Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
The Millstone River is a 38.6-mile-long tributary of the Raritan River in central New Jersey in the United States. The Millstone River begins in western Monmouth County and flows northward through southern Somerset County into the Raritan River at Manville. Three quarters of its length is paralleled by the Delaware and Raritan Canal. Both the Millstone River and parallel canal provide drinking water to portions of central New Jersey and provide recreational uses as well; the Millstone River starts in western Monmouth County at 40°11′58″N 74°24′37″W, near CR-524. It turns north before picking up a tributary and crossing CR-1, Sweetmans Lane, it crosses Baird Road before crossing SR-33 and flowing past the watershed of the Cranbury Brook. It turns west, crossing Applegarth Road. Meanwhile, it receives many small tributaries, it crosses the New Jersey Turnpike, before flowing through the East Windsor Open Space Acquisition. It crosses CR-639 and Route 130 before picking up a tributary and flowing into Fischer Acres Associates.
It crosses Old Cranbury Road and turns southwest before receiving Rocky Brook and making a turn to the northwest. It turns west and crosses Old Trenton Road, John White Road, Southfield Road before flowing alongside the West Windsor Planning Incentive and crossing Cranbury Road, it receives Cranbury Brook and Bear Brook before receiving Devils Brook and crossing US-1. It flows into Carnegie Lake and crosses the D&R Canal, which it parallels the rest of its downstream journey, it turns northeast. It receives Harrys exits the Carnegie Lake, it enters the D&R Canal State Park before crossing CR-679. It receives Beden Brook before crossing the Griggstown Causeway and receiving the Simonson Brook directly afterward. By the time it receives Beden Brook, it is paralleled by River Road, it receives the Ten Mile Run and Six Mile Run before crossing Blackwells Mills Road. It crosses Weston Causeway, it receives Royce Brook before flowing past the Somerset Christian College, one of the few structures built on the land between the D&R Canal and the Millstone River.
By the time it crosses Royce Brook, CR-533 has turned into Manville. It joins the Raritan River at 40°32′33″N 74°34′0″W; the Millstone River basin has suffered a number of severe flooding events over the past 200 years. Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 produced a severe flood in the basin in the Lost Valley section of Manville, which sits on a flood plain between the Millstone River and the Raritan River. Severe flooding once again occurred after Hurricane Irene swept through the area in 2011. Two Millstone River basin flood control and mitigation studies are underway by separate governmental bodies to determine if future flooding can be mitigated or controlled: Millstone River Watershed Flood Damage and Mitigation Analysis Report - USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service Flood Control Feasibility Study for Manville, NJ - U. S. Army Corps of Engineers The Millstone River provides drinking water to tens of thousands of households and businesses in Central New Jersey. A water intake pumping station is located where the Millstone Raritan River meet.
The water is distributed by the New Jersey American Water. In earliest colonial times as land routes began to supplant sea shipping, commerce between the emerging centers New York City and Philadelphia was carried by stage coach along a direct route from South Amboy to Bordentown. Much that route became a railroad. A series of New Jersey towns still extant sprouted up along the stage coach route, including South Amboy, South River, Helmetta, Cranbury, Windsor and Bordentown. In general, the stage coach took a bee-line route, straight as the crow flies, between the Raritan Bay at South Amboy and the Delaware River at Bordentown; as the country grew and its economy began to thrive, large buoyant barges supported by water on canals emerged as much more suitable for heavy shipping. Unlike the stage coaches, routes for canals were obliged to follow the most level land — riverbeds. Hence the importance of the Millstone River which provides a north-south waterway through New Jersey connecting the two great cities of Philadelphia and New York.
The Millstone River is an important tributary of the Raritan River. The Raritan River empties into a bay of the Atlantic Ocean; the Raritan Bay is contiguous to New York Harbor and separates the New York City Borough of Staten Island from Central New Jersey along with the Arthur Kill a more narrow channel of water between Staten Island and New Jersey. As the Raritan River flows eastward towards Raritan Bay, it joins the Millstone River flowing north in the vicinity of Bound Brook, New Jersey; the Millstone River traces an arc through several New Jersey Counties, originating in Monmouth County and flowing more-or-less west through Mercer County northwest through Somerset County northward towards Bound Brook. The Delaware and Raritan Canal runs along east side of the Millstone River for much of its length, from Lake Carnegie in Princeton, New Jersey to the location where the Millstone River empties into the Raritan River in Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey. There the canal continues along the right bank of the Raritan.
The land between canal and river is a flood plain that consists of swamps, wooded areas and some farmland. A number of spillways allow water to run off from the canal into the Millstone River during periods of
Kingston Mill Historic District
The Kingston Mill Historic District is made up of the Greenland–Brinson–Gulick farm, four nearby houses, the eponymous gristmill powered by the Millstone River, the Kingston Bridge, an 18th-century stone arch bridge over the river. It was one of the first settlements in Princeton, New Jersey, preceded only by the Quaker community along the Stony Brook. National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey
National Register of Historic Places listings in New Jersey
This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in New Jersey. There are more than 1,700 listed sites in New Jersey. All 21 counties in New Jersey have listings on the National Register; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in New Jersey on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
The numbers of NRHP listings in each county are documented by tables in each of the individual county list-articles. Operating Passenger Railroad Stations Thematic Resource List of National Historic Landmarks in New Jersey List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in New Jersey
Somerset County, New Jersey
Somerset County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 335,432, a 3.7% increase from the 2010 United States Census, making it the 13th most populous of the state's 21 counties. Somerset County is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Somerville. The most populous place was Franklin Township, with 62,300 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hillsborough Township, covered 55.00 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,468, the second highest in New Jersey and ranked 25th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Somerset County, as of the 2000 Census, was the seventh wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $76,933, fourth in median family income at $90,655 and ranked seventh by per capita income at $37,970; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 11th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
In 2012, 49.8 percent of Somerset County residents were college graduates, the highest percentage in the state. Somerset County was ranked number 3 of 21 NJ counties as one of the healthiest counties in New Jersey, according to an annual report by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Somerset County was created on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. Somerset County is one of America's oldest counties, is named after the English county of Somerset; the area was first settled in 1681, in the vicinity of Bound Brook, the county was established by charter on May 22, 1688. Most of the early residents were Dutch. General George Washington and his troops marched through the county on several occasions and slept in many of the homes located throughout the area. Somerset County played an important part during both World War I and World War II with weapons depots and the manufacturing of the army's woolen blankets. For much of its history, Somerset County was an agricultural county. In the late 19th century, the Somerset Hills area of Somerset County became a popular country home for wealthy industrialists.
The area is still the home of wealthy pharmaceutical industrialists. In 1917, Somerset County, in cooperation with Rutgers University, hired its first agricultural agent to connect local farmers with expert advice; the Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Somerset County, located in Bridgewater, serves residents in the areas of agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development and family and community health sciences. In the 1960s, townships that were once agricultural were transformed into suburban communities. Examples include Bridgewater Township and the Watchung Hills communities of Watchung, Green Brook and Warren Township; this growth was aided by the development of the county's strong pharmaceutical and technology presence. Warren Township used to be considered "the greenest place in New Jersey." More there has been an influx of New York City commuters who use NJ Transit's Raritan Valley Line and Gladstone Branch or use Interstate 78. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 304.86 square miles, including 301.81 square miles of land and 3.04 square miles of water.
The high point is on Mine Mountain in Bernardsville, at 860 feet above sea level. The lowest point is just above sea level on the Raritan River at the Middlesex County line. Somerset County borders the following counties: Morris County, New Jersey – north Union County, New Jersey – east Middlesex County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – south Hunterdon County, New Jersey – west In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Somerville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −16 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1955. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 4.83 inches in July. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 323,444 people, 117,759 households, 84,668.721 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,071.7 per square mile. There were 123,127 housing units at an average density of 408 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 70.06% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 14.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.01% of the population. There were 117,759 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 25% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.8 males. At the 2000 United States Census there were 297,490 people, 108,984 households and 78,359 families residing in the county.
The population density was 976 per square mile (377/
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups