Duffus is a village in Moray, Scotland. The Duffus Village Inn, the local shop, Post Office and Duffus Village Hall provide a focal point for the community. Nearby are the remains of Duffus Castle, St. Peters' Kirk, Spynie Palace. Duffus has won numerous awards, including "Best Kept Small Village in the North of Scotland". To the east side is Gordonstoun School which covers over 150 acres; the name of the village Duffus derives from the lands of Duffus in Scotland. What is now known as Duffus Parish encompasses the lands of the ancient Barony of Duffus and comprises 9,565 acres; the Duffus name has undergone a variety of spelling changes through the years. The name is a compilation of two Gaelic words and uisg, meaning "darkwater" or "blackwater". At one time, the region was below sea-level and the Loch of Spynie and stagnant pools of water were a conspicuous feature of the area; the current village called New Duffus, is a grid plan village established as a planned settlement in 1811. This replaced an earlier medieval settlement which lay 0.4 kilometres to the east, of which only the ruined Old Parish Church remains.
A church was first founded on the site of Duffus Old Parish Church in the 9th century as a replacement for the church of St Aethan within Burghead Fort, destroyed by the Vikings. The parish of Duffus included Burghead, its dedication to Saint Peter may reflect an emulation by the Pictish Kingdom of Fortriu of the common Early Medieval pattern – seen at Bamburgh and Canterbury – of giving this dedication to a Kingdom's primary centre of Royal power. Duffus was the base of the regionally powerful de Moravia family during the High Middle Ages; the family was of Flemish origin. Freskin de Moravia came north from his lands in Lothian as part of an army of David I to put down another rebellion by the men of Moray. At his side, soon to be a neighbor, was the ancestor of the Innes'; the annual Duffus Village Gala provides a host of activities for villagers and nearby settlements, starting with the crowning of the Rose Queen, Rose Prince & Rosebud. Duffus family website www.duffus.com Gilbert de Moravia Andreas de Moravia Walter de Moravia Fearchar, Earl of Ross Nechtan IV of the Picts Duffus Castle Duffus - Sept of Sutherland Barrow, G.
W. S; the Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1 Walker, David W.. Aberdeenshire: North and Moray; the Buildings of Scotland. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300204285
Dallas is a small rural village in Moray, south west of Elgin. It has a population of between 150 and 200. Dallas is known locally as having a good community spirit, it holds an ambitious village Gala every July in which local girls are picked to be the Gala Queen and her attendants. The village will hold events daily including a games day which involves an race through the village in wheelbarrows or prams followed by "It's a knockout" style team games; the gala is a bigger event than might be expected for such a small village, attracts many visitors from surrounding areas. There is a lot of forestry in this region; the gardens of Dallas Lodge are open to the public. The Church of St. Michael in the village dates from 1793, but is built on the site of an earlier church known from records to have been in existence in 1226. William Anderson VC, a World War I recipient of the Victoria Cross, was born in Dallas. Dallas Castle is standing, with only one small wall remaining. Tradition says. Secondary students are in the catchment zone of Forres Academy in Forres.
Dallas website Gazetteer of Scotland: Dallas Dallas Church
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Robert Reid (bishop)
Robert Reid was Abbot of Kinloss, Commendator-prior of Beauly, Bishop of Orkney. He was born at Aikenhead in the son of John Reid and Elizabeth Schanwell, his formal education began in 1511 at St Salvator's College in St Andrews University under the supervision of his uncle, Robert Schanwell, dean of the faculty of arts. Reid graduated in 1515 and by 1524 was subdean at Elgin Cathedral where, by 1527, was Official of Moray. Thomas Chrystall, the abbot of Kinloss chose Reid as his successor in 1526. In 1527, as abbot-designate, he attended the court of Pope Clement VII on abbacy business. While returning via Paris in 1528, Reid met the Piedmontese humanist scholar Giovanni Ferrerio who accompanied him back to Scotland. Following Chrystall's resignation in July 1528, Reid was blessed as abbot in September and received the Priory of Beauly, in commendam, in 1531. In that same year, Ferrerio left the court of James V to join Reid at Kinloss as tutor to the monks of both Kinloss and Beauly. Reid held many offices of state between 1532 and 1542 including ambassadorial roles to England and France and as a senior law official.
