A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. Ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services if they carry vehicles; the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America".
See Experiment. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, it operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, the MV Liemba, built in 1913 during the German colonial rule. The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great Britain and mainland Europe, with ships sailing to French ports, such as Calais, Dieppe, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland; some ferries carry tourist traffic, but most carry freight, some are for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave; the busiest single ferry route is across the northern part of Øresund, between Helsingborg, Scania and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime.
The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors; this means that the ferries lack stems and sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions. Starboard and port-side are dynamic, depending on the direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants and kiosks. Passengers without cars make a "double or triple return" journey in the restaurants. Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with longer routes. Large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, but they can carry hundreds of cars on car decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea, Baltic Sea cruise-ferries are a popular tourist destination unto themselves, with multiple restaurants, bars and entertainment on board.
Many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes for heavy traffic and cars; the ferry routes of Trelleborg-Rostock, Trelleborg-Travemünde, Trelleborg-Świnoujście, Gedser-Rostock, Gdynia-Karlskrona, Ystad-Świnoujście are all typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available; the Rødby-Puttgarden route transports day passenger trains between Copenhagen and Hamburg, on the Trelleborg-Sassnitz route, it has capacities for the daily night trains between Berlin and Malmö. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands and nearby coastal towns. In 2014 İDO transported the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services. BC Ferries operates the third largest ferry service in the world which carries travellers between Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland on the country's west coast.
This ferry service operates to other islands including the Gulf Islands and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC Ferries carried 20 million passengers. Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network operated by the federal government under CN Marine and Marine Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, STQ. Canadian waters in the Great Lakes once hosted numerous ferry services, but these have been reduced to those offered by Owen Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities, such as Metro Transit in Halifax, Toronto Island ferries in Toronto and SeaBus in Vancouver. Washington State Ferries operates the most extensive ferry system in the continental United States and the second largest in t
Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses; the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, it was the first community in California to have a name not of Spanish or Native American origin; the city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an estimated population of 320,554 by the California Department of Finance for 2017. Stockton is the 63rd largest city in the United States, it was named an All-America City in 1999, 2004, 2015 and again in 2017. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stockton's seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and beyond, it provided easy access for transportation to the southern gold mines. The University of the Pacific, chartered in 1851, is the oldest university in California, has been located in Stockton since 1923; as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection.
Stockton exited bankruptcy in February 2015. Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of California's San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways. Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland California's major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west. Stockton and Sacramento are California's only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies a total area of 64.8 square miles, of which 61.7 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles is water. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, it was occupied by the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians, they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton.
The Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley. It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that led through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades and into present-day Oregon; the extensive network of waterways in and around Stockton was fished and navigated by Miwok Indians for centuries. During the California Gold Rush, the San Joaquin River was navigable by ocean-going vessels, making Stockton a natural inland seaport and point of supply and departure for prospective gold-miners. From the mid-19th century onward, Stockton became the region's transportation hub, dealing with agricultural products. Mexican eraCapt. Charles Maria Weber, a German, emigrated to America in 1836. After spending time in Texas, he came overland from Missouri to California with the Bartleson-Bidwell Party in 1841. Weber went to work for John Sutter. In 1842 Weber settled in the Pueblo of San José; as an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, so he formed a partnership with Guillermo Gulnac.
Born in New York, Gulnac had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which ruled California. He applied in Weber's place for Rancho Campo de los Franceses, a land grant of 11 square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Gulnac and Weber dissolved their partnership in 1843. Gulnac's attempts to settle the Rancho Campo de los Franceses failed, Weber acquired it in 1845. In 1846 Weber had induced a number of settlers to locate on the rancho, when the Mexican–American War broke out. Considered a Californio, Weber was offered the position of captain by Mexican Gen. José Castro, which he declined. Capt. Weber's decision to change sides lost him a great deal of the trust he had built up among his Mexican business partners; as a result, he moved to the grant in 1847 and sold his business in San Jose in 1849. Gold rush eraAt the start of the California Gold Rush in 1848, Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area of Weber's rancho on their way to the goldfields; when Weber decided to try his hand at gold mining in late 1848, he soon found selling supplies to gold-seekers was more profitable.
