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Kings Cross, London

Kings Cross is a district in North London, England, 2.5 miles north west of Charing Cross. It is served by London King's Cross railway station, the terminus of one of the major rail routes between London and the North; the area has been regenerated since the mid-1990s with the terminus of the Eurostar rail service at St Pancras International opening in 2007 and the rebuilding of King's Cross station, a major redevelopment in the north of the area. The area was a village known as Battle Bridge or Battlebridge, an ancient crossing of the River Fleet; the original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge. The corruption "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle in AD 60 or 61 between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica; the tradition claims support from the writing of Publius Cornelius Tacitus, an ancient Roman historian, who described the place of action between the Romans and Boadicea, but without specifying where it was. Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons includes a map showing the supposed positions of the opposing armies.

The suggestion that Boudica is buried beneath platform 9 or 10 at King's Cross station seems to have arisen as urban folklore since the end of World War II. The area had been settled in Roman times, a camp here known as The Brill was erroneously attributed to Julius Caesar, who never visited Londinium. There is still a small area named "Battle Bridge Place" between King's Cross and St Pancras stations, "Brill Place", a road leading towards Euston from St Pancras Station. An art installation named the Identified Flying Object stands in Battle Bridge Place, part of the RELAY King's Cross Arts programme. St Pancras Old Church set behind the stations, is said to be one of the oldest Christian sites in Britain; the current name has its origin in a monument to King George IV which stood from 1830 to 1845 at "the king's crossroads" where New Road, Gray's Inn Road, Pentonville Road met. The monument topped by an eleven-foot-high statue of the king; the statue itself, which cost no more than £25, was constructed of bricks and mortar, finished in a manner that gave it the appearance of stone "at least to the eyes of common spectators".

The architect was Stephen Geary, who exhibited a model of "the Kings Cross" at the Royal Academy in 1830. The upper storey was used as a camera obscura while the base housed first a police station, a public house; the unpopular building was demolished in 1845. A structure in the form of a lighthouse was built on top of a building on the site about 30 years later. Known locally as the "Lighthouse Building", the structure was popularly thought to be an advertisement for Netten's Oyster Bar on the ground floor, but this seems not to be true, it is a grade II listed building. King's Cross station now stands by the junction where the monument took its name; the station, designed by architect Lewis Cubitt and opened in 1852, succeeded a temporary earlier station, erected north of the canal in time for the Great Exhibition of 1851. St Pancras railway station, built by the Midland Railway, lies to the west, they both had extensive land to house their associated facilities for handling general goods and specialist commodities such as fish, coal and grain.

The passenger stations on Euston Road far outweighed in public attention the economically more important goods traffic to the north. King's Cross and St Pancras stations, indeed all London railway stations, made an important contribution to the capital's economy. After World War II the area declined from being a poor but busy industrial and distribution services district to a abandoned post-industrial district. By the 1980s it was notorious for drug abuse; this reputation impeded attempts to revive the area, utilising the large amount of land available following the decline of the railway goods yard to the north of the station and the many other vacant premises in the area. Cheap rents and a central London location made the area attractive to artists and designers and both Antony Gormley and Thomas Heatherwick established studios in the area. In late 1980s, a group of musicians and squatters from Hammersmith called Mutoid Waste Company moved into Battlebridge Road warehouse, they held raves. In 1989 they were evicted by police.

In 1992, the Community Creation Trust took over the disused coach repair depot and built it into the largest Ecology Centre in Europe with ecohousing for homeless youngsters, The Last Platform Cafe, London Ecology Centre and workshops, gardens and ponds. It was destroyed to make a car park for the Channel Tunnel Regeneration. Bagley's Warehouse was a nightclub venue in the 1990s warehouse rave scene on the site of Goods Yard behind King's Cross stations, now part of the redevelopment area known as the Coal Drops adjacent to Granary Square; the site is one of the largest construction projects in Greater London in the first quarter of the 21st century. All of the "socially undesirable" behaviour has moved on, new projects such as offices and housing are over halfway completed. In the 1990s, the government established the King's Cross Partnership to fund regeneration projects, the commencement of work on High Speed 1 in 2000 provided a major impetus for other projects. In 2001, Argent was selected as the development partner.