He improved the external and internal fabric of both monasteries in 1538. In the spring of 1541, James V nominated Reid to the vacant bishopric of Orkney with his consecration taking place in late November. King James died in 1542 and James Hamilton, Earl of Arran was appointed regent during Queen Mary's minority. Bishop Reid aligned himself with Cardinal Beaton in his dislike of the pro-English stance of Arran. Beaton's resistance to the regent's viewpoint led to his arrest and the cardinal's supporters chose Reid to negotiate with Arran for Beaton's release in 1543. Reid's attempts were rejected but the cardinal's freedom was restored. Despite his support of Beaton, Reid was elected to the influential Lord of the Articles committee of parliament; this position brought with it membership of the regent's privy council. Parliament approved the Treaty of Greenwich, concluded in July 1543, that would pave the way to a betrothal between Queen Mary and Prince Edward of England. On 11 December, a renunciation of the treaty was passed by parliament and resulted in the English King Edward's declaration of war on Scotland that lasted nearly eight years and came to be known as the Rough Wooing.
In August 1544, Bishop Reid travelled to Kirkwall's St Magnus Cathedral, the seat of his Orkney bishopric and began structural improvements to the diocesan buildings and reforms to the cathedral chapter. Reid became President of the Court of Justice in February 1549, he relinquished his abbacy of Kinloss to his nephew Walter Reid in 1550 and that same year sat at the heresy trial of Adam Wallace. His services continued to be in demand and in June 1551 he was a commissioner appointed to treat for peace with England. In May 1554, Reid was a curator to the young Queen Mary. Shortly before embarking for France to attend the Queen's wedding to the Dauphin in 1558, Reid made out his last will and testament that allowed for a college to be established in Edinburgh, to consist of grammar and law schools with all necessary accommodation. Reid's ship was wrecked near Boulogne but both he and his fellow commissioner, the Earl of Rothes, survived to witness the royal marriage at Nôtre-Dame Cathedral. On reaching Dieppe on his journey home and fellow commissioners fell ill and on 6 September 1558 he died and was buried in Dieppe's church of St Jacques.
Robert Reid's date of birth is unrecorded but he began his university education in 1511 and like most students of the time, entry occurred between the ages of twelve and fifteen—this would have placed his probable year of birth between 1496 and 1499. Robert's parents, John Reid and Elizabeth Schanwell had six children of whom, Robert was the third born—his two older brothers were David and James, his three younger sisters were Christian and Margaret. Elizabeth Schanwell had at least three siblings—John who became abbot of Couper Angus, William, a secular cleric, Robert who, in 1501 was Vicar of Kircaldy and Dean of the faculty of arts at St Andrews University from 1512 to 1517. From 1517 to 1519 Robert Schanwell served as Deputy Rector of the University. Reid entered St Salvator's College in St Andrews University in 1511 during the period that his uncle, Robert Schanwell, held high office. Under the tutelage of Hugh Spens, Professor of Sacred Theology, he graduated as a Batchelor of Arts in 1513 or 1514 followed by his Master of Arts on 28 May 1515.
St Salvador's College introduced the study of canon law as part of the curriculum in 1500 when it required that a Bachelor of Canon Law deliver three lectures per week. Hugh Spens had become a Doctor of Canon Law in 1508 but it was not until 1538 that degrees in civil law were offeredBy the 1430s, for those aspiring to the higher echelons of the church or service to the king, or both, a postgraduate degree in canon or civil law was essential. Reid is always described as being a postgraduate law student at the University of Paris but no record of this has been uncovered. Moreover, Reid's future distinguished law career with expertise in both canon and civil law would rule out Paris as it was barred from offering civil law. Instead, other universities provided this discipline. Reid was appointed as a Notary public in the diocese of Moray in 1518 and described as a court procurator in Fife and as a cleric of St Andrews diocese, both in 1519. In 1520, he acted as a notary public of St Andrews diocese.
He was subdean in the Diocese of Moray
Royal Air Force Kinloss or RAF Kinloss is a former Royal Air Force station located near the village of Kinloss, on the Moray Firth in the north east of Scotland. The RAF station opened on 1 April 1939 and served as a training establishment during the Second World War. After the war it was handed over to Coastal Command to monitor Russian ships and submarines in the Norwegian Sea; until 2010 it was the main base for the RAF's fleet of Nimrod MR2 maritime patrol aircraft. It was intended that the MR2 would be replaced by the Nimrod MRA4, but the MRA4 was cancelled in the Strategic Defence and Security Review of October 2010; as a result Kinloss became surplus to RAF requirements and regular flying operations ceased on 31 July 2011. However, the runways have been be maintained and are used as a relief landing site by Eurofighter Typhoons from nearby RAF Lossiemouth. In November 2011, the Ministry of Defence and 12 Engineer Group of the British Army announced that 930 personnel from 39 Engineer Regiment would move from Waterbeach Barracks, near Cambridge, to Kinloss in summer 2012.
