of opening a pair of tunnels was added, which surfaced on the GNR just north of King's Cross and provided a direct rail connection between the two lines. In 1866 the line was extended east to Moorgate and south through Snow Hill tunnel to join the London and Dover Railway at Ludgate Hill, in 1868 a second pair of tracks known as the City Widened Lines was opened along with a tunnel connection to the Midland Railway near St Pancras station.
The route through the station was busy throughout the remainder of the century, with trains from five companies operating. In 1892 the station was linked to the concourse of the mainline station by a foot tunnel; the arrival of the Piccadilly and Northern lines, as well as the growth of trams on the surface streets, led to a sharp reduction of services on the City Widened Lines in the early twentieth century. The Metropolitan line remained popular, following electrification of its tracks in 1905–06. Passenger service was reduced to peak hours only during World War I, with no service through the Snow Hill tunnel, as the lines were used for freight and troop movements; the line and station were closed for five months following damage in The Blitz of World War II. When the station reopened in 1941, only the City Widened Lines platforms remained in use as the Metropolitan line station was moved to a new pair of platforms, built at King's Cross St Pancras tube station, providing a shorter connection to the Piccadilly and Northern lines.
Trains from the East Coast main line and Midland main line continued to stop at King's Cross Metropolitan. In the 1980s the City Widened Lines were electrified and the Snow Hill tunnel reopened to passenger traffic as part of the Thameslink programme; the station was renamed, first to King's Cross Midland City and to its final name, King's Cross Thameslink. Service on the line grew and new destinations were added, by the 2000s the station could no longer handle the passenger numbers. A new pair of platforms were built at St Pancras, King's Cross Thameslink closed in 2007; the station was known as King's Cross Metropolitan when it opened by the Metropolitan Railway in 1863, although on timetables and maps it was just called King's Cross or King's Cross. The Metropolitan line part of the station was renamed to King's Cross & St Pancras in 1925 and to King's Cross St Pancras in 1933, when the Metropolitan Railway was merged with the Undergrond Electric Railways Company of London to form the London Passenger Transport Board.
The station was part of the King's Cross St Pancras tube station complex. The City Widened Lines platforms continued to be signed as King's Cross through to the 1970s; when the station reopened in 1983, following electrification, it was known as King's Cross Midland City and acquired its final name, King's Cross Thameslink, in 1988. King's Cross Thameslink was located in a cutting around 250 metres east of King's Cross mainline station; the station's main entrance was on the north side of the station at the western end of Pentonville Road, part of the London Inner Ring Road. This replaced an earlier entrance located south of the tracks on Gray's Inn Road; the Thameslink platforms were linked directly by stairs and a tunnel to the Victoria and Piccadilly line platforms at King's Cross St Pancras, via both sets of platforms to the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Northern lines as well as the mainline stations at King's Cross and St Pancras. The station had four platforms; the two to the south were for the Metropolitan line, were used from 1863 to 1940.
The two northern platforms, used from 1863 to 1979 and from 1983 to 2007, served the City Widened Lines and the Thameslink service. The southbound Metropolitan and northbound Widened shared an island platform. After closure of the Metropolitan platforms a high wall was built on that island; the two platforms in use during the King's Cross Thameslink era were lettered rather than numbered, to avoid confusion with the platforms at nearby King's Cross among staff who worked at both stations. In 1983, British Rail introduced the London station group, a group of stations in central London which were regarded as a single destination for ticketing and fare purposes. King's Cross Midland City, as it was called, was one of the original eighteen stations in the group, it retained this status until closure in 2007; the area of King's Cross was a village known as Battle Bridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. The river flowed along what is now the west side of Pancras Road until it was rerouted underground in 1825.
The mainline King's Cross station was built in 1851–52 as the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway, was the fifth London terminal to be constructed. The station took its name from the King's Cross building, a monument to King George IV that stood in the area and was demolished in 1845. Plans for the station were made in December
King's Cross Central
King's Cross Central is a multi-billion pound mixed-use development in the north-east of central London. The site is controlled by the King's Cross Central Limited Partnership, it consists of 67 acres of former railway lands to the north of King's Cross and St Pancras mainline railway stations. The site is determined by three boundaries: the existing East Coast Main Line railway leading out of King's Cross; the master planners for the development are Allies and Morrison, Demetri Porphyrios, Townshend Landscape Architects. The overall developer is Argent LLP. Construction work is ongoing; the area of what is today Kings Cross was farmland, intersected by York Way heading north leading to a bridge which crossed the River Fleet at Battlebridge. This name led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica, support by writings from the ancient Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus, it was not until the development of New Road in 1765.