The Lond

Toni McNaron

Toni McNaron known as Toni A. H. McNaron, is an American literary scholar, she is a professor emeritus of English at the University of Minnesota, the author of several books, including Poisoned Ivy, about lesbophobic and homophobic workplace bullying in academia. McNaron was born on April 1937 in Alabama, she graduated from the University of Alabama, she earned a master's degree from Vanderbilt University followed by a PhD from the University of Wisconsin. McNaron spent her entire career in the Department of English at the University of Minnesota, she was assistant professor from 1964 to 1967, associate professor from 1967 to 1983, a full professor from 1983 to 2001, when she became a professor emeritus. McNaron is the author and/or co-editor of several academic books about incest, feminism and LGBT topics as well as her own memoirs. In Poisoned Ivy, she writes about closeted academics and what she describes as the homophobic workplace bullying that those who come out are subjected to. McNaron stopped drinking and came out as a lesbian in 1973.

She became a feminist and an anti-Vietnam War activist. McNaron, Toni A. H.. Voices in the Night: Women Speaking About Incest. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Cleis Press. ISBN 9780939416028. OCLC 8844050. McNaron, Toni A. H.. The Sister Bond: A Feminist View of a Timeless Connection. New York City: Pergamon Press. ISBN 9780080323664. OCLC 240100498. McNaron, Toni A. H.. Poisoned Ivy: Lesbian and Gay Academics Confronting Homophobia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 9781566394888. OCLC 1020196424. McNaron, Toni A. H.. I Dwell in Possibility: A Memoir. New York City: The Feminist Press. ISBN 9781558614178. OCLC 957127048. McNaron, Toni A. H.. Into the Paradox: Conservative Spirit, Feminist Politics. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Hurley Publications. ISBN 9780989534123. OCLC 869298588. Official website

Catalpa (Greenfield, Iowa)

Catalpa known as Wallace Farm, is a historic farm located southeast of Greenfield, United States. It is associated with Henry Cantwell Wallace, who owned and operated the influential agricultural publication Wallace's Farmer, served as U. S. Secretary of Agriculture, it is associated with his son Henry Agard Wallace, who followed his father at the newspaper and served as U. S. Secretary of Agriculture, Vice President of the United States and U. S. Secretary of Commerce, he was the Progressive Party candidate for president in 1948. This was one of several farms owned by Henry Cantwell's father, it was acquired by the family in 1877, it was operated by a tenant farmer until Henry Cantwell took it over. His son Henry Agard was born here in 1888. After five years Henry Cantwell returned to his studies at Iowa State University in Ames and the family left the farm at that time, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The designation includes the farmhouse and outbuildings, which are modest frame structures with gable roofs, a 200-acre plot of farmland.

The house and barn were built before the Wallace's moved here in 1887. The following properties are associated with the Wallace family and are all listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Henry Wallace House in Des Moines, Iowa Henry C. Wallace House in Winterset, Iowa

H. Gordon Skilling

Harold Gordon Skilling was a Canadian political scientist, known for his expertise on the history of Czechoslovakia and support for the Charter 77 dissident movement. Born in Toronto in 1912, Skilling received degrees from the University of Toronto, University of London, University of Oxford, he was part of the faculty at the University of Toronto until his retirement in 1982. His first visit to Czechoslovakia was in 1937, to research his doctoral thesis in Czech History from the University of London, on the topic of relations between Czechs and Germans in 19th century Bohemia. On 4 September 1937 he attended Thomas Garrigue Masaryk's last public appearance as president, at the anniversary commemoration of the Battle of Zborov in Strahov Stadium in Prague. Working as a broadcaster for shortwave radio service Radiojournal, a forerunner of Radio Prague, Skilling was in Prague in September 1938 when the Munich Agreement was signed, was still in the country the following March when the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia began.

During this period he worked on news broadcasts for NBC and CBS. Skilling left Prague in April 1939. After World War II Skilling visited the country many more times. During the communist era, Skilling was an active supporter of dissidents such as Vaclav Havel, who he visited at his cottage in Hrádeček, the wider Charter 77 movement, smuggling newspapers and books into the country to encourage dissident activists, including his own book, Charter 77 and Human Rights in Czechoslovakia, supportive of the movement; as an academic historian, Skilling produced a number of works about Czechoslovak history and culture, collected many Czechoslovak samizdat publications, now housed in the University of Toronto library. Skilling was awarded the Innis-Gérin Medal in 1981, a prize awarded by the Royal Society of Canada for distinguished contribution to the literature of the social sciences. In 1992, Skilling received the Order of the White Lion, Czechoslovakia's highest honour, from President Vaclav Havel.

