The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Riverdale is a residential neighborhood in the northwest portion of the Bronx, a borough in New York City. Riverdale, which has a population of 47,850 as of the 2000 United States Census, contains the northernmost point in New York City. Riverdale's boundaries are disputed, but it is agreed to be bordered by Yonkers to the north, Van Cortlandt Park and Broadway to the east, the Kingsbridge neighborhood to the southeast, the Harlem River or the Spuyten Duyvil neighborhood to the south, the Hudson River to the west. Riverdale Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Riverdale; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 8, its ZIP Codes include 10463 and 10471. The area is patrolled by the 50th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. In 1642, Anthony Van Corlaer died while attempting to swim across the Hudson from nearby Spuyten Duyvil. A witness to Van Corlaer's death stated that "the devil" in the shape of a giant fish swam up and proceeded to "seize the sturdy Anthony by the leg and drag him beneath the waves."
This may be the earliest recorded shark attack in the New World. In the late 17th century, Frederick Philipse, the lord of Philipse Manor in Westchester County, received permission to construct a bridge across Spuyten Duyvil Creek and charge tolls. "King's Bridge", located south of and parallel to where West 230th Street lies today, opened in 1693. Early in its residential development, Riverdale was a 19th-century estate district where many of Manhattan's moguls built their country estates. At the turn of the century, the new popularity of railroad commute enabled wealthy businessmen to make Riverdale their year-round residence. Fieldston, owned by a private association, is a intact example of a turn-of-the century upper class suburb; the Hudson Hill neighborhood retains many of its historic mansions. Riverdale's elite private schools and historic churches reflect this past. Development of the neighborhood began in the latter half of the 19th century once the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad came through.
The tracks crossed Spuyten Duyvil Creek and into Manhattan on the west side, but Cornelius Vanderbilt wanted to consolidate his railroad operations into one terminal. He had tracks laid along the north side of the Harlem River so that trains coming south from Albany could join with the Harlem and New Haven lines and come into Manhattan down the Park Avenue main line, along modern-day Park Avenue, into his new Grand Central Depot; this is the route still used by the Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line. The Delafield family laid out lots in Fieldston in 1909 – the year after the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was extended to Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street, intending to develop the land, which at first was called "Delafield Woods". Rather than use a grid plan, civil engineer Albert E. Wheeler, following the suggestions made by Frederick Law Olmsted and James R. Croes in 1876, designed a street plan which followed the contours of the land and preserved as much of the wooded areas as possible.
The first house was begun in 1910 and finished in 1911. Leland Weintraub, the commissioner who moved for the district's creation, noted that "most of the features associated with the American romantic suburb of the mid-19th century", including "a picturesque site and architecture. In 1928, Genevieve Ludlow Griscom, a member of a small religious group called the Outer Court of the Order of the Living Christ, built a 15,000-square-foot mansion at 360 West 253rd Street – addressed as 5200 Longview Place – for the express purpose of housing Jesus Christ when the Second Coming occurred. After being derelict for a number of years under successive owners, the mansion was bought in 1987 by entrepreneur Jerry Galuten, who renovated it into an more opulent 17 room home. After being on- and off-the market for eight years, with an asking price as high as $15 million, the house sold in January 2017 for $6.25 million. As the 20th century progressed, upscale apartment buildings and smaller houses were added to the neighborhood.
To this day, Riverdale continues to maintain its character as an affluent enclave in the city of New York. The rich history of Riverdale has led to the creation of the Riverdale Historic District. In May 2009, the FBI ran a sting operation to prevent a bombing plot in which two Riverdale synagogues were the suggested targets; this followed a Molotov cocktail attack in 2000 on a different Riverdale synagogue and the 1989 firebombing of the Riverdale Press. On July 26, 2010, the National Weather Service confirmed that an EF1 tornado had hit Riverdale the day before. There were no fatalities. On December 1, 2013, a train derailment near Spuyten Duyvil station resulted in four deaths and over 70 injuries, of which 11 were critical. Riverdale covers about 3 square miles in area, it has one of the highest elevations in New York City, affording it views of the Empire State Building, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River and New Jersey Palisades. It is noted for the numerous parks and expanses of greenery and original forest that complement its hilly landscape.