As the head of navigation on the San Joaquin River, the city grew as a miners' supply point during the Gold Rush. Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the Gold Rush, the location of what is now Stockton developed as a river port, the hub of roads to the gold settlements in the San Joaquin Valley and northern terminus of the Stockton - Los Angeles Road. During its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including "Weberville," "Fat City," "Mudville" and "California's Sunrise Seaport." In 1849 Weber laid out a town, which he named "Tuleburg," but he soon decided on "Stockton" in honor of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. Stockton was the first community in California to have a name, neither Spanish nor Native American in origin. Chinese immigrationThousands of Chinese came to Stockton from the Kwangtung province of China during the 1850s due to a combination of political and economic unrest in China and the discovery of gold in California.
After the gold rush, many worked for the railroads and land reclamation projects in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and remained in Stockton. By 1880 Stockton was home to the third-largest Chinese community in California. Discriminatory laws
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
San Joaquin Valley
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus and Fresno counties, parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California. Although a majority of the valley is rural, it does contain cities such as Fresno, Stockton, Turlock, Porterville, Visalia and Hanford. San Joaquin Valley was inhabited by the Yokuts and Miwok peoples; the first European to enter the valley was Pedro Fages in 1772. The San Joaquin Valley extends from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta in the north to the Tehachapi Mountains in the south, from the various California coastal ranges in the west to the Sierra Nevada in the east. Unlike the Sacramento Valley, the river system for which the San Joaquin Valley is named does not extend far along the valley.
Most of the valley south of Fresno, drains into Tulare Lake, which no longer exists continuously due to diversion of its sources. The valley's primary river is the San Joaquin, which drains north through about half of the valley into the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the Kings and Kern Rivers are in the southern endorheic basin of the valley, all of which have been diverted for agricultural uses and are dry in their lower reaches. The San Joaquin Valley began to form about 66 million years ago during the early Paleocene era. Broad fluctuations in the sea level caused various areas of the valley to be flooded with ocean water for the next 60 million years. About 5 million years ago, the marine outlets began to close due to uplift of the coastal ranges and the deposition of sediment in the valley. Starting 2 million years ago, a series of glacial episodes periodically caused much of the valley to become a fresh water lake. Lake Corcoran was the last widespread lake to fill the valley about 700,000 years ago.
At the beginning of the Holocene there were three major lakes remaining in the southern part of the Valley, Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake. In the late 19th and in the 20th century, agricultural diversion of the Kern River dried out these lakes. Today, only a fragment of Buena Vista Lake remains as two small lakes Lake Webb and Lake Evans in a portion of the former Buena Vista Lakebed The San Joaquin Valley has hot, dry summers and has enjoyed cool rainy winters characterized by dense tule fog, its rainy season runs from November through April, but since 2011 when a drought became evident it received minimal to no rain at all. The drought was still extant by mid-August 2014 with scientists saying it would continue indefinitely, for anywhere from several years to several decades to come; as of February 2017 the majority of the Valley experienced a reprieve from the drought. However, as of February 2018, much of the Valley appears to be headed back into drought along with much of the rest of the State.
In August 2015, the Director of the California Department of Water Resources stated, "Because of increased pumping, groundwater levels are reaching record lows—up to 100 feet lower than previous records." Research from NASA shows that parts of the San Joaquin Valley sank as much as 8 inches in a four-month period, land near Corcoran sank 13 inches in 8 months. The sinking has destroyed thousands of groundwater well casings and has the potential to damage aqueducts, roads and flood-control structures. In the long term, the subsidence caused by extracting groundwater could irreversibly reduce the underground aquifer's water storage capacity, although immediate and short term needs are given higher priority and sense of urgency than long term sustainability; the National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for the San Joaquin Valley are available from its official website.
