In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
University of Rhode Island
The University of Rhode Island referred to as URI, is the flagship public research as well as the land grant and sea grant university for the state of Rhode Island. Its main campus is located in the village of Kingston in southern Rhode Island. Additionally, smaller campuses include the Feinstein Campus in Providence, the Rhode Island Nursing Education Center in Providence, the Narragansett Bay Campus in Narragansett, the W. Alton Jones Campus in West Greenwich; the university offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctoral degrees in 80 undergraduate and 49 graduate areas of study through eight academic colleges. These colleges include Arts and Sciences, Business and Professional Studies, Health Sciences and Life Sciences and Pharmacy. Another college, University College for Academic Success, serves as an advising college for all incoming undergraduates and follows them through their first two years of enrollment at URI; as of 2019, the University of Rhode Island enrolls 14,653 undergraduate students, 1,982 graduate students, 1,339 non-degree students.
The average SAT score of students at the University is 1185, while the ACT scores average a 25, the average GPA is 3.54. The in-state tuition for undergrad URI students in 2018-2019 is $14,138, while Regional students paid $22,324 for tuition, out of state students paid $30,862. 75% of students received some type of financial aid. U. S. News & World Report classifies URI as a tier 1 national university, ranking it tied for 161st in the U. S; the university was first chartered as the state's agricultural school and agricultural experiment station in 1888. The site of the school was the Oliver Watson Farm, whose original farmhouse is now a small museum. In 1892, the school became known as the Rhode Island College of Mechanic Arts; the first class had only seventeen students, each completing their course of study in two years. In 1909, the school's name was again changed to Rhode Island State College as the school's programs were expanded beyond its original agricultural education mandate. In 1951 the school was given its current title through an act of the General Assembly following the addition of the College of Arts and Sciences and the offering of doctoral degrees.
The Board of Governors for Higher Education, appointed by the governor, became the governing body of the University in 1981 during the presidency of Frank Newman. The Board of Governors was replaced by the Rhode Island Board of Education in 2013; the current president is David M. Dooley. A list of Presidents of the University of Rhode Island: John Hosea Washburn Kenyon L. Butterfield Howard Edwards Raymond G. Bressler Carl R. Woodward Francis H. Horn Werner A. Baum Frank Newman Edward D. "Ted" Eddy Robert L. Carothers David M. Dooley In 2013 the faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online. URI's main campus is located in northern South Kingstown, is accessed via Rhode Island Route 138 from either the west or east; the campus was farmland when it was purchased by the state in 1888, still includes the c. 1796 Oliver Watson Farmhouse. The early buildings of the campus are set around its main quadrangle, were built out of locally quarried granite; the campus master plan was developed by the noted landscape architects Olmsted, Olmsted & Eliot in the 1890s.
The central portion of the campus, where most of its pre-1950 buildings are located, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017. U. S. News & World Report classifies URI as a tier 1 national university, ranking it tied for 161st overall; the average incoming freshman at the Kingston campus for the fall of 2017 had a GPA of 3.54 and an SAT score of 1178. URI has 18 club sports teams consisting of around 600 athletes; some club sports the school offers includes field hockey, crew and sailing. These teams compete against other intercollegiate programs in the country. URI has 16 intramural sports, including volleyball, badmitten and soccer; the intramural sports allow students to compete in tournaments and games with other students on campus. The University of Rhode Island Department of Athletics and Recreation fields teams that compete in 16 intercollegiate sports; the University is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference and the Colonial Athletic Association in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision.
The URI Men’s Basketball competes in the Atlantic 10 Conference, has appeared in the NCAA "March Madness” Tournament a total of 10 times since its first appearance in 1961. Two of these ten appearances occurred during the 2018 seasons. Athletic facilities include the Ryan Center, Keaney Gymnasium, Meade Stadium, Mackal Field House, Tootell Aquatic Center, Bradford R. Boss Arena, URI Soccer Complex, Bill Beck Field, URI Softball Complex; the Director of Athletics is Thorr Bjorn, who worked at the University of Massachusetts. The most notable team would be Rhode Island Rams men's basketball. Lincoln Almond, Governor of Rhode Island from 1995–2003 Peter Courtney, 55th President of the Oregon State Senate, Member of the Oregon Senate Charles J. Fogarty, Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island 1999–2006 J. Joseph Garrahy, Governor of Rhode Island from 1977–1985 William B. Gould IV, Chairman of the National Labor Relations Board 1994–1998. Edwin R. Pacheco, Chairman of Rhode Island Democratic Party 2010–2013 Robert Weygand, Lieutenant Governor of RI 1993–1997
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
George Fayerweather Blacksmith Shop
The George Fayerweather Blacksmith Shop is an historic homestead and blacksmith shop at 1859 Mooresfield Road on the eastern outskirts of the Kingston Historic District in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. It was the home of George Fayerweather, an African-American blacksmith and his family, including his wife Sarah Harris Fayerweather; the shop was built in 1820 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The property is maintained by the Kingston Improvement Association, a non-profit organization of local residents, is now the home of the Fayerweather Craft Guild and the Kingston Garden Club. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island Fayerweather House at the Kingston Improvement Association Historic American Buildings Survey No. RI-62, "Fayerweather House, Mooresfield Road & Kingston Road, Washington County, RI", 4 photos, supplemental material
Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia
The Tootell House is a house at 1747 Mooresfield Road in Kingston, Rhode Island, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The two-story, wood-shingled Colonial Revival house on a 3-acre tract was designed by Gunther and Bemis Associates of Boston for Mr. & Mrs. F. Delmont Tootell and was built in 1932-1933. House design was by John J. G. Gunther and Elizabeth Clark Gunther was the landscape architect for the grounds. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island
The Northeast Corridor is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia through Wilmington, Baltimore to Washington, D. C; the NEC parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily. Branches to Harrisburg, Springfield and various points in Virginia are not considered part of the Northeast Corridor, despite frequent service from routes that run on the corridor; the corridor is used by many Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express, intercity trains, several long-distance trains. Most of the corridor has frequent commuter rail service, operated by the MBTA, Shore Line East, Metro-North Railroad, New Jersey Transit, SEPTA, MARC. Several companies run freight trains over sections of the NEC. Much of the line is built for speeds higher than the 79 mph maximum allowed on many U.
S. tracks. Amtrak operates intercity Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains at up to 125 mph, as well as North America's only high-speed train, the Acela Express, which runs up to 150 mph on a few sections in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Acela covers the 225 miles between New York and Washington, D. C. in under 3 hours, the 229 miles between New York and Boston in under 3.5 hours. Under Amtrak's $151 billion Northeast Corridor plan, which hopes to halve travel times by 2040, trips between New York and Washington via Philadelphia would take 94 minutes; the Northeast Corridor was built by several railroads between the 1830s and 1917. The route was consolidated under two railroads: the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad between Boston and New York, the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington. Boston–Providence: Boston and Providence Railroad opened 1835 realigned in 1847 and in 1899. Became part of the Old Colony Railroad in 1888. Providence–Stonington: New York and Boston Railroad opened 1837.
Stonington–New Haven: New Haven, New London and Stonington Railroad opened 1852–1889, realigned in New Haven, 1894. New Haven–New Rochelle: New York and New Haven Railroad opened 1849. New Rochelle–Port Morris: Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad opened 1873. Port Morris–Sunnyside Yard: New York Connecting Railroad: opened 1917. Sunnyside Yard–Manhattan Transfer: Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad opened 1910. Manhattan Transfer–Trenton: United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company opened 1834–1839, 1841. Trenton–Frankford Junction: Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad opened 1834. Frankford Junction–Zoo Tower: Connecting Railway opened 1867. Zoo Tower–Grays Ferry Bridge: Junction Railroad opened 1863–1866. Grays Ferry–Bayview: Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad opened 1837–1838, 1866, 1906. Bayview Yard–Baltimore Union Station: Union Railroad opened 1873. Baltimore Union Station–Landover: Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road opened 1872. Landover–Washington, D. C.: Magruder Branch opened 1907 The New York Central Railroad began planning electrification between Grand Central Terminal and the split at Mott Haven after the opening of the first electrified urban rail terminal in 1900, the Gare d'Orsay in Paris, France.
Electricity was in use on some branch lines of the NYNH&H for interurban streetcars via third rail or trolley wire. An accident in the Park Avenue Tunnel near the present Grand Central Terminal that killed 17 people on January 8, 1902 was blamed on smoke from steam locomotives; the NH announced in 1905 that it would electrify its main line from New York to Stamford, Connecticut. Along with the construction of the new Grand Central Terminal, opened in 1912, the NYC electrified its lines, beginning on December 11, 1906 with suburban multiple unit service to High Bridge on the Hudson Line. Electric locomotives began serving Grand Central on February 13, 1907, all NYC passenger service into Grand Central was electrified on July 1. NH electrification began on July 24 to New Rochelle, August 5 to Port Chester and October 6, 1907 the rest of the way to Stamford. Steam trains last operated into Grand Central on June 30, 1908, after which all NH passenger trains into Manhattan were electrified. In June 1914, the NH electrification was extended to New Haven, the terminus of electrified service for over 80 years.
At the same time, the PRR was building its Pennsylvania Station and electrified approaches, which were served by the PRR's lines in New Jersey and the Long Island Rail Road. LIRR electric service began in 1905 on the Atlantic Branch from downtown Brooklyn past Jamaica, in June 1910 on the branch to Long Island City, part of the main line to Penn Station. Penn Station opened September 8, 1910 for LIRR trains and November 27 for the PRR. PRR trains changed engines at Manhattan Transfer. On July 29, 1911, NH began electric service on its Harlem River Branch, a suburban branch that would become a main line with the completion of the New York Connecting Railroad and its Hell Gate Bridge; the bridge opened on April 1, 1917, but was operated by steam with an engine change at Sunnyside Yard east of Penn Station until 1918. Electrification of the portion north of New Haven to Providence and Boston had been planned by the N