The neighborhood is bordered on the north by the city of Yonkers in Westchester County, on the west by the Hudson River, but its eastern and southern boundaries are frequently
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Yonkers, New York
Yonkers is a city in Westchester County, New York. It is the fourth most populous city in the U. S. state of New York, behind New York City and Rochester. The population of Yonkers was 195,976 as enumerated in the 2010 United States Census and is estimated to have increased by 2.5% to 200,807 in 2016. It is an inner suburb of New York City, directly to the north of the Bronx and two miles north of the northernmost point in Manhattan. Yonkers' downtown is centered on a plaza known as Getty Square, where the municipal government is located; the downtown area houses significant local businesses and non-profits, serves as a major retail hub for Yonkers and the northwest Bronx. The city is home including Untermyer Park. Major shopping areas are located in Getty Square, on South Broadway, at the Cross County Shopping Center and Westchester's Ridge Hill, along Central Park Avenue, informally called "Central Ave" by area residents, a name it takes a few miles north in White Plains. Yonkers is known as the "City of Seven Hills" which includes Park Hill, Nodine Hill, Ridge Hill, Cross Hill, Locust Hill, Glen Hill, Church Hill.
The land on which the city is built was once part of a 24,000-acre land grant called Colen Donck that ran from the current Manhattan-Bronx border at Marble Hill northwards for 12 miles, from the Hudson River eastwards to the Bronx River. In July 1645, this area was granted to the patroon of Colendonck. Van der Donck was known locally as the Jonkheer or Jonker, a word from which the name "Yonkers" is directly derived. Van der Donck built a saw mill near. Van der Donck was killed in the Peach War, his wife, Mary Doughty, was taken ransomed later. Near the site of van der Donck's mill is Philipse Manor Hall, a Colonial-era manor house which today serves as a museum and archive, offering many glimpses into life before the American Revolution; the original structure was built around 1682 by Frederick Philipse and his wife Margaret Hardenbroeck. Frederick was a wealthy Dutchman who by the time of his death had amassed an enormous estate, which encompassed the entire modern City of Yonkers, as well as several other Hudson River towns.
Philipse's great-grandson, Frederick Philipse III, was a prominent Loyalist during the American Revolution, because of his political leanings, was forced to flee to England. All the lands that belonged to the Philipse family were sold. For its first two hundred years, Yonkers was a small farming town with an active industrial waterfront. Yonkers's growth rested on developing industry. In 1853, Elisha Otis invented the first safety elevator and the Otis Elevator Company, opened the first elevator factory in the world on the banks of the Hudson near what is now Vark Street, it relocated to larger quarters in the 1880s. Around the same time, the Alexander Smith and Sons Carpet Company expanded to 45 buildings, 800 looms, over 4,000 workers and was known as one of the premier carpet producing centers in the world; the community was incorporated as a village in the northern part of the Town of Yonkers in 1854 and as a city in 1872. In 1874 the southern part of Yonkers, including Kingsbridge and Riverdale, was annexed by New York City as The Bronx.
In 1898, Yonkers voted on a referendum to determine. While the results were positive elsewhere, the returns were so negative in Yonkers and neighboring Mount Vernon that those two areas were not included in the consolidated city, remained independent. Still, some residents call the city "the Sixth Borough" referring to its location on the New York City border, its urban character, the failed merger vote. During the American Civil War, two hundred fifty-four Yonkers resident joined the Navy, they enlisted in four different regiments. These included the 6th New York Heavy Artillery, the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, the 17th New York Volunteers, the 15th NY National Guard. During the New York City Draft Riots, Yonkers formed the Home Guards; this force of constables was formed to protect Yonkers for rioting, feared to spread from New York City, which for Yonkers residents it never did. In total, seventeen Yonkers residents were killed during the Civil War; the New York City and Northern Railway Company connected Yonkers to Manhattan and points north from 1888.