Gordon Skilling's wife Sara Conard Bright died in 1990. They had two sons. According to Radio Prague, "few would question status as the most important North American historian of Czechoslovak 20th century history. In 2012, the centenary of Skilling's birth was marked by an international conference and exhibition about his life and work at the Museum Kampa in Prague. 1976 Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution - on the subject of the Prague Spring 1981 Charter 77 and Human Rights in Czechoslovakia - a sympathetic overview of the Charter 77 movement 2000 The Education of a Canadian: My Life as a Scholar and Activist - autobiography

Stream gradient

Stream gradient is the grade measured by the ratio of drop in elevation of a stream per unit horizontal distance expressed as meters per kilometer or feet per mile. A high gradient indicates a steep slope and rapid flow of water. High gradient streams tend to have steep, narrow V-shaped valleys, are referred to as young streams. Low gradient streams have less rugged valleys, with a tendency for the stream to meander. Many rivers involve, to some extent, a flattening of the river gradient as approach the terminus at sea level. A stream that flows upon a uniformly erodible substrate will tend to have a steep gradient near its source, a low gradient nearing zero as it reaches its base level. Of course, a uniform substrate would be rare in nature. Human dams, changes in sea level, many other factors can change the "normal" or natural gradient pattern. On topographic maps, stream gradient can be approximated if the scale of the map and the contour intervals are known. Contour lines form a V-shape on the map.

By counting the number of lines that cross a certain segment of a stream, multiplying this by the contour interval, dividing that quantity by the length of the stream segment, one obtains an approximation to the stream gradient. Because stream gradient is customarily given in feet per 1000 feet, one should measure the amount a stream segment rises and the length of the stream segment in feet multiply feet per foot gradient by 1000. For example, if one measures a scale mile along the stream length, counts three contour lines crossed on a map with ten-foot contours, the gradient is 5.7 feet per 1000 feet, a steep gradient. Channel types Discharge Hydraulic gradient, concept used for aquifers Relief ratio Rapids Types of waterfall

New Jersey Route 129

Route 129 is a major arterial boulevard state highway in the capital city of Trenton, New Jersey. The highway runs along Canal Boulevard, a four-lane arterial through portions of Trenton, serving as an alternative highway to its parent, Route 29; the route begins at an intersection with Lamberton Road in Hamilton Township, heads northward along the River Line maintained by New Jersey Transit until terminating at an interchange with U. S. Route 1; the original use of Route 129 opened in 1961 on what is now Interstate 295 from the Scudder Falls Bridge to Scotch Road in Trenton. The route was replaced in 1974 by I-95, while the route's current incarnation opened in September 1993 along a former portion of the Delaware and Raritan Canal; the route has remained untouched since its opening. Route 129 begins at an intersection with Lamberton Road on the Delaware River in Hamilton Township; the highway proceeds northward, passing through small fields and tree patches until reaching railroad tracks, where the route turns to the northwest, paralleling its parent, the Route 29 freeway to the west.

Route 129 becomes a divided highway, intersecting with an onramp to Route 29 and passing to the east of a large factory. From there, the highway merges back together and comes upon a partial interchange with Route 29. Route 129 itself continues along the railroad tracks on Canal Boulevard, entering the city of Trenton, where it becomes a divided highway once again. At an intersection with Mercer County Route 650, Route 129 develops a grassy median and heads along the industrial portion of the city. With NJ Transit's River Line paralleling the highway, the state road serves access to large factories, a large residential district and a train station between Lalor Road and Cass Street. Route 129 continues northward along Canal, crossing under US 206 with a southbound exit to that road, it crosses Hamilton Avenue before reaching an interchange with US 1, where Route 129 ends and Canal Boulevard's right of way merges into the Trenton Freeway. Route 129 originates as the earliest designation on a freeway from the Scudder Falls Bridge on the Delaware River to the interchange with Scotch Road, which opened in 1961.

At that point, the new freeway was proposed with an eastward extension to US 1. However, by 1974, Route 129 was re-designated as a portion of I-95, is now designated as I-295; the current incarnation of Route 129 was constructed along a former portion of the Delaware and Raritan Canal as an alternate arterial boulevard to Route 29 that opened in September 1993 from Lamberton Road to US 1 at a cost of $24.185 million by the George Harms Construction Company. The route has remained untouched since; the entire route is in Mercer County. U. S. Roads portal New Jersey portal New Jersey Roads - NJ 129 New Jersey Highway Ends: 129 Speed Limits for State Roads: Route 129