The total population of the eight counties comprising the San Joaquin Valley at the time of the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates by United States Census Bureau reported a population of 4,080,509. The racial composition of San Joaquin Valley was 2,775,074 White, 193,694 Black or African American, 40,911 American Indian and Alaska Native, 310,557 Asian, 13,000 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2,048,280 Hispanic or Latino; the educational attainment of high school graduate or higher is 72.7%. By some estimates, federal restrictions on shallow well irrigation systems threaten the productivity of the San Joaquin Valley, which produces the majority of the 12.8% of the United States' agricultural production that comes from California. Grapes—table, to a lesser extent wine—are the valley's highest-profile product, but important are cotton, nuts and vegetables; the San Joaquin Valley has been called "The food basket of the world", for the diversity of its produce. Walnuts, peaches, tangerines, kiwis, hay and numerous other crops have been harvested with great success.
DeRuosi Nut, a large walnut processing plant in Escalon, has been in the valley since 1947. Certain places are identified quite with a given crop: Stockton produces the majority of the domestic asparagus consumed in the United States, Fresno is the largest produ
Visalia is a city situated in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley of California 230 miles southeast of San Francisco, 190 miles north of Los Angeles, 36 miles west of Sequoia National Park and 43 miles south of Fresno. The population was 130,104 as of a 2015 U. S. Census Bureau estimate. Visalia is the 5th largest city in the San Joaquin Valley after Fresno, Bakersfield and Modesto; as the county seat of Tulare County, Visalia serves as the economic and governmental center to one of the most productive single agricultural counties in the country. Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks are located in the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains, the highest mountain range in the contiguous United States; the area around Visalia was first settled by the Yokuts and Mono Native American tribes hundreds of years ago. It is unknown when the first Europeans arrived, but the first to make a written record of the area was Pedro Fages in 1722; when California achieved statehood in 1850, Tulare County did not exist.
The land, now Tulare County was part of the huge County of Mariposa. In 1852, some pioneers settled in the area called Four Creeks; the area got its name from the many watershed creeks and rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. All the water resulted in a widespread swampy area with a magnificent oak forest; the industrious group of settlers petitioned the state legislature for county status and on July 10 of that same year, Tulare County became a reality. One of the first inhabitants of a fort built by the settlers was Nathaniel Vise. Nathaniel was responsible for surveying the new settlement. In November 1852, he wrote, "The town contains from 60–80 inhabitants, 30 of whom are children of school age; the town is located upon one of the subdivisions of the Kaweah River and is destined to be the county seat of Tulare." In 1853, that prediction became Visalia has remained the county seat since that time. Visalia is named for Nathaniel Vise's ancestral home, Kentucky. Early growth in Visalia can be attributed in part to the gold rush along the Kern River.
The gold fever brought many transient miners through Visalia along the way and when the lure of gold failed to materialize, many returned to Visalia to live their lives and raise families. In 1859 Visalia was added to John Butterfield's Overland Stage route from St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco. A plaque commemorating the location can be found at 116 East Main Street. Included in the early crop of citizens were some notorious and nasty individuals who preyed upon the travelers along the Butterfield Stage route. Many saloons and hotels sprouted up around the stage stop downtown and commerce was brisk if a bit risky; the next memorable event was the arrival of the telegraph in 1860. Visalians could get timely information of the events taking place on the East Coast which would develop into the American Civil War. During the Civil War, many citizens of Visalia couldn't decide whether Visalia should stand on the side of the North or the South, so they had a Mini Civil War of their own on Main Street.
No one knows the outcome of the war, but it was concluded to the satisfaction of the participants and life returned to normal. The federal government, was not so convinced, reacting to concern about sedition, banned Visalia's pro-South Equal Rights Expositor newspaper and established a military garrison. Camp Babbitt was built in 1862 to stop overt Southern support as well as maintain law and order in the community. During these Civil War years, Visalia was incorporated; the second incorporation in 1874 moved Visalia into city status with a common council and an ex-officio Mayor and President. In 1893, the train bandits and murderers John Sontag and Chris Evans were apprehended, badly wounded, outside Visalia in what is called the Battle of Stone Corral. Sontag died three weeks in police custody in Fresno. In 1904, the Visalia Electric Railroad was incorporated. In October 1933, Visalia was the site of a fact-finding committee appointed by Governor James Rolph and charged with investigating labor violence in the San Joaquin cotton strike.