Developed as terraced housing, with the opening of the Regents Canal in 1820 the area became industrialised. In 1824 the Imperial Gas Light and Coke Company developed a gas works south of the canal, which drew a number of other highly-polluting industries into the area. Around 1835 a 60-foot high monument topped by an 11-foot statue of King George IV was built at the junction of Gray's Inn Road, Pentonville Road and New Road, which became Euston Road. Designed by architect Stephen Geary, the statue was constructed of bricks and mortar, finished in a manner that gave it the appearance of stone "at least to the eyes of common spectators", allowing it to cost no more than £25. Described by George Walter Thornbury as "a ridiculous octagonal structure crowned by an absurd statue", the upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base in turn housed a police station and a public house; the unpopular building was demolished in 1845. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building on the site about 30 years later.
Known locally as the "Lighthouse Building", the popular theory that the structure was an advertisement for Netten's Oyster Bar on the ground floor seems not to be true. It is a grade II listed building. In 1849, the Great Northern Railway began development of their East Coast Main Line and station in the area. Purchasing land north of the canal for their goods yard and engine depot, they purchased land south of the canal for their King's Cross railway station. However, with the oncoming Great Exhibition, they decided to open a small temporary two-platform station within the goods area named Maiden Lane railway station. In 1852 the line was completed over the canal and Kings Cross station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt, opened. Before the 1860s, the Midland Railway had a network of routes in the Midlands and in south and west Yorkshire and Lancashire, but no route of its own to the capital. Up to 1857 the company had no line into London, used the lines of the London and North Western Railway for trains into the capital.
However, traffic for the second International Exhibition in 1862 suffered great delays over both lines, so the decision was taken to develop its own London terminus from Bedford. Surveying for a 49.75-mile long line began in October 1862. Designed by William Henry Barlow, as the approaching line to the station crossed the Regent's Canal at height, the result was that the line at St Pancras railway station was to be 12 to 17 ft above the ground level. Planned to be filled with spoil from the tunnels north of the railway lands, instead the void was used for dry freight, in particular beer from the Brewers of Burton. Beer traffic was handled in the centre of the station between platforms 4 and 5. A central third track ended in a wagon hoist lowering wagons 20 feet below rail level; the contract for the construction of the station substructure and connecting lines was given to Messrs. Waring, with Barlow's assistant Campion as supervisor. To avoid the foundations of the roof interfering with the space beneath, to simplify the design and minimise cost, it was decided to construct a single span roof, with cross ties for the arch at the station level.
Constructed by the Butterley Company, the span width, from wall to wall was 245 ft 6 in, with one of 24 ribs every 29 ft 4 in. The resultant single-span roof was 679 feet long, 236 feet wide, 98 feet high at the apex above the tracks, was the largest such structure in the world at the time of its completion. Construction of a hotel fronting the station, the Midland Grand Hotel, began in 1868, it opened in 1873; the building is brick, but polychromatic, in a style derived from the Italian gothic, with numerous other architectural influences. Both railway companies had land north of the canal, which due to their previous industrial and now commercial use became known as the "railway lands". However, the passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically more important goods traffic to the north; the first development was the reuse of the former temporary GNR station as a potato
Kings Cross railway station, Sydney
Kings Cross railway station is located on the Eastern Suburbs line, serving the Sydney suburb of Kings Cross. It is served by Sydney Trains T4 Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line services and NSW TrainLink South Coast Line services. Kings Cross station opened on 23 June 1979 when the Eastern Suburbs line opened from Central to Bondi Junction. State Transit operate four via Kings Cross station: 200: Chatswood station to Bondi Junction Interchange 311: Millers Point to Railway Square 324: Dawes Point to Watsons Bay via Vaucluse Heights 325: Dawes Point to Watsons Bay via VaucluseKings Cross station is served by one NightRide route: N91: Bondi Junction station to Macquarie Park) Kings Cross Station at Transport for New South Wales Kings Cross Public Transport Map Transport for NSW
London King's Cross railway station
King's Cross railway station known as London King's Cross, is a passenger railway terminus in the London Borough of Camden, on the edge of Central London. It is in the London station group, one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom and the southern terminus of the East Coast Main Line to North East England and Scotland. Adjacent to King's Cross station is St Pancras International, the London terminus for Eurostar services to continental Europe. Beneath both main line stations is King's Cross St. Pancras tube station on the London Underground; the station was opened in Kings Cross in 1852 by the Great Northern Railway on the northern edge of Central London to accommodate the East Coast Main Line. It grew to cater for suburban lines and was expanded several times in the 19th century, it came under the ownership of the London and North Eastern Railway as part of the Big Four grouping in 1923, who introduced famous services such as the Flying Scotsman and locomotives such as Mallard. The station complex was redeveloped in the 1970s, simplifying the layout and providing electric suburban services, it became a major terminus for the high-speed InterCity 125.
As of 2018, long-distance trains from King's Cross are run by London North Eastern Railway to Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central via York and Newcastle. In addition, Great Northern runs suburban commuter trains around north London. In the late 20th century, the area around the station became known for its seedy and downmarket character, was used as a backdrop for several films as a result. A major redevelopment was undertaken in the 21st century, including restoration of the original roof, the station became well known for its association with the Harry Potter books and films the fictional Platform 9¾; the station stands on the London Inner Ring Road at the eastern end of Euston Road, next to the junction with Pentonville Road, Gray's Inn Road and York Way, in what is now the London Borough of Camden. To the west, at the other side of Pancras Road, is St Pancras railway station. Several London bus routes, including 10, 30, 59, 73, 91, 205, 390, 476 pass in front of or to the side of the station.
King's Cross is spelled both without an apostrophe. King's Cross is used in signage at the Network Rail and London Underground stations, on the Tube map and on the official Network Rail webpage, it featured on early Underground maps, but has been used on them since 1951. Kings X, Kings + and London KX are abbreviations used in space-limited contexts; the National Rail station code is KGX. The area of King's Cross was a village known as Battle Bridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet known as Broad Ford Bradford Bridge; the river flowed along what is now the west side of Pancras Road until it was rerouted underground in 1825. The name "Battle Bridge" is linked to tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Celtic British Iceni tribe led by Boudica. According to folklore, King's Cross is the site of Boudica's final battle and some sources say she is buried under one of the platforms. Platforms 9 and 10 have been suggested as possible sites. Boudica's ghost is reported to haunt passages under the station, around platforms 8–10.
King's Cross station was built in 1851–52 as the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway, was the fifth London terminal to be constructed. It replaced a temporary station next to Maiden Lane, constructed with the line's arrival in London in 1850; the station took its name from the King's Cross building, a monument to King George IV that stood in the area and was demolished in 1845. Construction was on the site of a smallpox hospital and it replaced a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane that had opened on 7 August 1850. Plans for the station were made in December 1848 under the direction of George Turnbull, resident engineer for constructing the first 20 miles of the Great Northern Railway out of London; the station's detailed design was by Lewis Cubitt, the brother of Thomas Cubitt, Sir William Cubitt. The design comprised two great arched train sheds, with a brick structure at the south end designed to reflect the arches behind, its main feature was a 112-foot high clock tower that held treble and bass bells, the latter weighing 1 ton 9 cwt.
In size, it was inspired by the 200 yards long Moscow Riding Academy of 1825, leading to its built length of 268 yards. The station, the biggest in England, opened on 14 October 1852, it had one arrival and one departure platform, the space between was used for carriage sidings. The platforms have been reconfigured several times, they have been numbered 1 to 8 since 1972. Suburban traffic grew with the opening of stations at Hornsey in 1850, Holloway Road in 1856, Wood Green in 1859 and Seven Sisters Road in 1861. Midland Railway services to Leicester via Hitchin and Bedford began running from King's Cross on 1 February 1858. More platforms were added in 1862. In 1866, a connection was made via the Metropolitan Railway to the London and Dover Railway at Farringdon, with goods and passenger services to South London via Herne Hill. A separate suburban station to the west of the main building, housing platforms 9–11 as of 1972 and known initi
Kings Cross, London
Kings Cross is a district in Central London, England, 2.5 miles north west of Charing Cross. It is served by London King's Cross railway station, the terminus of one of the major rail routes between London and the North; the area has been regenerated since the mid-1990s with the terminus of the Eurostar rail service at St Pancras International opening in 2007 and the rebuilding of King's Cross station, a major redevelopment in the north of the area. The area was a village known as Battle Bridge or Battlebridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet; the original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge. The corruption "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle in AD 60 or 61 between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica; the tradition claims support from the writing of Publius Cornelius Tacitus, an ancient Roman historian, who described the place of action between the Romans and Boadicea, but without specifying where it was. Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons includes a map showing the supposed positions of the opposing armies.
The suggestion that Boudica is buried beneath platform 9 or 10 at King's Cross station seems to have arisen as urban folklore since the end of World War II. The area had been settled in Roman times, a camp here known as The Brill was erroneously attributed to Julius Caesar, who never visited Londinium. There is still a small area named "Battle Bridge Place" between King's Cross and St Pancras stations, "Brill Place", a road leading towards Euston from St Pancras Station. An art installation named the Identified Flying Object stands in Battle Bridge Place, part of the RELAY King's Cross Arts programme. St Pancras Old Church set behind the stations, is said to be one of the oldest Christian sites in Britain; the current name has its origin in a monument to King George IV which stood from 1830 to 1845 at "the king's crossroads" where New Road, Gray's Inn Road, Pentonville Road met. The monument topped by an eleven-foot-high statue of the king; the statue itself, which cost no more than £25, was constructed of bricks and mortar, finished in a manner that gave it the appearance of stone "at least to the eyes of common spectators".
The architect was Stephen Geary, who exhibited a model of "the Kings Cross" at the Royal Academy in 1830. The upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base housed first a police station, a public house; the unpopular building was demolished in 1845. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building on the site about 30 years later. Known locally as the "Lighthouse Building", the structure was popularly thought to be an advertisement for Netten's Oyster Bar on the ground floor, but this seems not to be true, it is a grade II listed building. King's Cross station now stands by the junction where the monument took its name; the station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt and opened in 1852, succeeded a temporary earlier station, erected north of the canal in time for the Great Exhibition of 1851. St Pancras railway station, built by the Midland Railway, lies to the west, they both had extensive land to house their associated facilities for handling general goods and specialist commodities such as fish, coal and grain.
The passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically more important goods traffic to the north. King's Cross and St Pancras stations, indeed all London railway stations, made an important contribution to the capital's economy. After World War II the area declined from being a poor but busy industrial and distribution services district to a abandoned post-industrial district. By the 1980s it was notorious for drug abuse; this reputation impeded attempts to revive the area, utilising the large amount of land available following the decline of the railway goods yard to the north of the station and the many other vacant premises in the area. Cheap rents and a central London location made the area attractive to artists and designers and both Antony Gormley and Thomas Heatherwick established studios in the area. In late 1980s, a group of musicians and squatters from Hammersmith called Mutoid Waste Company moved into Battlebridge Road warehouse, they held raves. In 1989 they were evicted by police.
In 1992, the Community Creation Trust took over the disused coach repair depot and built it into the largest Ecology Centre in Europe with ecohousing for homeless youngsters, The Last Platform Cafe, London Ecology Centre and workshops, gardens and ponds. It was destroyed to make a car park for the Channel Tunnel Regeneration. Bagley's Warehouse was a nightclub venue in the 1990s warehouse rave scene on the site of Goods Yard behind King's Cross stations, now part of the redevelopment area known as the Coal Drops adjacent to Granary Square; the site is one of the largest construction projects in Greater London in the first quarter of the 21st century. All of the "socially undesirable" behaviour has moved on, new projects such as offices and housing are over halfway completed. In the 1990s, the government established the King's Cross Partnership to fund regeneration projects, the commencement of work on High Speed 1 in 2000 provided a major impetus for other projects. In 2001, Argent was selected as the development partner.