The first personnel of 39 Engineer Regiment arrived in June 2012, with the majority arriving in July 2012. On 26 July 2012 at 12:00 pm. the RAF Ensign was lowered for the last time, replaced by the flag of 39 Engineer Regiment to become Kinloss Barracks. The area around Kinloss was surveyed in 1937 for the purposes of identifying land to establishing a new flying training school for the Royal Air Force. In January 1938, 151.9 ha of agricultural land was compulsorily purchased at Kinloss Home Farm, Easter Langcot, Wester Langcot, Doon Park and Muirton. Contractor Mowlem began work in March 1938, with several farm buildings being demolished and land cleared. By August 1938, construction of three C-type hangars, support buildings and airmen's wooden hut accommodation was under-way, along with the laying out of three grass surfaced runways, each 3,301 ft long. RAF Kinloss opened on 1 April 1939 as part of No. 21 Group, with Group Captain Arthur Peck being the first commander of the station. Many personnel who were posted to Kinloss were unaware of the station and were surprised at how far north it was located.
The northerly latitude of the station earned it the nickname within the RAF of'Ice Station Kilo', after the 1968 espionage film Ice Station Zebra. No. 14 Flying Training School was soon established from No. 8 FTS personnel based at RAF Montrose. It was equipped with thirty-eight Airspeed Oxfords and twenty-six Hawker Harts and Audaxes; the first aircraft, an Oxford with serial N4584, arrived on 9th May 1939, with the first student aircrews arriving on 13 May. In August 1939 North American Harvards replaced the Harts. October 1939 saw the addition of ten Avro Ansons and six Harts from the disbanded No. 13 FTS, based at RAF Drem in East Lothian. In late 1939, the station hosted detachments of Armstrong Whitworth Whitleys of No. 10, 51, 77 and 102 Squadrons. The aircraft were taking part in operations against German U-boats operating in the north Atlantic. In December that year, Supermarine Spitfires of No. 609 Squadron were temporarily based at Kinloss whilst tasked with defending vessels of the Home Fleet moored in Loch Ewe.
No. 45 Maintenance Unit was established on 15 April 1940, the role of, to store and fit-out new aircraft before they were forwarded to front-line squadrons. The unit's first aircraft, a Harvard, arrived on 31 May 1940. A large number of aircraft types were stored at Kinloss during 1940 including, Hawker Audax, Hawker Hind, Hawker Hart, De Havilland Tiger Moth, Handley Page Harrow, Miles Magister, Airspeed Envoy, Bristol Blenhiem, Airspeed Oxford, Hawker Hector, Avro Tutor, Westland Wallace and Whitley, Spitfire Vickers Wellington and Handley Page Halifax. By October 1940 the unit had 440 personnel; the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in April 1940 led to an increase in operational activity at Kinloss and other Scottish airfields. As a result, No. 14 FTS moved south to RAF Cranfield in Bedfordshire on 20 April 1940. A detachment of No. 77 and 109 Squadron Whitleys from RAF Driffield returned the same month to undertake bombing missions in Norway, departing Kinloss in May. Kinloss was transferred to No. 4 Group on 27 May 1940, at the time part of RAF Bomber Command.
At the same time No. 19 Operational Training unit was formed and tasked with training aircrews on heavy bomber aircraft before deployment onto operational squadrons. The unit was equipped with 48 Whitleys and 16 Avro Anstons and the first training courses began in June 1940. By 1941 Kinloss was overcrowded with aircraft belonging to 45 MU and 19 OTU, therefore a satellite station was constructed at Balnageith, to the south west of the nearby town of Forres; the satellite, known as RAF Forres, opened on 25 January 1941, with'D' flight of 19 OTU and their Whitleys moving in on 27 April 1941 and'C' flight following on 13 May 1941. Despite this Kinloss continued to struggle to accommodate all 45 MU's aircraft. To relieve pressure on space, two satellite landing grounds were established to store aircraft off-site in August 1941; these were at RAF Dornoch near Dornoch and RAF Kirkton near Golspie, located 23 and 27 miles away across the Moray Firth respectively. During the summer of 1942, Kinloss's grass runways were replaced with permanent paved runways, with the main runway extended to 1,828m and two secondary runways constructed.
This allowed a wide range of aircraft types to use Kinloss as a diversion airfield when their home stations further south were closed due to poor weather. By the end of 1943, around 350 aircraft were stored by 45 MU. Throughout the war there was a high number of aircraft from Kinloss crashed resulting in
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
Dipple is a village in the Parish of Speymouth, in Moray, Scotland 8 miles east of Elgin and is located on the west bank of the River Spey. The village was once the location of a rectory dedicated to the Holy Ghost; the name Dipple is derived from the Gaelic word Diopal, meaning side of a hill