Labor activist Caroline Decker led hundreds of strikers in a march on the courthouse, led the questioning of strikers during the investigation. In the mid-1970s, the area was known for the serial burglaries of the as yet unidentified Visalia Ransacker. More Visalia served as a host city for the Amgen Tour of California in 2009 and 2010; the city is divided into neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated communities. There are several independent cities around Visalia that are popularly grouped with the city of Visalia, due to its immediate vicinity; the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Visalia, North Visalia, The Eastside, Southwest Visalia, the Industrial Area and the Westside. Visalia has a rich architectural history including many extant buildings dating to the mid-late 1800s. Throughout the town center are many historic brick structures, including the Bank of Italy and the Art Deco/Beaux-Arts Visalia Town Center Post Office, both of which are registered with the National Register of Historic Places.
In addition to many other historic buildings and Victorian houses, Visalia is home to a distinctive Fox Theatre, restored by a community group known as "Friends of the Fox" and serves as a live venue for music and stage performances. Visalia is irregularly shaped and covers a total area of 36.3 square miles, of which 36.3 square miles is land
Kettleman City, California
Kettleman City is a census-designated place in Kings County, United States. Kettleman City is located 28 miles southwest of Hanford, 54 miles south of Fresno, at an elevation of 253 feet, sits only about 1/2 mile North of the 36th parallel north latitude, it is part of the Hanford–Corcoran Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,439 at the 2010 census, down from 1,499 at the 2000 census. Kettleman City is near the halfway point between Los Angeles and San Francisco or Sacramento on Interstate 5 at Exit 309, thus is a major stopping point for food and lodging. Kettleman City is located on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley at the base of the Kettleman Hills, near the historic shoreline of what used to be Tulare Lake, its coordinates are 36°00′30″N 119°57′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.2 square miles, all of it land. Kettleman City is divided into two areas; the commercial zone of gas and lodging businesses is at Kettleman Junction, where Interstate 5 and State Route 41 meet.
The residential area together with some retail businesses and county government buildings is located about 1.2 mi north on State Route 41. The California Aqueduct crosses State Route 41 between these two areas. Kettleman City has a climate typical of that of the San Joaquin Valley, with hot, dry summers and cool winters characterized by dense Tule fog; the average annual precipitation is 7.12 in, falling from November through April. It is located in hardiness zone 9a. Kettleman City has a number of fast food restaurants at its freeway exit; the community has no grocery stores other than convenience markets. Kettleman City has no street lights and no sidewalks; the Kettleman Hills were named after Dave Kettelman, a pioneer sheep-raiser and cattleman who grazed his animals there in the 1860s. Kettleman Hills long ago in the early 1900s was a crossing for people who would travel from Lemoore to Kettleman City by ferry; as the Tulare Lake receded in the late 1920s, this stretch between the two cities became State Route 41.
Oil was discovered in the Kettleman Hills in 1928, at the Kettleman North Dome Oil Field, which became one of the most productive oil fields in the United States in the early 1930s. Thousands of spectators came to see the gusher that spouted pure gasoline for weeks. A. Manford Brown, a real estate developer, founded the town of Kettleman City in 1929, he donated land for the community church. The main street was called Brown Street after him. A branch library was established in 1930. By 1940, Kettleman City had a population of about 600; the first post office opened in 1929. The early 1970s saw two substantial projects that had significant impacts on the community: the completion of the California Aqueduct and the opening of Interstate 5; the facility operated by Waste Management, Inc. opened in the late 1970s. Despite the name, Kettleman City is not an incorporated California city, remains a census-designated place. Interstate 5 State Route 41 Kings Area Rural Transit's Hanford-Avenal serves Kettleman City.
