J. Lee Thompson
John Lee Thompson, better known as J. Lee Thompson, was a British film director, active in London and Hollywood. Murder Without Crime was mostly ignored upon release, Thompsons first movie success was one he directed and co-wrote, The Yellow Balloon, the story of a child who is blackmailed into helping a criminal after accidentally causing his friends death. The Weak and the Wicked, portrays the lives of women in prison and is based on memoirs by Joan Henry, Thompson earned a reputation in Britain for social dramas besides occasional comedies and musicals. He was also known for collaborating with top British actors, the late 1950s continued Thompsons kitchen sink dramas, focusing on plights of the average Briton. Woman in a Dressing Gown, with Yvonne Mitchell, Anthony Quayle, the Good Companions gives a dour, semi-musical view of the theatrical world. Hayley Mills also earned a BAFTA for Most Promising Newcomer in Tiger Bay, Thompson vaulted to international fame with The Guns of Navarone as a last-minute replacement for director Alexander Mackendrick. His take-charge attitude during its production earned him the nickname Mighty Mouse from lead actor Gregory Peck, the Guns of Navarone, a World War II epic filmed on location in Rhodes, Greece, was nominated for seven Academy Awards including Thompson for Best Director. The success of that won him entry into Hollywood, where he directed Cape Fear, a psychological thriller with Gregory Peck, Robert Mitchum, Polly Bergen. Based on a novel called The Executioners by John D. MacDonald, Cape Fear shows how a sex offender can manipulate the justice system and terrorise an entire family. Highly controversial for its time, the film was cut heavily in both the United States and UK. Thompson maintained a career in Hollywood through the 1960s, 70s. Thompson also proved capable of working in different genres, including Western, espionage, while in the US, he continued to dabble with British productions such as Return from the Ashes and Country Dance AKA Brotherly Love. In the late 1970s and 1980s, Thompsons reputation declined, one musical film foray was Huckleberry Finn starring Jeff East and Paul Winfield. He became a favourite of action star Charles Bronson, pairing up in the Warner Bros. crime story St. Ives, a western called The White Buffalo. Other titles included The Evil That Men Do, The Ambassador, King Solomons Mines, several of these films were edited by Thompsons son Peter. Thompson died of heart failure on 30 August 2002, at his vacation home in Sooke, British Columbia, Canada. Lee Thompson at the British Film Institutes Screenonline J. Lee Thompson at the Internet Movie Database
Charles Bronson was an American film and television actor. He starred in such as Once Upon a Time in the West, The Magnificent Seven, The Dirty Dozen, The Great Escape, Rider on the Rain, The Mechanic. He was often cast in the role of an officer, gunfighter. He had long collaborations with film directors Michael Winner and J. Lee Thompson, in 1965, he was featured as Major Wolenski in Battle of the Bulge. His father was a Lithuanian immigrant and his mother was an American of Lithuanian descent and his father, Valteris P. Bučinskis, hailed from the town of Druskininkai. Bronsons mother, Mary Valinsky, whose parents were from Lithuania, was born in the mining town of Tamaqua. He learned to speak English when he was a teenager, before that, Bronson was the first member of his family to graduate from high school. When Bronson was 10 years old, his father died, Young Charles went to work in the coal mines, first in the mining office and then in the mine. He later said he earned one dollar for each ton of coal that he mined and he worked in the mine until he entered military service during World War II. His family was so poor that at one time, he said and he flew 25 missions and received a Purple Heart for wounds received in battle. After the end of World War II, Bronson worked at odd jobs until joining a theatrical group in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He later shared an apartment in New York City with Jack Klugman while both were aspiring to play on the stage, in 1950, he married and moved to Hollywood, where he enrolled in acting classes and began to find small roles. Bronsons first film role — an uncredited one — was as a sailor in Youre in the Navy Now in 1951, other early screen appearances were in Pat and Mike, Miss Sadie Thompson and House of Wax. In 1952, Bronson boxed in a ring with Roy Rogers in Rogers show Knockout and he appeared on an episode of The Red Skelton Show as a boxer in a skit with Skelton playing Cauliflower McPugg. He also had a part credited as Charles Buchinsky in a western named Riding Shotgun, in 1954, Bronson made a strong impact in Drum Beat as a murderous Modoc warrior, Captain Jack, who relishes wearing the tunics of soldiers he has killed. In 1957, Bronson was cast in the Western series Colt.45 as an outlaw named Danny Arnold in the episode Young Gun. He scored the lead in his own ABCs detective series Man with a Camera, in which he portrayed Mike Kovac, Bronson starred alongside Elizabeth Montgomery in a Twilight Zone episode. He appeared in five episodes of Richard Boones Have Gun – Will Travel, in 1958, he was cast in his first lead film role in Roger Cormans Machine-Gun Kelly, followed by the lead role in the World War II film When Hell Broke Loose later the same year
Margaret Ann Peggy Lipton is an American actress and former model. Lipton was married to the musician/producer Quincy Jones and is mother to their two daughters, Rashida Jones and Kidada Jones, who became actresses. Born in New York on August 30,1946, Lipton was raised in a comfortably upper-middle-class Jewish family, Liptons parents were Harold Lipton, a corporate lawyer, and Rita Benson, an artist. Her paternal grandparents were Russian Jews, and her mother was born in Dublin, Lipton was raised on Long Island with her brothers, Robert, who became an actor, and Kenneth. She attended Lawrence Junior High School and the Professional Childrens School, sexually abused by an uncle, Lipton was a nervous, withdrawn child. She had a stutter that at times prevented her from saying her own name, in 1964, the family moved to Los Angeles, there Lipton became what she described as a Topanga Canyon hippie, exploring meditation and yoga, and subsisting on rice cakes and cottage cheese. Liptons father arranged her first modeling jobs in New York, while her mother encouraged her to take acting lessons, at 15, Lipton became a Ford Agency model and enjoyed a successful early career. After she and her family moved to Los Angeles in 1964 and she made her television debut at age 19 in the NBC sitcom The John Forsythe Show. Between 1965 and 1968, she appeared in episodes of the series, Bewitched, The Virginian, The Invaders, The Road West. Walt Disneys Willie and the Yank, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, Liptons star rose on The Mod Squad. In 1971, she won a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Actress in a Drama. Thin with long, straight, ash blonde hair, clad in mini-skirts, bell bottoms, and love beads, Liptons Julie Barnes became a fashion icon and the hip it girl of her time. As a singer she enjoyed success, with three of her singles landing on the Billboard charts, Stoney End and Lu, both written by Laura Nyro. Her Wear Your Love Like Heaven was written by Donovan, Stoney End is included in her 1968 album Peggy Lipton, which was released on CD on July 29,2014 by RealGone Music, along with other singles and previously unreleased material. Lipton is listed as one of several co-writers of the Frank Sinatra 1984 hit, in 1988, Lipton returned to acting. She gained attention for her performance as Norma Jennings in the popular TV series Twin Peaks and has appeared in many TV shows, including recurring roles in Crash. In 2017 she will reprise her character of Norma Jennings in the series of Twin Peaks. During the late 1960s and the early 1970s, Lipton had relationships with a series of alcoholic, abusive, during this time, she also used drugs
The Cannon Group, Inc.
The Cannon Group, Inc. was an American group of companies, including Cannon Films, which produced a distinctive line of low-to medium-budget films from 1967 to 1994. Cannon Films was incorporated on October 23,1967 and it was formed by Dennis Friedland and Chris Dewey while they were in their early 20s. They had immediate success producing English-language versions of Swedish soft porn films directed by Joseph W. Sarno, Inga, aka Jag - en oskuld and To Ingrid, My Love, Lisa, aka Kvinnolek. By 1970, they had produced films on a production scale than a lot of major distributors, such as Joe. They managed this by limiting their budgets to $300,000 per picture—or less. However, as the 1970s moved on, a string of unsuccessful movies seriously drained Cannon’s capital and this, along with changes to film-production tax laws, led to a drop in Cannons stock price. By 1979, Cannon had hit financial difficulties, and Friedland and Dewey sold Cannon to Israeli cousins Menahem Golan. The two cousins forged a business model of buying bottom-barrel scripts and putting them into production and they tapped into a ravenous market for action B-pictures in the 1980s. Although they are most remembered for the Death Wish sequels and Chuck Norris action pictures such as The Delta Force, one of Cannon’s biggest hits was the Vietnam action B-movie Missing in Action, with Chuck Norris. The film, however, was criticized heavily as being a preemptive cash-in on the Rambo film series, james Camerons story treatment for Rambo, First Blood Part II was floating around Hollywood in 1983, which Golan and Globus reviewed and were inspired by. The writers of MIA even gave Cameron credit saying their film was inspired by his script treatment, but Cannon had initially put the prequel Missing in Action 2, The Beginning into production. Only after the two movies were completed had the company realized that the second movie was superior to the first one. So, the first movie produced became an awkward prequel, substantial pre-sales of the next years films were made based on the strong salesmanship skills of Globus, and the advertising created by Design Projects. Slavenburgs Bank in the Netherlands provided bridge financing until the pre-sales amounts were collected, by 1986, when company earnings reached their apex with 43 films in one year, Cannon Films shares had soared a hundredfold. Golan remained Chairman of the Board, while Globus served as President, during this year, Cannon Films released Robotech, The Movie for a limited run in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Cannon was reportedly unsatisfied with Carl Macek’s first version of the movie and it was at their insistence that footage from The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Megazone 23 be spliced together to produce a more action-oriented movie. Macek recalls that although he was unhappy with this version, Menahem Golan, after viewing it, happily said. Nevertheless, Robotech, The Movie was unsuccessful in its brief Texas run, Carl Macek has gone on record as disowning it
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or also accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, there, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common