A three-mile spur to Getty Square existed until 1943. Aside from being a manufacturing center, Yonkers played a key role in the development of entertainment in the United States. In 1888, Scottish-born John Reid founded the first golf course in the United States, St. Andrew's Golf Club, in Yonkers. Bakelite, the first synthetic plastic, was invented in Yonkers circa 1906 by Leo Baekeland, manufactured there until the late 1920s. Today, two of the former Alexander Smith and Sons Carpet Company loft buildings located at 540 and 578 Nepperhan Avenue have been repurposed to house the YoHo Artist Community, a collective group of talented artists that works out of private studi
Kingsbridge Heights, Bronx
Kingsbridge Heights is a working class residential neighborhood geographically located in the northwest Bronx, New York City. Its boundaries are Van Cortlandt Park to the north, Jerome Avenue to the east, Kingsbridge Road to the south, the Major Deegan Expressway to the west. Sedgwick Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Kingsbridge Heights; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 8, its ZIP Codes include 10463 and 10468. The area is patrolled by the 52nd Precincts of the New York City Police Department. NYCHA property in the area is patrolled by P. S. A. 8 at 2794 Randall Avenue in the Throgs Neck section of the Bronx. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Kingsbridge Heights was 32,496, a decrease of 790 from the 33,286 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 300.86 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 108.0 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 4.3% White, 18.5% African American, 0.1% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 71.1% of the population. The neighborhood has a high concentration of Dominicans in the southern and central sections of the neighborhood. In these two areas over 30% of the population lives below the poverty line. A small aging White non-Hispanic population is concentrated near Van Cortlandt Park or Van Cortlandt Village. In more recent years young professionals White non-Hispanic, have started to move into Van Cortlandt Village; the vast majority of households are renter occupied. Due to White flight some of the homes in the southern and central parts of the area have been left vacant. Many homes today are being rehabilitated and offered as rentals to the booming Dominican population found in the area. Kingsbridge Heights is dominated by multi-unit detached homes. There is a significant presence of tenement buildings concentrated in the central and southern sections of the neighborhood. In the 21st century, the northern subsection known as Van Cortlandt Village has seen an increase in higher-end rental and co-op building construction.
This subsection is bordered by the Major Deegan Expressway to the west, the Jerome Park Reservoir to the east, W 238th Street to the south, Van Cortlandt Park to the north. In 2007, MSNBC called Van Cortlandt Village one of "America's next hot neighborhoods"; the Fort Independence Street-Heath Avenue Houses are a one, 21-story NYCHA development in Kingsbridge Heights. The Jerome Park Reservoir is the most dominant landmark in the area, it was part of the Bathgate Estate, purchased by Leonard Jerome and Associates, to build The Jerome Park Racetrack. The Jerome Park Reservoir replaced the racetrack and was built in 1906 to serve the Croton Aqueduct as part of the New York City water supply system; the perimeter of this reservoir is 2.2 miles. Kingsbridge Armory is on Kingsbridge Road. In 1866, Jerome bought the estate and mansion of James Bathgate near Old Fordham Village in what was rural Westchester County, but is now The Bronx. Jerome and financier August Belmont, Sr. built Jerome Park Racetrack on the Bathgate land.
Jerome and his brother Lawrence had a wide boulevard made from Macombs Dam to the track, which city authorities attempted to name "Murphy Avenue" after a local politician. This incensed Jerome's wife so much that she had bronze plaques saying "Jerome Avenue" made up and bolted into place along the road, forcing the city to accept the name; the racetrack was acquired and demolished by the city in 1894, to make way for Jerome Park Reservoir. The Bathgate mansion served as a summer home for the Jerome family. In the early 1900s, the mansion was razed and replaced by the Kingsbridge Armory/ Kingsbridge Heights is patrolled by the 50th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 3450 Kingsbridge Avenue; the 50th Precinct ranked 13th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. The 50th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 81.5% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 7 murders, 15 rapes, 110 robberies, 147 felony assaults, 105 burglaries, 458 grand larcenies, 97 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
Kingsbridge Heights contains Engine Co.. 81/Ladder Co. 46, at 3025 Bailey Avenue. Public schools are operated by the New York City Department of Education. Kingsbridge Heights contains the following public elementary schools which serve grades PK-5 unless otherwise indicated: PS 86 Kingsbridge Heights PS 307 Eames Place PS 310 Marble Hill PS 340 PS 360The following middle school serves grades 6-8: New School for Leadership and JournalismThe following high schools serve grades 9-12: Celia Cruz Bronx High School of Music Discovery High School High School for Teaching and the Professions Kingsbridge International High School Marie Curie High School for Nursing and Health The New York Public Library operates the Jerome Park branch at 118 Eames Place; the branch first opened in 1957, but moved to its current one-story structure in 1969 and was renovated in 2007. The following MTA Regional Bus Operations bus routes serve Kingsbridge Heights: Bx1: to Riverdale or Third Avenue–138th Street station Bx2: to Third Avenue–138th Street station Bx3: to 238th Street station or George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal Bx9: to Riverdale or West Farms Square–East Tremont Avenue station (2 and 5 trains, via East Kingsbridge
Irish Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau; this compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed. Half of the Irish immigrants in the colonial era came from the Irish province of Ulster while the other half came from the other three provinces of Ireland. While scholarly estimates vary, the most common approximation is that 250,000 migrated to the United States from 1717 to 1775. By 1790 400,000 people of Irish birth or ancestry lived in the United States.
These early immigrants were overwhelmingly members of the Protestant minority in Ireland who descended from Scottish and English colonists and colonial administrators who had settled the Plantations of Ireland, the largest of, the Plantation of Ulster. In Ireland, they are referred to as the Ulster Scots and the Anglo-Irish and while they intermarried to some degree, they never intermarried with the native Irish Catholic population, in turn, the Irish Catholics never converted to Protestant churches during the Reformation. Of the 250,000 immigrants from Ireland to the United States between 1717 and 1775 10,000 were Catholics. By 1800, the number of Irish Catholics who had immigrated had increased in absolute terms to 20,000, but had declined in proportional terms, as one-sixth of the white population in the United States by that time was composed of those of Scotch-Irish descent. Like most Catholics in the United States at the time, these Irish Catholics settled in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
In 1700, the estimated population of Maryland was 29,600, about one-tenth of, Catholic. By 1756, the number of Catholics in Maryland had increased to 7,000, which increased further to 20,000 by 1765. In Pennsylvania, there were 3,000 Catholics in 1756 and 6,000 by 1765. By the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, there were 24,000 to 25,000 Catholics in the United States out of a total population of 3 million. However, most of the Catholic population in the United States during the colonial period came from England and France, not Ireland. Most descendants of the Protestant Irish today identify their ancestry as "American" or "Irish"; the terms "Scotch-Irish" and "Scots-Irish" were utilized in the 19th century to differentiate between Protestant Irish and the later-arriving Catholic Irish. The Scots Irish were tenant farmers, settled in Ireland by the British government during the 17th-century Plantation of Ulster; the Scots-Irish settled in the colonial "back country" of the Appalachian Mountain region, became the prominent ethnic strain in the culture that developed there.
The descendants of Scots-Irish settlers had a great influence on the culture of the Southern United States in particular and the culture of the United States in general through such contributions as American folk music and western music, stock car racing, which became popular throughout the country in the late 20th century. Irish immigrants of this period participated in significant numbers in the American Revolution, leading one British major general to testify at the House of Commons that "half the rebel Continental Army were from Ireland." Historiographer Michael J. O'Brien examined many of the muster rolls from the Revolutionary War and found quintessential native Irish surnames and possible Anglicized Irish surnames, he estimated that some 38% of those in the revolutionary army were Irish. Irish Americans signed the foundational documents of the United States—the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution—and, beginning with Andrew Jackson, served as President; the early Ulster immigrants and their descendants at first referred to themselves as "Irish," without the qualifier "Scotch."
It was not until more than a century following the surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that some descendants of the Protestant Irish began to refer to themselves as "Scots-Irish" to distinguish them from the predominantly Catholic, destitute, wave of immigrants from Ireland in that era. However, most descendants of the Scots-Irish continued to consider themselves "Irish" or "American" rather than Scots-Irish; the two groups had little initial interaction in America, as the 18th-century Ulster immigrants were predominantly Protestant and had become settled in upland regions of the American interior, while the huge wave of 19th-century Catholic immigrant families settled in the Northeast and Midwest port cities such as Boston, New York, Buffalo, or Chicago. Ho
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti