Kingston loop line
The Kingston loop line is a railway line built by the London and South Western Railway in South West London. It runs in an overall southeasterly direction from a junction west of Twickenham on the Waterloo to Reading Line to join the South West Main Line west of New Malden; the five stations on the loop line are: Strawberry Hill Teddington Hampton Wick Kingston Norbiton. Between Strawberry Hill and Teddington a triangular junction connects the Shepperton Branch; the line opened as far as Kingston on 1 July 1863 from a flat junction west of Twickenham station. The line on to the station now named "New Malden" was opened in 1869; the Shepperton Branch was built in 1864 with its connection facing Twickenham, Strawberry Hill station was not opened until 1 December 1873. The connection at Twickenham was converted to a flying junction in 1882; the Shepperton Branch chord towards Teddington opened for freight on 1 July 1894 and was first used by passenger trains on 1 June 1901. The engine depot built inside the triangular junction in 1897 is now a base for Siemens to maintain EMUs for South Western Railway classes 450.
Teddington and Norbiton stations had adjacent goods yards. That at Malden or Coombe and Malden, as it was called before 1957, was accessed from the Kingston Loop as the station itself is on an embankment with the loop line junction grade-separated from the start. A long west-facing bay platform at Kingston has been used for past curtailments of the Shepperton service and allows reversal of trains coming via Twickenham when there is a closure east of Kingston of either the loop or the main line; the line was electrified by the L&SWR on the third rail system at 630 V DC in 1916
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
Kingston railway station (England)
Kingston railway station is in Kingston upon Thames in south-west London. It is 12 miles 9 chains down the line from London Waterloo; the station and all trains serving. It is in Travelcard Zone 6; the station opened on 1 July 1863 as "Kingston Town", to distinguish it from the earlier Kingston station on the South West Main Line. It was the terminus of the London & South Western Railway branch line from Twickenham; the platforms built when the line was prolonged in 1869 to connect to the South West Main Line were named "Kingston High Level". The Southern Railway rebuilt and unified the station in 1935. In August 2010 it was refurbished, with the entrance, but not the concourse, moving a few metres to face Wood Street instead of being at the corner formed by Wood Street and Richmond Road, the independent shop was replaced by a WHSmith and a Costa Coffee shop. In common with the 16 hourly off-peak closer commuter services to/from London Waterloo calling at Earlsfield railway station and all intermediate London stations all managed by South Western Railway, trains must stop at every intermediate station.
There are no fast services available to mid distance destinations, which gives overcapacity towards the more suburban termini due to the longer journey time and overcrowding during the inner city phase of journeys. This situation can be contrasted to certain other routes to destinations just outside Greater London in certain other directions. However, due to its location on the Kingston Loop Line, passengers can travel from Kingston to London via Twickenham. Ticket barriers are in operation; the station is in TfL Fare Zone 6, but there is an ongoing campaign for it to be rezoned to Zone 5. The two northern platforms are on the through tracks while the third, at the south, is a long west-facing bay, used for past curtailments of the Shepperton service and allows for reversal of trains coming via Twickenham on Sundays or when there is a closure east of Kingston of either the loop or the main line. Stairs and lifts give access to the platforms; the typical off-peak weekday service at Kingston in trains per hour is: 6 to Waterloo, of which: 4 run via Wimbledon 2 run via Richmond and Twickenham 2 to SheppertonOn Sundays, there are hourly services to Waterloo via Wimbledon & via Richmond and along the branch to Shepperton.
An additional hourly service to Waterloo via the Hounslow Loop Line starts/terminates here. No buses stop at the station entrance, but Cromwell Road bus station is less than two minutes walk away
Teddington is an affluent area of South West London, England. In Middlesex, it has been part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965. Teddington is on the north bank of the Thames, just after the start of a long meander, between Hampton Wick and Strawberry Hill, Twickenham. Residential, it stretches from the Thames to Bushy Park with a long high street of upmarket shops and pubs culminating in a pedestrian suspension bridge over the lowest non-tidal lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock. At Teddington's centre is a mid-rise urban development, containing offices and apartments. Teddington is bisected by an continuous road of shops and other facilities running from the river to Bushy Park. There are two clusters of offices on this route. Around Teddington station and the town centre are a number of offices in industries such as direct marketing and IT, which include Tearfund and BMT Limited. Several riverside businesses and houses were redeveloped in the last quarter of the 20th century as blocks of riverside flats.
As of 2016 the riverside site of the former Teddington Studios is being developed to provide modern apartment blocks and other smaller houses. The lowermost lock on the Thames, Teddington Lock, just within Ham's boundary, is accessible via the Teddington Lock Footbridges. In 2001 the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened the Teddington Lifeboat Station, one of four Thames lifeboat stations, below the lock on the Teddington side; the station is the only volunteer station on the river. The name "Teddington" comes from the name of Tuda; the place was known in Norman times as Todyngton and Tutington. There have been isolated findings of flint and bone tools from the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in Bushy Park and some unauthenticated evidence of Roman occupation. However, the first permanent settlement in Teddington was in Saxon times. Teddington was not mentioned in Domesday Book. Teddington Manor was first owned by Benedictine monks in Staines and it is believed they built a chapel dedicated to St. Mary on the same site as today's St. Mary's Church.
In 971, a charter gave the land in Teddington to the Abbey of Westminster. By the 14th century Teddington had a population of 100–200; the Hampton Court gardens were laid out in 1500 in preparation for the planned rebuilding of a 14th-century manor to form Hampton Court Palace in 1521 and were to serve as hunting grounds for Cardinal Wolsey and Henry VIII and his family. In 1540 some common land of Teddington was enclosed to form Bushy Park and acted as more hunting grounds. Bushy House was built in 1663, its notable residents included British Prime Minister Lord North who lived there for over twenty years. A large minority of the parish lay in communal open fields, restricted in the Middle Ages to certain villagers; these were inclosed in two phases, in 1800 and 1818. Shortly afterwards, the future William IV of the United Kingdom lived there with his mistress Dorothy Jordan before acceding to the throne, with his Queen Consort, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the facilities were converted into the National Physical Laboratory.
In subsequent centuries, Teddington enjoyed a prosperous life due to the proximity of royalty, by 1800 had grown significantly. But the "Little Ice Age" had made farming much less profitable and residents were forced to find other work; this change resulted in great economic change in the 19th century. The first major event was the construction of Teddington Lock in 1811 with its weir across the river; this was the first of five locks built at the time by the City of London Corporation. In 1889 Teddington Lock Footbridge, consisting of a suspension bridge section and a girder bridge section, was completed, linking Teddington to Ham, it was funded by local business and public subscription. After the railway was built in 1863, easy travel to Twickenham, Richmond and London was possible and Teddington experienced a population boom, rising from 1,183 in 1861 to 6,599 in 1881 and 14,037 in 1901. Many roads and houses were built, continuing into the 20th century, forming the close-knit network of Victorian and Edwardian streets present today.
In 1867, a local board was established and an urban district council in 1895. In 1864 a group of Christians left the Anglican Church of St. Mary's and formed their own independent and Reformed, Protestant-style, congregation at Christ Church, their original church building stood on. The Victorians attempted to build St. Alban's, based on the Notre Dame de Paris. In 1993 the temporary wall was replaced with a permanent one as part of a refurbishment that converted St Alban's Church into the Landmark Arts Centre, a venue for concerts and exhibitions. A new cemetery, Teddington Cemetery, opened at Shacklegate Lane in 1879. Several schools were built in Teddington in the late 19th century in response to the 1870 Education Act, putting over 2,000 children in schools by 1899, transforming the illiterate village. On 26 April 1913 a train was destroyed in Teddington after an arson attack by suffragettes. Great change took place around the turn of the 20th century in Teddington. Many new
London and South Western Railway
The London and South Western Railway was a railway company in England from 1838 to 1922. Starting as the London and Southampton Railway, its network extended from London to Plymouth via Salisbury and Exeter, with branches to Ilfracombe and Padstow and via Southampton to Bournemouth and Weymouth, it had many routes connecting towns in Hampshire and Berkshire, including Portsmouth and Reading. In the grouping of railways in 1923 the LSWR amalgamated with other railways to create the Southern Railway. Among significant achievements of the LSWR were the electrification of suburban lines, the introduction of power signalling, the development of Southampton Docks, the rebuilding of Waterloo Station as one of the great stations of the world, the handling of the massive traffic involved in the First World War. Spreading car ownership led to a rapid decline of passenger traffic in Devon and Cornwall from about 1960 to the end of that decade so short mid-distance-from-London branches and the remote peninsular sections of route closed under the Beeching Report, except the line to Penzance from Exeter which had since the outset been the main preserve of the Great Western Railway, chiefly due to that company's initial laying of track there and doing so on broad gauge and encouraging Devon and Cornish companies to do so under the'Gauge War'.
The London and South Western Railway originated as a renaming of the London and Southampton Railway, which opened in May 1840 to connect the port of Southampton with London. Its original London terminus was Nine Elms, on the south bank of the river Thames, the route being laid through Wimbledon, Woking and Winchester, using what became the standard track gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in; the railway was an immediate success, this encouraged the company to think of extensions, to Windsor, to Gosport and to Salisbury. The company saw potential from the area westward, which put it in direct competition with the Great Western Railway: it was important to secure lines and stations to seek to keep the competitor out; as the Great Western Railway used the broad gauge, any gauge adopted by independent smaller lines dictated their permissibility for joint running, this territorial competition became known as the gauge wars. The Nine Elms terminus was inconvenient to most Londoners and the line was extended north-eastwards to Waterloo via the Nine Elms to Waterloo Viaduct in 1848.
The Great Western Railway secured access early on to Exeter and Plymouth through its allied companies, the LSWR aspired to build its own competing route to reach Devon and Cornwall, which would offer considerable traffic potential. It made a slow start but had its own line from Basingstoke to Salisbury and Exeter, continuing by a northerly arc to Plymouth, to north Devon and north Cornwall. Coming than the Great Western to the area, it never achieved the solid prosperity there of its broad gauge neighbour; the Southampton line had been extended to Weymouth via Ringwood, the LSWR consolidated its home area building branches closer to London, direct lines to Portsmouth, to Reading. It became joint owner, with the Midland Railway, of the Somerset and Dorset Railway, responsible for infrastructure and coaching stock on the latterly famous route. Shipping became significant with passenger and freight services to the Channel Islands, to Saint-Malo in France, to the Isle of Wight. In the twentieth century, it embarked on a programme of electrifying the suburban routes, at 600 V DC using a third rail.
This covered the entire suburban area. Freight traffic from the West Country was important, but the emphasis on suburban electrification led to weaker development of steam traction for fast passenger and goods services to Devon and Cornwall, to Portsmouth and Weymouth. At the grouping of the railways, the LSWR amalgamated with other railways to create the Southern Railway, the independent Isle of Wight railways were absorbed, becoming part of the former LSWR section within the Southern Railway, its enlightened and unorthodox Chief Mechanical Engineer, Oliver Bulleid, put in hand the construction of a fleet of powerful express steam locomotives, the Merchant Navy class, followed by a larger fleet of so-called light pacifics, built with lighter axle loading to give access to branch lines with weaker track and bridge strengths. At the same time they revolutionised express passenger train speeds to Weymouth and the West Country, although their technical innovation incorporated a number of difficulties.
Electrification of the Portsmouth line was now carried out. Capital infrastructure works were undertaken, including the Feltham marshalling yard, major improvements to Southampton Docks and Waterloo station, a new locomotive workshop at Eastleigh, grade separated junctions on the main line, as well as signalling modernisation schemes. A concrete manufacturing works was established at Exmouth Junction producing standardised pre-cast components such as platform units, lamp posts and platelayers' huts. Nationalisation of the railways in 1948 brought little immediate change to the former LSWR system, now part of the Southern Operating Area of British Railways the Southern Region, although national centralisation of locomotive design made Bulleid's position untenable and he retired. However, in
Teddington Lock is a complex of three locks and a weir on the River Thames in England between Ham and Teddington in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was first built in 1810; the limit of legal powers between the Port of London Authority, the navigation authority downstream to the North Sea and that upstream to small headwaters of the river, the Environment Agency, is marked nearby by an obelisk on the "Surrey" bank. The weir named Teddington Weir is the lowest on the Thames; this lock is the lowest full-tide lock and second lowest of all-tide locks on the Thames. The complex of civil engineering or infrastructure in essence consists of a large long weir and three locks: a conventional launch lock in regular use large barge lock and a small skiff lock; the barge lock was made to accommodate long barges, steamers or passenger ferries and has an additional set of gates half-way to operate more for shorter craft. The staggered structures incorporate two reinforced narrow islands; the upper island is traversed by and accessible by Teddington Lock Footbridge.
The greater lock is against the general south bank of the river, for 500 m north-east here. The river downstream of the lock is the Richmond and Twickenham reach of the Tideway, a 3.2-mile reach of semi-tidal river due to the fact the Richmond Lock and half-tide barrages limits the fall of water thereby maintaining a head of water to aid navigability at and around low tide. Though the weir at Teddington Weir marks the managed river's usual tidal limit, after prolonged rainfall causing high fluvial flow at high tide, a higher limit of slack water causes eddies to arise as far upstream as the top of this reach, the next lock; the large, bow-shaped Teddington Weir is against the opposite bank. A series of two footbridges at differing heights make up a structure which crosses the locks, the middle island that has the lock keeper's cabin and the weir pool, Teddington Lock Footbridge; the Navigation Act obtained in April 1771 by the Thames Navigation Commission did not allow them to build locks below Maidenhead Bridge, but from 1802, several plans for locks in the First District of the Thames, stretching from Staines to Teddington, were drawn up.
Stephen Leach took over the post of Clerk of Works for the First District in 1802, following the retirement of Charles Truss at the age of 82. Just before his retirement, Truss proposed locks at Molesey and Teddington, each having a weir with long tumbling bays, similar to modern practice. John Rennie had suggested a series of long cuts in 1794, Truss adopted the same idea. Rennie and William Jessop again proposed four long cuts in 1805, each about 1.5 miles, but the Navigation Committee were thwarted by strong opposition from landowners. Zacchary Allnutt, by Surveyor for the Second and Third Districts, stretching from Staines to Mapledurham near Reading, suggested locks at Chertsey and Teddington in 1805. Rennie submitted new proposals in 1809 for nine locks between Twickenham. Leach drafted plans in 1810, which he suggested were "at once practicable and expedient, the least expensive, the most to pass through Parliament without opposition and yet calculated to remedy the most prominent evils complained of."
An Act of Parliament was obtained by the City of London Corporation in June 1810, which authorised construction of locks and weirs at Chertsey, Shepperton and Teddington. Each would be 150 by 20 feet with the associated weirs having ample capacity for flood conditions. Rennie and the Navigation Committee visited the sites in July, to finalise the positioning of the lock. Leach took charge of the work, undertaken by contractors Joseph Kimber and John Dows who built Sunbury Lock. Work at Teddington started in September 1810, but there were delays caused by flooding in November and December, Leach awarded the contractors an extra £500; the lock was finished and opened in June 1811. The cofferdam protecting the works would need to be removed as river levels rose in the winter, which would have delayed completion until the following July, so again Leach stepped in, awarding advance payments to the contractors, which enabled them to finish on time; the lock was further upstream than the present lock complex at the point where the footbridge now crosses.
It comprised three pairs of gates as stipulated in the act. Total cost for lock, weir and ground was £22,035 10s. 7 1⁄2d. of which the land from Lord Dysart's estate cost £282 10s. 5d.. The lock was, at first unpopular with the local fishermen and bargemen. After attempts to smash it, the lock keeper was granted permission to keep "a blunderbuss with bayonet attached thereto" to ward off attacks. By 1827 the timber lock needed considerable repair and in 1829 the weir was destroyed by an accumulation of ice, it is noted. At that time steam vessels were limited to travel as far as Richmond; as built, the lock had timber sides up to normal head water level, turf above that. The crest of the weir was 3.5 feet above low water level at Teddington, but following the removal of the piers of old London Bridge in 1832, the drop increased
Richmond Railway Bridge
Richmond Railway Bridge in Richmond, south-west London crosses the River Thames upstream of Twickenham Bridge. It carries National Rail services operated by South West Trains on the Waterloo to Reading Line, lies between Richmond and St. Margarets stations. After the railway came to Richmond station in 1846, the line was extended to Windsor. Joseph Locke and J E Errington designed the original bridge – and a similar bridge at Barnes – with three 100-foot cast iron girders supported on stone-faced land arches with two stone-faced river piers. Due to concerns over its structural integrity, the bridge was rebuilt in 1908 reusing the existing piers and abutments to a design by the London & South Western Railway's chief engineer, J W Jacomb-Hood; the main bridge girders and decking were replaced in 1984. The bridge and the approach viaduct, which crosses Richmond's Old Deer Park, was declared a Grade II listed structure in 2008, providing protection to preserve its special character from unsympathetic development.
Crossings of the River Thames List of bridges in London www.touruk.co.uk — Richmond Railway Bridge Science and Society Picture Library – Locke's bridge Coordinates: 51°27′36″N 0°18′49″W