Braidwood, New South Wales
Braidwood is a town in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, in Queanbeyan–Palerang Regional Council. It is located on the Kings Highway linking Canberra with Batemans Bay and it is approximately 200 kilometres south west of Sydney,60 kilometres inland from the coast, and fifty-five from Canberra. Braidwood is a town for the surrounding district which is based on sheep and cattle grazing. At the 2006 census, Braidwood had a population of 1,108, european explorers reached the district in 1822. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 1820s, the village was located near the headwaters of the Shoalhaven River. The town was named after Dr Thomas Braidwood Wilson and he had been a surgeon-superintendent of ships taking convicts to New South Wales and Van Diemens Land. He was first granted land in Van Diemens Land in 1824, in addition he was given 2560 acres which he selected in the new country on two tributaries of the Shoalhaven and Flood creeks. In 1833, the end of Wilsons grant was resumed and reserved for a future village.
Wilson settled in the district in late 1836 with his wife and he became a community leader and amongst other things contracted to build the first courthouse in 1837-38. In 1841 Braidwood Farm had 141 residents, Wilson was sent bankrupt due to a drought in the late 1830s and the subsequent depression. His land was sold for £2,000 to John Coghill, Coghill built the historic house Bedervale. However, before his death, Wilson had purchased the block immediately to the north of Braidwood and he was buried on this block, high on the hill overlooking the town. A memorial and large pine tree mark the site of Wilsons grave, the path to the grave is open to the public the path and is through a series of paddocks intersected by gateway sculptures and installations by local artists. At the moment, the path is not open to the public and it is recommended to check the status of the path at the tourist information center in Wallace Street, which is the main street of Braidwood. The Commission identified several instances of misconduct and found the superintendent of police had failed to exercise strict, gold was discovered in 1851, and for the next two decades the districts population swelled to about 10,000.
Supplies and produce to support the workforce on the gold came from as far afield as the Canberra region. This prosperity lasted for years, during which some substantial commercial buildings including banks. Braidwood was formerly the seat of the Tallaganda local government area, following restructuring of local government areas by the New South Wales Government, it is now part of Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council
National Highway (Australia)
National funding for roads began in the 1920s, with the federal government contributing to major roads managed by the state and territory governments. However, the Federal Government did not completely fund any roads until 1974, under the act, the states were still responsible for road construction and maintenance, but were fully compensated for money spent on approved projects. In 1977, the 1974 Act was replaced by the State Grants Act 1977, in 1988, the National Highway became redefined under the Australian Land Transport Development Act 1988, which had various amendments up to 2003. The 1988 Act was largely concerned with funding road development in cooperation with the state governments, the federal transport minister defined the components of the National Highway, and a category of Road of National Importance, with federal funding implications. Section 10.5 of the Act required the road authorities to place frequent, signs on the National Highways. In 2005, the National Highway became the National Land Transport Network, the criteria for inclusion in the network was similar to the previous legislation, but expanded to include connections to major commercial centres, and inter-modal facilities.
All of the roads included in National Land Transport Network as of 2005 were formally defined by regulation in October 2005, the Minister for Transport may alter the list of roads included in the network. Three amendments to the scheduled list of roads have made, in February 2007, September 2008. The third variation, published in February 2009, is current as of September 2012, under AusLink a program that operated between July 2004 and 2009, the AusLink National Network had additional links, both road and rail. For example, the Pacific Highway and the Calder Highway are part of the National Network, yet new projects are being funded 50/50 by federal, State contributions are required on some sections of the old network near major cities. The Melbourne-Devonport ferry route is described colloquially as the sea highway. The 16,000 kilometres of roads included in the original National Highway system had large variations in road quality, some sections were no more than dirt tracks, whilst others were four lane dual carriageways.
While 12,496 kilometres was sealed, there was 3,807 kilometres worth of gravel roads, the National Highway was gradually improved, with the sealed proportion increased from 73 per cent in the early 1970s to 88 per cent by 1981. The sealing works were completed in 1989, since 2005, National Highways were no longer defined in federal legislation. However, the routes were marked with a National Highway route marker up until 2013 and these markers have NATIONAL printed in the upper portion of the shield, above the highways number. The shield and number are coloured yellow while the background is dark green – the national colours of Australia. In 2014, the route makers retained the colours, although the word NATIONAL was removed in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales. National Highway numbering originates from the national route network
Highways in New South Wales
Many major routes in New South Wales, including Sydney motorways and even some routes named as highways are not officially gazetted as highways. For a list of all numbered routes in New South Wales, while highways in many other countries are typically identified by number, highways in Australia, including New South Wales, are known mostly by names. These names typically come from 19th-century explorers, important politicians or geographic regions
Fyshwick, Australian Capital Territory
Fyshwick is a retail and light industry suburb of Canberra and is located east of the South Canberra district. On Census night 2011, Fyshwick had a population of 38 people and it has many motor vehicle dealers, stores selling home furnishings and hardware, and stores that sell goods wholesale. There are some fast-food outlets and it was named after Sir Philip Fysh, a Tasmanian politician who assisted in bringing about Australias Federation. The suffix wick, from Old English, means dwelling place – and, by extension and its streets are named after Australias industrial towns and regions – for example, Mount Isa is represented by Isa Street and Townsville is represented by Townsville Street. It is known for its entertainment industry. Fyshwick and Mitchell are the two places in the ACT where strip clubs and brothels may operate legally, prostitution in the ACT was decriminalised in 1992 but strip clubs and brothels are restricted to those two suburbs. The only railway line into Canberra runs through the middle of Fyshwick dividing the area into halves and Newcastle Streets as well as the Monaro Highway cross the railway line uniting both halves of Fyshwick.
The Fyshwick sewage treatment works was built in 1967 to treat waste water that could not easily be pumped to the side of Canberra. It is now used to treat waste water, which is used to water the Duntroon grounds. One noteworthy portion of Fyshwick, located between the line and Canberra Avenue, was built as an internment camp during early 1918. It was known as the Molonglo Internment Camp, although it was referred to as a concentration camp. Instead, the camp housed 150 internees transferred from the Bourke Camp in New South Wales, the camp was closed in late 1919 after the internees were deported to Germany. Most of the building were sold off, with the remaining buildings being converted to house construction workers. Gradually the camp buildings were moved to other sites around Canberra. The internment camps hospital at what is now Tennant Street became the Molonglo Public School and this school closed in 1942 and became a naval auxiliary wireless station. The station consisted of one wooden T shaped building and a mess hall.
This station operated the receivers for the fixed radio links to Australia for Whitehall, Halifax. During this period 14 WRANS operated the equipment, marion Stevens was a Petty Officer in charge of the station from 1943 to 1946
South Coast (New South Wales)
The South Coast refers to the narrow coastal belt from Sydney in the north to the border with Victoria in the south in the south-eastern part of the State of New South Wales, Australia. To the east is the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, which is characterised by rolling farmlands, small towns and villages along a coastline, interspersed by numerous beaches. Some definitions of the include the Illawarra, but it is often seen as a separate. The region has a mild, warm temperate climate, maximum temperatures range from around 30 °C in summer to approximately 17 °C in winter. However, rainfall tends toward erratic as falls can occur in heavy and these storms may occur at any time of year, but are most frequent in late autumn and early winter. When a strong anticyclone is located to the south of these systems, rainfalls of up to 350mm in a day. For example, in May 1925 the region received an averages of as much as 860 millimetres of rain, with some receiving as much as 1. However, in dry years the region can receive as little as 400mm for an entire year, Bega received 380mm in May 1944 and over 400mm in two days during April 1945 - but only around 200mm in the ten months in between.
A2011 report by the Climate Commission highlighted the risks of the effects of change in the South Coast. These risks included a higher likelihood of fires, coastal flooding, changing rainfall patterns. The Illawarra Steam Navigation Company serviced the south coast and Illawarra by ship transporting passengers, bus services operate to locations south of Nowra. The South Coast region is traversed by the Princes Highway which links Sydney and Melbourne by the coast, the region is reached from Canberra to the west by the Kings Highway. Road linkages north to Sydney were only completed in the half of the twentieth century when the Clyde River was bridged at Batemans Bay in 1956. Before that a punt was used to cross the river
Clyde Mountain, at an elevation of 781 metres AHD , is a mountain in the Southern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. Clyde Mountain is located in the Great Dividing Range within the Monga National Park, the road leading up towards the summit of Clyde Mountain is a 5 kilometres section of steep, winding section of the Kings Highway in New South Wales, Australia. It is the location of many crashes, 22% of all incidents on the Kings Highway occurring on a 40 kilometres stretch on, there are three safety ramps for trucks or heavy vehicles which lose control of their speed or suffer brake failure. Slow vehicle turnouts have been added on the Clyde Mountain descent, which allows vehicles to pass trucks in low gear
Nelligen, New South Wales
Nelligen is a village on the Clyde River on the South Coast of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the Kings Highway, the village is situated on the western bank of the River near a junction with Nelligen Creek, and 8 km inland from Batemans Bay. Local services include a store and general cemetery. The original inhabitants of the land were Aborigines of the Walbanga, the origin of the name is unclear and was already in use at the time of the first survey in 1828. The village of Nelligen was gazetted in 1854 and a road inland to Braidwood was completed two years later, the post office opened in 1858 and a Protestant church was constructed in 1872. The existing Roman Catholic church dates from 1895, by 1892 the population had grown to 500 but construction of several coastal bridges and the growth of Batemans Bay began to reduce local trading opportunities. By 1934 the population had fallen to 350, and by 2006 this had declined to 228. Between about 1860 and 1915 there were some gold workings in the Nelligen district, a punt service across the Clyde River was begun at Nelligen in 1895 and continued until 1964 when the Nelligen bridge was completed
A tripoint, triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the borders of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 international tripoints, nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. When on dry land, the exact tripoints are usually indicated by markers or pillars, the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China with 16 tripoints and Russia with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of tripoints, within Europe, landlocked Austria has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Island countries such as Japan have no points, nor have states with only one neighbour state. Likewise the United States with two states has no tricountry points, it has a number of tristate points as well as one point where four states meet. Canada, as well, has five tripoints on land where the boundaries of provinces and territories meet, border junctions are most commonly threefold. There are a number of quadripoints, and a handful of points, as well as probably unique examples of a sixfold, sevenfold.
No more than eight borders meet at a single multipoint anywhere on earth, the Tossal dels Tres Reis, located where the borders of the ancient Kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon meet. For a full list, see list of tripoints, while the exact line of an international border is normally fixed by a bilateral treaty, the position of the tripoints may need to be settled by a trilateral agreement. For example, China and Mongolia have set the position of the two relevant tripoints by the agreement signed in Ulaan Baator on January 27,1994. List of tripoints of English counties Tri-state area Quadripoint Maritime boundary Penedo dos Três Reinos Tripoint border of China and North Korea
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Headquarters Joint Operations Command (Australia)
The Australian Headquarters Joint Operations Command is the Australian Defence Forces operational level headquarters responsible for the command and control of ADF operations worldwide. It was formed from Headquarters Australian Theatre in 2004 to reflect the internal structure of the ADF. The complex is known as the General John Baker Complex, named after a former Chief of Defence Force who was an advocate of joint command. HQAST was established in a facility at Potts Point, New South Wales. When HQAST was established in 1996, it was intended to provide the ADF with a headquarters to command the forces of all three services when deployed on operations. The concept was taken a step further with the establishment of HQJOC in 2004, the headquarters remained in the same temporary facility at Potts Point, but the commander was re-designated Chief of Joint Operations and raised from two-star to three-star rank level. Instead of creating a new position, the Vice Chief of the Defence Force was initially dual-hatted as VCDF.
The environmental commands, and a number of operational level headquarters elements across the ADF, were designated as components of HQJOC. Following an extensive review of ADF Command and Control by MAJGEN Richard Wilson in 2005, Operations Branch remained at the facility at Potts Point, and the other branches were either located within the Russell Offices area, or divided between these three locations. In September 2007, the Minister of Defence announced that a new separate three-star position had been created for CJOPS, the VCDF position was left to focus on more strategic matters. The Baker Complex is located adjacent to the Kowen district of the Australian Capital Territory, about 25 km east of Canberra city,15 km east of Queanbeyan and 15 km SSW of Bungendore. The site is considered to be a part of the ACT, in that it is considered part of the ACT defence district, its postal address is Canberra, ACT. A secondary entrance road provides access to the site from the Captains Flat road, the site is about 4 km north-west from the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope, and particular arrangements were needed at the complex so that electrical interference is not emitted.
The two-storey main Headquarters building is located inside two security fences, one at a 100m radius from the building, the other at 500m. Defence has contracted to pay Praeco an Annual Service Payment, commencing when the facility was completed in July 2008, the whole-of-life nett present cost to Defence for the provision by Praeco of the buildings and services over the 30-year term is A$572.2 million. Praeco commenced construction in November 2006, with completion in July 2008, under CJOPS, HQJOC is responsible for the command and control of all ADF operations worldwide. Australian Department of Defence Headquarters Joint Operations Command Project
Freeways in Australia
This is a list of freeways in Australia, sorted by states and territories and their corresponding routes. This list includes tollways / toll roads such as the CityLink freeway system in Melbourne and this list has over 70 entries. The only jurisdiction in Australia without freeways is the Northern Territory, victoria has the largest and densest freeway network in Australia. Princes Motorway Princes Highway, 16% of which is of freeway or dual carriageway standard, hunter Expressway Federal Highway Hume Motorway Newcastle Inner City Bypass NorthConnex - To be Complete by 2019. WestConnex - To be Complete by 2023, western Sydney Airport Motorway - Currently in Planning Phase. Currently there are three constructed expressways within Adelaide, river Torrens to Torrens Road upgrade of 4km of South Road due to complete by the end of 2018. While the overall quality of Tasmanias highway network has been constructed to a high standard, in the past and Launceston have each had comprehensive transport studies conducted, proposing grade separated freeways running through and around them.
While some of these roads have been constructed, the majority are limited access featuring at-grade intersections and Burnie are the only major population centres with freeway standard roads linking each other. There has been repeated proposals in recent years to upgrade the Midland Highway to grade separated freeway standards. This List is limited to Tasmanias freeway-standard roads. Western Freeway Hume Freeway Goulburn Valley Freeway Calder Freeway Princes Highway Duplication - Expected to be Complete by mid 2019, Princes Highway Duplication - Expected to be Complete by mid 2019. Western Distributor - Currently in Planning Phase - Expected to be Complete by 2022, western Highway Duplication - Currently Suspended - Expected to commence construction in early 2017. Perth Freight Link Stage 1 - Construction Currently Suspended - Began Construction in late 2016 and is expected to be complete by mid 2019
Highways in Australia
Prior to European settlement, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales, similar road networks were established in the other colonies of Australia. Local government authorities, often known as Road Boards, were established to be primarily responsible for funding and undertaking road construction. The early 1900s saw both the widespread use of motorised transportation, and the creation of state road authorities in each state. These authorities managed each states road network, with the arterial roads controlled and maintained by the state. The federal government became involved in funding in the 1920s. The depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the road network until the onset on World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly, Stuart, in 1974, the federal government assumed responsibility for funding the nations most important road links, between state and territory capitals cities, which were declared National Highways.
Some sections of the 16, 000-kilometre-long National Highway system were no more than dirt tracks, the network was gradually improved, and by 1989, all gravel road sections had been sealed. National Routes were assigned to significant interstate routes which, both now and in the future, comprise the more important arteries of road communications throughout Australia in all its aspects. East-west routes were planned to have numbers, increasing from south to north, while north-south routes would have odd numbers. National Route 1 would be an exception, as a route along the coastline of Australia. A state route marking systems was designed to supplement the system, for inter-regional. Each state could choose their own numbering scheme, as long as National Route and State Route numbers werent duplicated in the same state, or nearby routes in another state. When the National Highway system was introduced, National Routes along it became National Highway routes with the same numbers, during the 1990s, planning began for a new alphanumeric route system.
Alphanumeric routes have been introduced in most states and territories in Australia, the earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australian prior to European settlement. The formal construction of roads began in 1788, after the founding of the colony of New South Wales and these roads were little more than cleared paths, constructed without grading, drainage systems, and road surfaces. By the end of his term in 1822 the colony had a network of three roads, with the Great Western Road as the most important link, traversing the Blue Mountains from Sydney to Bathurst