KART provides vanpool service for commuters and Dial-A-Ride services throughout Kings County as well as to Fresno. Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach/Orange Belt Stages has a bus stop in Kettleman City; the 2010 United States Census reported that Kettleman City had a population of 1,439. The population density was 6,819.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Kettleman City was 478 White, 4 African American, 8 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 887 from other races, 61 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,383 persons; the Census reported that 1,439 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 350 households, out of which 232 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 177 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 82 had a female householder with no husband present, 41 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 42 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
30 households were made up of individuals and 11 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.11. There were 300 families; the population was spread out with 553 people under the age of 18, 157 people aged 18 to 24, 415 people aged 25 to 44, 235 people aged 45 to 64, 79 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.0 males. There were 367 housing units at an average density of 1,739.3 per square mile, of which 135 were owner-occupied, 215 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 564 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 875 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,499 people, 320 households, 289 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 8,691.4 people per square mile. There were 329 housing units at an average density of 1,907.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 26.62% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 1.87% Native American, 66.18% from other races, 4.94% from two or more races.
It is noteworthy that 92.7
Armona is a census-designated place in Kings County, United States. Armona is located 3.5 miles west-southwest of Hanford, at an elevation of 239 feet. It is part of the Hanford–Corcoran Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 4,156 at the 2010 census. Armona's motto is "Small but Proud". Armona is located in northern Kings County at 36°18′57″N 119°42′30″W. California State Route 198 runs through the community, leading east into Hanford, the county seat, west 4 miles to Lemoore. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all of it land. The name "Armona" was applied to a railroad station in the 1880s, it was subsequently transferred to the present location on the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1891. The name was coined by transposing the first two letters of the name "Ramona"; the first school in the Armona vicinity was the Giddings School built in 1880. The Giddings School District was renamed Armona in 1907. A new brick school house was constructed in the early 1920s.
As that structure did not comply with California's earthquake standards, it was replaced in 1953 with what is now the Armona Elementary School. The Armona post office was established in 1887; the 2010 United States Census reported that Armona had a population of 4,156. The population density was 2,182.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Armona was 2,058 White, 99 African American, 64 Native American, 85 Asian, 13 Pacific Islander, 1,597 from other races, 240 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,784 persons; the Census reported that 4,156 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,152 households, out of which 640 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 641 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 214 had a female householder with no husband present, 106 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 105 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
147 households were made up of individuals and 51 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.61. There were 961 families; the age distribution of the population shows 1,421 people under the age of 18, 438 people aged 18 to 24, 1,089 people aged 25 to 44, 902 people aged 45 to 64, 306 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. There were 1,202 housing units at an average density of 631.2 per square mile, of which 728 were owner-occupied, 424 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 2,645 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,511 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,239 people, 961 households, 786 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,688.3 people per square mile. There were 1,012 housing units at an average density of 527.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 56.25% White, 4.29% Black or African American, 2.41% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 29.98% from other races, 5.50% from two or more races. 48.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 961 households out of which 47.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.2% were non-families. 13.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.37 and the average family size was 3.68. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 35.4% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. At the time of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the CDP was $32,790, the median income for a family was $32,232.
Males had a median income of $26,905 versus $22,981 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $11,850. About 24.2% of families and 26.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 8.9% of those age 65 or over. The estimated unemployment rate was 13.1% in November 2016. Kings Area Rural Transit operates scheduled fixed route bus service, vanpool service for commuters and Dial-A-Ride services throughout Kings County as well as to Fresno. Highway 198 Amtrak does not have a station in Armona but does provide passenger service to Hanford, 3.5 miles east of Armona. Freight service is available from the San Joaquin Valley Railroad. Public schools in the community are operated by the Armona Union Elementary School District, they include: Armona Elementary School Parkview Middle SchoolThe district sponsors the Crossroads Charter Academy, a K-12 independent study charter school. There is one K-12 private school, Armona Union Academy, operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
Armona is in the Hanford Joint Union High School District. Nearby community colleges include West Hills