Frataraka is an ancient Persian title, interpreted variously as “leader, forerunner”. It is an epithet or title of a series of rulers in Persis from 3rd to mid 2nd century BC, or alternatively between 295 and 220 BC, at the time of the Seleucid Empire, prior to the Parthian conquest of West Asia and Iran. Studies of frataraka coins are important to historians of this period. Several rulers have been identified as belonging to Fratarakā dynasty: bgdt, rtḥštry and wtprdt. Traditionally, they used to be considered as independent, anti-Seleucid rulers of Persis in the 3rd century BC, it seems however. They ruled from the end of the 3rd century BC to the beginning of the 2nd century BC, Vahbarz or Vādfradād obtained independence circa 150 BC, when Seleucid power waned in the areas of southwestern Persia and the Persian Gulf region. Alternatively, they may have ruled between circa 295 and 220 BC, until the Seleucid took back direct control of the region of Persis under the Seleucid satrap Alexander, circa 220 BC.
Some authors consider that Persis remained under the control of the Seleucids throughout the 3rd century. Antiochus III is known to have visited Antiochia in Persis in 205 BC. Strabo relates that Persian rulers were tributaries to the Greeks, before falling under the control of the Parthians: The Persians have kings who are subject to other kings of the kings of Macedonia, but now to the kings of the Parthians. Pliny relates a battle between Noumenios, a Seleucid general and satrap of the Province of Mesene, the Persians sometime in the 3rd or the 2nd century BCE. Pliny describes the current Seleucid ruler as being "Antiochos", but it is unknown which one he is referring to; this event is used to describe some kind of adversary relationship between the ruler of Persis and the Seleucid Empire during the 3rd or 2nd centuries BCE, a fight for independence. The rulers of Persis may have gained independence between 205 BCE, when Antiochos III visited Antiochia in Persis in peace, 190-189 BCE, the latest possible date for the battle led by Noumenios if the Antiochos in question is indeed Antiochos III, since the latter was defeated at the Battle of Magnesia at that time.
Pliny writes: "Noumenios, made governor of Mesene by king Antiochos, while fighting against the Persians, defeated them at sea, at low water, by land, with an army of cavalry, on the same day. The earlier title prtrk' zy alhaya had disappeared. Under Dārēv I however, the new title of mlk, or king, sometimes with the mention of prs, suggesting that the kings of Persis had become independent rulers; when the Parthian Arsacid king Mithridates I took control of Persis, he left the Persian dynasts in office and they were allowed to continue minting coins with the title of mlk. With the reign of Šābuhr, the son of Pāpag, the kingdom of Persis became a part of the Sasanian Empire. Šābuhr's brother and successor, Ardaxšir V, defeated the last legitimate Parthian king, Artabanos V in 224 CE, was crowned at Ctesiphon as Ardaxšir I, šāhanšāh ī Ērān, becoming the first king of the new Sasanian Empire. During the Achaemenid Empire, frataraka was a title given to the head of a district or province in Egypt, junior in hierarchy to the satrap in Memphis, Egypt.
During the time of Seleucid and Parthian Empires, the Aramaic on their coins suggest, depending on interpretation, that they served either deities such as Ahura Mazda or god-like kings such as the Achaemenids or Seleucids. The evidence for the quasi-autonomous local governors that were the Fratarakas is exclusively coming from their coinage; the Achaemenids only struck coins in the western parts of the Achaemenid Empire in Asia Minor where a coinage culture had existing before their arrival. The Seleucid were the first one to strike coins in the area of Persis, it is during their rule that the Greek words "drachma" and "denanos" entered the Persian language, to become today's "dirham" and "denar". The Fratarakas followed the example of their Seleucid overlords in striking coins. Several of their coins were further struck on issues of the Seleucids, or posthumous issues of Alexander the Great, it seems that the coinage of the Fratarakas was issued for purposes of prestige, rather than just monetary circulation, very limited.
The honorific "of the gods" on their coinage may be related to the Seleucid practice of deifying their kings. The coinage of the Fratrakas combines Achaemenid iconography; the language used in the legends on the coins is Aramaic, one of the official languages of the Achaemenid Empire, rather than Greek. This, as well as the Zoroastrian iconography of the coins, shows that these coins had a role as "Persid religio-political propaganda"; the Aramaic script used in the coins is quite unclear. The title used by the Fratarakas prtkr* or prtdr’ is uncertain; the root word for this title has been interpreted as coming from *frat, on the basis of the Armenian word hrat, which entered Iranian as a loanword. This interpretation suggest that
Wahbarz, known in Greek sources as Oborzos, was a dynast of Persis in the 1st half of 2nd century BC, ruling from c. 205 to 164 BC. His reign was marked by his efforts to establish Persis as a kingdom independent from Seleucid authority, he was able to reign independently for three decades, expanded to the west, seizing the Seleucid province of Characene. In 164 BC, the Seleucids repelled Wahbarz's forces from Characene, forcing him to re-submit as a Seleucid vassal, he was succeeded by Bagadates I. Since the end of the 3rd or the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, Persis had been ruled by local dynasts subject to the Seleucid Empire, they held the ancient Persian title of frataraka, attested in the Achaemenid-era. The Achaemenid Empire, which had a century earlier ruled most of the Near East, originated from the region; the frataraka themselves emphasized their close affiliation with the prominent Achaemenid king of kings, their court was at the former Achaemenid capital of Persepolis, where they financed construction projects on and near the Achaemenid plateau.
The frataraka had traditionally been regarded as priestly dynasts or advocates of religious opposition to Hellenism, this is no longer considered the case. The chronology of the early Persid rulers is disputed. Wahbarz became the king of Persis sometime in the 1st half of 2nd century BC in c. 205 BC. He is identified as the same person as Oborzos, according to the contemporary Macedonian author Polyaenus, was in charge of 3,000 Greek military settlers, whom he had executed in a place called Komastos due to suspecting them of organizing a rebellion against him; this is considered the first attempt by a frataraka to secede from Seleucid rule. Coins were minted celebrating his killing of the katoikoi, with Wahbarz being depicted in Achaemenid clothing killing a Greek enemy; the inscription of the coin was "Wahbarz was/may be victorious, who the commander ". This most took place between 205-190/189 BC after the Seleucid defeat to the Roman Republic at the battle of Thermopylae in 191 BC. Before this defeat, the Seleucid Empire had under its king Antiochus III the Great gained several military victories and expanded the empire's territory in both the east and west, thus providing Wahbarz few favorable circumstances to take advantage of brief Seleucid weakness and the risk of losing his realm.
After the death of Antiochus III the Great in 187 BC, Seleucid rule weakened in its southern provinces, which allowed Persis under Wahbarz to not only declare independence, but expand over the region of Characene, appointing Sagdodonacus as its governor. The precise date of the Persis conquest of Characene and Sagdodonacus' appointment is unknown, it may have been in the summer 184 BC, when Seleucid authority over its southern provinces seem to have been further weakened. It was during this period that Wahbarz adopted the title of kāren, a title carried by prominent Achaemenid military leaders, such as Cyrus the Younger. In 164 BC, during the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Seleucid authority was re-established over Persis and Characene; the expedition was led by the Seleucid general Noumenios, who replaced Sagdodonacus as the governor of Characene. This indicates that Wahbarz had ruled three decades as an independent ruler, which makes the chronology of the Persid rulers suggested by Wiesehofer less valid.
The fate of Wahbarz after the Seleucid reconquest is disputed. Regardless, Wahbarz was succeeded by Bagadates I in the same year. Polyaenus, Stratagems in War. Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, "The Iranian Revival in the Parthian Period", in Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh and Sarah Stewart, The Age of the Parthians: The Ideas of Iran, 2, London & New York: I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd. in association with the London Middle East Institute at SOAS and the British Museum, pp. 7–25, ISBN 978-1-84511-406-0. Shayegan, M. Rahim. Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–539. ISBN 9780521766418. Sellwood, David, "Minor States in Southern Iran", in Yarshater, Cambridge History of Iran, 3.1, London: Cambridge UP, pp. 299–322 Shahbazi, A. Sh.. "Arsacids i. Origins". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. P. 525. Wiesehöfer, Josef. "Frataraka". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 2. P. 195. Wiesehöfer, Josef. "Persis, Kings of". Encyclopaedia Iranica
Noumenios was a Seleucid general and satrap of the Province of Mesene, said to have defeated the Persians sometime in the 3rd or 2nd century BCE. Pliny describes his ruler as being "Antiochos", but it is unknown if this is referring to Antiochos I, Antiochos II or Antiochos III, although the battle took place before 190-189 BCE, date of the Battle of Magnesia where Antiochos III was vanquished by the Romans. Alternatively, these events may have taken place during the reign of Antiochos IV. Pliny writes: "Noumenios, made governor of Mesene by king Antiochos, while fighting against the Persians, defeated them at sea, at low water, by land, with an army of cavalry, on the same day; the rulers of Persis may have gained independence between 205 BCE, when Antiochos III visited Antiochia in Persis in peace, 190-189 BCE, the latest possible date for the battle led by Noumenios if the Battle of Magnesia is considered as a terminus ante quem
Shapur was a Persian prince, who ruled as one of the last Kings of Persis in Pars in ca. 222. He was succeeded by Ardashir V, who founded the Sasanian Empire as Ardashir I. Shapur was the eldest son of a local ruler of a district named Khir in southern Istakhr. Papak was a vassal of Gochihr, the overlord of Pars, himself the vassal of the Parthian king Artabanus V. According to Arabic-Persian sources, Shapur's brother, Ardashir I started an uprising when he was the commander of Fort Darabgerd in eastern Pars. According to the medieval historian, al-Tabari, Ardashir asked Papak to stand against Gochihr and start a rebellion. Papak rebelled against Gochihr and killed him. However, Daryaee believes that Papak dreamed of conquering Istakhr himself and was able to achieve it by the help of Shapur. Papak wrote a letter to Artabanus and requested permission to appoint Shapur instead of the "overthrown" Gochihr in power. Although Artabanus had defeated the Romans, he faced the problem of the defiance of Vologases VI, who had minted coins in his own name between 221 and 222.
During the time that Artabanus was dealing with a more important challenge, thus he could not pay much attention to the rise of a newcomer in Pars. After a while, Papak died in ca. 222 and Shapur ascended to the throne. According to sources, Shapur stopped at a ruin while assaulting Darabgerd and a stone separated from the ceiling and hit his head and Shapur succumbed immediately. After the incident, the brothers relinquished the Persian throne and crown to Ardashir, who became the Persian Shah thereafter. Ardashir and his followers could be considered the main suspects of Shapur's mysterious death, since they "benefitted from the accidental death". A nephew of Ardashir, whose name is mentioned in the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, was most the son of Shapur. B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A. D. 250 to 750. UNESCO. Pp. 1–569. ISBN 9789231032110. Al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir. Ehsan Yar-Shater, ed; the History of Al-Ṭabarī.
40 vols. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Miri, Negin. Historical Geography of Fars during the Sasanian Period. Sasanika. University of Sydney. Pp. 1–65. Greatrex, Geoffrey. C.. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14687-9
The Sasanian Empire known as the Sassanian, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD; the Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years. The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Eastern Arabia, the Levant, the Caucasus, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani; the Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India, it played a prominent role in the formation of both Asian medieval art. Much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sassanian Empire in mystery; the Sassanian Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200 he had managed to overthrow Gochihr and appoint himself the new ruler of the Bazrangids, his mother, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars; the subsequent events are due to the elusive nature of the sources.
It is certain, that following the death of Papak, who at the time was the governor of Darabgerd, became involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his other brothers who were put to death, Ardashir declared himself ruler of Pars. Once Ardashir was appointed shah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah; the city, well protected by high mountains and defensible due to the narrow passes that approached it, became the centre of Ardashir's efforts to gain more power. It was surrounded by a high, circular wall copied from that of Darabgird. Ardashir's palace was on the north side of the city. After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene.
This expansion came to the attention of Artabanus V, the Parthian king, who ordered the governor of Khuzestan to wage war against Ardashir in 224, but Ardashir was victorious in the ensuing battles. In a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where the former met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. At that time the Arsacid dynasty was divided between supporters of Artabanus V and Vologases VI, which allowed Ardashir to consolidate his authority in the south with little or no interference from the Parthians. Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, separated from the rest of Iran. Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings", bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule. In the next few years, local rebellions occurred throughout the empire.
Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Margiana and Chorasmia. He added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid's possessions. Sassanid inscriptions claim the submission of the Kings of Kushan and Mekran to Ardashir, although based on numismatic evidence it is more that these submitted to Ardashir's son, the future Shapur I. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success. In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir I's son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria and the western portion of the Kushan Empire, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories.
The emperor Gordian III's subsequent advance down the Euphrates was defea
Characene known as Mesene or Meshan, was a state founded by the Iranian Hyspaosines within the Parthian Empire located at the head of the Persian Gulf. Its capital, Charax Spasinou, was an important port for trade between Mesopotamia and India, provided port facilities for the city of Susa further up the Karun River. Characene was populated by Arabs, who spoke Aramaic as their cultural language. All rulers of the principality had Iranian names. Characene was part of the Sassanid Empire and was located within the southern part of present-day Iraq. At one point Characene included Tylos, the present-day country of Bahrain. Characene was founded around 127 BC under Aspasine, known in classical writings as Hyspaosines, a former satrap installed by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Characene remained intact throughout the Seleucid Empire and continued as an independent kingdom under the Parthians until it was conquered by the Sassanians at the beginning of the third century AD. After the Parthian conquest, Characene remained a semi-autonomous country with its own kings.
Its tenure as a separate kingdom ended with the fall of the Parthian Empire. The kings of Characene are known by their coins, consisting of silver tetradrachms with Greek and Aramaic inscriptions; these coins are dated after the Seleucid era, providing a secure framework for chronological succession. Charax, the capital of Characene, was founded by Alexander the Great; the city was constructed on an artificial mound to protect the site from the floodwaters of the nearby rivers. The new town served as a major commercial port for the eastern capital of Babylon. Charax flourished under the Seleucid Empire, controlling the trade in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, it was a center for pearl diving. The Roman emperor Trajan visited Charax in 116 AD during his invasion of Parthia, where he saw ships bound for India. After it was destroyed by a flood, Charax was rebuilt by Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great and was called Antiochia. After the Parthian invasion of Mesopotamia in 141 BC, Charax became independent.
The state kept its independence and sometimes joined the Romans in their struggle against the common enemy, the Parthian king. In his Natural History, Pliny the Elder praises the port of Charax: The embankments extend in length a distance of nearly 4½ kilometers, in breadth a little less, it stood at first at a distance of 1¾ km from the shore, had a harbor of its own. But according to Juba, it is 75 kilometer from the sea. Indeed, in no part of the world have alluvial deposits been formed more by the rivers, to a greater extent than here. Trade continued to be important. A famous Characenian, a man named Isidore, was the author of a treatise on Parthian trade routes, the Mansiones Parthicae; the inhabitants of Palmyra had a permanent trading station in Characene. Many inscriptions mention caravan trade. In 221-222 AD, an ethnic Persian, Ardašēr, King of Persis, led a revolt against the Parthians, establishing the Sassanid Empire. According to Arab histories, he defeated Characene forces, killed its last ruler, rebuilt the town, renamed it Astarābād-Ardašīr.
The area around Charax, the Characene state was thereon known by the Aramaic/Syriac name Maysān, adapted by the Arab conquerors. Charax continued, under the name Maysān, with Persian texts making various mention of governors throughout the fifth century. A Nestorian Church was mentioned there in the sixth century; the Charax mint appears to have continued throughout the Sassanid empire and into the Umayyad empire, minting coins as late as AD 715. The earliest references from the first century A. D. indicates that the people of Characene were referred to as Μεσηνός and lived along the Arabian side of the coast at the head of the Persian Gulf. Hyspaosines c. 127–124 BC Apodakos c. 110/09–104/03 BC Tiraios I 95/94–90/89 BC Tiraios II 79/78–49/48 BC Artabazos I 49/48–48/47 BC Attambelos I 47/46–25/24 BC Theonesios I c. 19/18 Attambelos II c. 17/16 BC – AD 8/9 Abinergaos I 10/11. 37/38–44/45 Theonesios II c. 46/47 Theonesios III c. 52/53 Attambelos IV 54/55–64/65 Attambelos V 64/65–73/74 Orabazes II c. 73–80 Pakoros 80–101/02 Attambelos VI c.
101/02–105/06 Theonesios IV c. 110/11–112/113 Attambelos VII 113/14–117 Meredates c. 131–150/51 Orabazes II c. 150/51–165 Abinergaios II c. 165–180 Attambelos VIII c. 180–195 Maga c. 195–210 Abinergaos III c. 210–222 Schippmann, K.. "Arsacids ii. The Arsacid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. Pp. 525–536. Hansman, John F.. "Elymais". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 4. Pp. 373–376. Hansman, John. "Characene and Charax". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc. 4. Pp. 363–365. Bosworth, C. E.. "ʿArab i. Arabs and Iran in the pre-Islamic period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 2. Pp. 201–203. Shayegan, M. Rahim. Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 1–539. ISBN 9780521766418. Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, "The Iranian Revival in the Parthian Period", in Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh and Sarah Stewart, The Age of the Parthians: The Ideas of Iran, 2, London & New York: I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd. in association with the London Middle East Institute at SOAS and the British Museum, pp. 7–25, ISBN 978-1-84511
Battle of Magnesia
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire. A decisive Roman victory resulted in Roman domination over the internal affairs of a large part of the territory once controlled by the Seleucid Empire; the main historical sources for this battle are Appian. Antiochus was driven out of Greece following the defeat of his expeditionary force at the Battle of Thermopylae; the Roman navy with the Rhodians and other allies outmaneuvered and defeated the Seleucid navy, permitting the Roman army to cross the Hellespont. The Roman army operated under the commands of the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, younger brother of Scipio Africanus, who accompanied him as legatus; the Carthaginian general and dire enemy of the Roman Republic, Hannibal Barca, had fled to Antiochus' court after his defeat at the Battle of Zama and the end of the Second Punic War.
Some believe. This is false, because Hannibal, who had commanded the fleet and lost at Eurymedon, had retreated and fled to Crete for fear that Antiochus would lose and turn him over to the Romans. In anticipation of the battle, Antiochus set up an entrenched camp protecting the approach to Sardis and his fleet base at Ephesus. According to both Livy and Appian, he posted his 16,000 strong phalanx, armed in the Macedonian fashion in the center in brigades of 1,600 men, 50 men wide and 32 men deep, he ordered intervals to be formed among the taxeis. On the right wing, next to the phalanx, he arrayed 1,500 Gallograecian infantry, 3,000 Galatian mail clad cavalry and 1,000 agema cavalry, his royal household guards. Behind them he kept 16 elephants in reserve. Next to the agema, he placed a cavalry corps Livy calls argyraspides, 200 or 1,200 Dahae horse archers, 3,000 Cretan and Trallean light infantry, 2,500 Mysian bowmen, Cyrtian slingers and Elymaean archers. On the left, Antiochus arrayed another 1,500 Gallograecian infantry, according to Appian men from the tribes of the Tectosagi, the Trocmi and the Tolistoboii, 2,000 Cappadocians armed and a miscellaneous force of 2,700.
Next to them, he posted 1,000 heavy horsemen, the Companions, 3,000 more cataphracti and another 1,000 men of the agema. In front of them, he placed a unit of dromedary, camel-borne Arab archers, his left wing was completed with a corps of Tarentines, 2,500 Gallograecian cavalry, 1,000 newly enlisted Cretans, 1,500 Carians and Cilicians armed, the same number of Tralles. Came 4,000 peltasts, Pisidians and Lydians, next to these Cyrtian and Elymaean troops equal in number to those on the right wing, sixteen elephants a short distance away. Antiochus retained command of the horse on the right wing in person. Philip, the master of the elephants, commanded the phalanx, Mendis and Zeuxis the skirmishers; the Romans arrayed in their customary triple line formation with their left wing resting on the river. The Roman reinforced legions occupied the center of this formation and the Latins, the Ally legions, on their wings. In all, there were 20,000 men of the legion. Behind them, Scipio held his 16 elephants in reserve aware that the North African forest elephants could not face the larger Indian/Syrian stock on equal terms.
On the right Scipio placed the allied Pergamene army under Eumenes and the Achaean peltasts, 3,000 in all to cover the flank of the legions. Next to them he placed his cavalry, nearly 3,000 strong, 800 of them Pergamenes, the rest legionary cavalry. According to Livy, in the extreme right he posted the Trallian and Cretan horsemen, each body numbering 500 troopers, but most these are the light troops and archers named by Appian to be intermingled among the cavalry. Livy mentions 2,000 Macedonian and Thracian volunteers, who are left to guard the Roman camp. Domitius was stationed with four squadrons of cavalry on the right wing, Scipio kept command of the center and gave command of the left to Eumenes. In all, both writers agree that the Roman army was about 30,000 strong and the Seleucids about 70,000. However, modern sources state that the two armies might have been not that numerically different and supports that the Romans fielded about 50,000 men as did Antiochus. A popular anecdote regarding the array of the two armies is that Antiochus asked Hannibal whether his vast and well-armed formation would be enough for the Roman Republic, to which Hannibal tartly replied, "quite enough for the Romans, however greedy they are."Scipio, the Roman commander, wished to engage the Seleucids before a new consul was sent out from Rome to replace him and winter brought the campaign to a halt.
He had crossed the river and set up a camp only about 4 km from the camp of Antiochus. Scipio's further advance from his camp was made with the river protecting his left, where he would rest his arrayed legions. Except for four squadrons all the allied cavalry was on its right; the battle began with a charge by the Seleucid flanks. There was a charge on the right by the Seleucid cavalry wing commanded by the king himself, which broke their opposing infantry leading to a pursuit by the Seleucid cavalry, leaving the field to unsuccessfully attack the Roman camp. At the same time, on the Seleucid left, a failed attack by the scythed chariots disrupted the Seleucid cavalry on that wing. Antiochus led a charge to exploit the gap opened by his chariots; the at