Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland and architecturally. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an intrusive crag, which forms part of the Stirling Sill geological formation, it is surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs. Its strategic location, guarding what was, until the 1890s, the farthest downstream crossing of the River Forth, has made it an important fortification in the region from the earliest times. Most of the principal buildings of the castle date from the sixteenth centuries. A few structures of the fourteenth century remain, while the outer defences fronting the town date from the early eighteenth century. Before the union with England, Stirling Castle was one of the most used of the many Scottish royal residences much a palace as well as a fortress. Several Scottish Kings and Queens have been crowned at Stirling, including Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1542, others were born or died there. There have been at least eight sieges of Stirling Castle, including several during the Wars of Scottish Independence, with the last being in 1746, when Bonnie Prince Charlie unsuccessfully tried to take the castle.
Stirling Castle is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, is now a tourist attraction managed by Historic Environment Scotland. Castle Hill, on which Stirling Castle is built, forms part of the Stirling Sill, a formation of quartz-dolerite around 350 million years old, subsequently modified by glaciation to form a "crag and tail", it is that this natural feature was occupied at an early date, as a hill fort is located on Gowan Hill to the east. The Romans bypassed Stirling, building a fort at Doune instead, but the rock may have been occupied by the Maeatae at this time, it may have been a stronghold of the Manaw Gododdin, has been identified with a settlement recorded in the 7th and 8th centuries as Iudeu, where King Penda of Mercia besieged King Oswy of Bernicia in 655. The area came under Pictish control after the defeat of the Northumbrians at the Battle of Dun Nechtain thirty years later. However, there is no archaeological evidence for occupation of Castle Hill before the late medieval period. Other legends have been associated with Stirling.
The 16th-century historian Hector Boece claims in his Historia Gentis Scotorum that the Romans, under Agricola, fortified Stirling, that Kenneth MacAlpin, traditionally the first King of Scotland, besieged a castle at Stirling during his takeover of the Pictish kingdom in the 9th century. Boece is, considered an unreliable historian. Another chronicler, William Worcester, associated Stirling with the court of the legendary King Arthur. Tradition suggests that St Monenna founded a chapel here, as she is said to have done at Edinburgh Castle, although it is now thought that the legend of Monenna results from a confusion of early Christian figures, including Modwenna and Moninne; the first record of Stirling Castle dates from around 1110, when King Alexander I dedicated a chapel there. It appears to have been an established royal centre by this time, as Alexander died here in 1124. During the reign of his successor David I, Stirling became a royal burgh, the castle an important administration centre.
King William I formed a deer park to the south-west of the castle, but after his capture by the English in 1174, he was forced to surrender several castles, including Stirling and Edinburgh Castle, under the Treaty of Falaise. There is no evidence that the English occupied the castle, it was formally handed back by Richard I of England in 1189. Stirling continued to be a favoured royal residence, with William himself dying there in 1214, Alexander III laying out the New Park, for deer hunting, in the 1260s. Stirling remained a centre of royal administration until the death of Alexander III in 1286, his passing triggered a succession crisis, with Edward I of England invited to arbitrate between competing claimants. Edward came north in 1291, demanding that Stirling, along with the other royal castles, be put under his control during the arbitration. Edward gave judgement in favour of John Balliol, hoping he would be a "puppet" ruler, but John refused to obey Edward's demands. In 1296, Edward invaded Scotland, beginning the Wars of Scottish Independence, which would last for the next 60 years.
The English found Stirling Castle abandoned and empty, set about occupying this key site. They were dislodged the following year, after the victory of Andrew Moray and William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Many of the garrison were killed during the battle, after which the English commanders William FitzWarin and Marmaduke Thweng retreated into the castle. However, they were starved into surrender by the Scots. Next summer, the castle changed hands again, being abandoned by the Scots after the English victory at Falkirk. Edward strengthened the castle. King Edward failed to relieve the garrison. By 1303, the English again held the upper hand, Stirling was the last remaining castle in Scottish hands. Edward's army arrived with at least 17 siege engines; the Scots, under William Oliphant, surrendered on 20 July, but part of the garrison were ordered back into the castle by Edward, as he had not yet deployed his latest engine, "Warwolf". Warwolf is believed to have been a large trebuchet.
Although Edward's victory seemed complete, he was dead by 1307, Robert Bruce was now King of Scots. By 1313, only Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick castles were held by the English. Edward Bruce, the king's brother, laid siege
Henry I, Duke of Guise
Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, sometimes called Le Balafré, was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI. In 1576 he founded the Catholic League to prevent the heir, King Henry of Navarre, head of the Huguenot movement, from succeeding to the French throne. A key figure in the French Wars of Religion, he was one of the namesakes of the War of the Three Henrys. A powerful opponent of the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, he was assassinated by the bodyguards of her son, King Henry III, he succeeded his father in 1563 as Duke of Grand Maître de France. He fought the Turks in Hungary in 1565, on his return, he became one of the leaders of the Catholic faction in the French Wars of Religion, he fought at the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1567, Battle of Jarnac defended Poitiers during a siege and fought at the Battle of Moncontour.
His love affair with Margaret of Valois in 1570 offended her brother, Charles IX of France and the Queen Mother, Catherine de' Medici, but his marriage to Catherine of Cleves restored his fortunes. Considering the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny the architect of his father's assassination during the siege of Orléans in 1563, he is a suspect in the murder of the Admiral in August 1572; this was followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre which took place on the occasion of Margaret's marriage to the Huguenot, Henry of Navarre. Henry was wounded at the Battle of Dormans on 10 October 1575, was thereafter known, like his father, as "Le Balafré". With a charismatic and brilliant public reputation, he rose to heroic stature among the Catholic population of France as an opponent of the Huguenots. In 1576 he formed the Catholic League; the talent and dash of Guise contrasted favorably with the vacillation and weakness of Henry III. He was said to cast eyes on the throne; this led to the stage of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries.
However, at the death in 1584 of Francis, Duke of Anjou, the king's brother, Guise concluded the Treaty of Joinville with Philip II of Spain. This compact declared that the Cardinal de Bourbon should succeed Henry III, in preference to Henry of Navarre. Henry III now sided with the Catholic League. Guise sent his cousin Duke of Aumale, to lead a rising in Picardy. Alarmed, Henry III ordered Guise to remain in Champagne; the League now controlled France. But Henry III refused to be treated as a mere cipher by the League, decided upon a bold stroke. On 22 December 1588, Guise spent the night with his current mistress Charlotte de Sauve, the most accomplished and notorious member of Catherine de' Medici's group of female spies known as the "Flying Squadron"; the following morning at the Château de Blois, Guise was summoned to attend the king, was at once assassinated by "the Forty-five", the king's bodyguard, as Henry III looked on. Guise's brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, was assassinated the next day.
The deed aroused such outrage among the remaining relatives and allies of Guise that Henry III was forced to take refuge with Henry of Navarre. Henry III was assassinated the following year by an agent of the Catholic League. According to Baltasar Gracian in A Pocket Mirror for Heroes, it was once said of him to Henry III, "Sire, he does good wholeheartedly: those who do not receive his good influence directly receive it by reflection; when deeds fail him, he resorts to words. There is no wedding he does not enliven, no baptism at which he is not godfather, no funeral he does not attend, he is courteous, generous, the honorer of all and the detractor of none. In a word, he is a king by affection, just as Your Majesty is by law." The Duke of Guise appears as an archetypal Machiavellian schemer in Christopher Marlowe's The Massacre at Paris, written about 20 years after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the death of the duke is mentioned, by the ghost of Machiavelli himself, in the opening lines of The Jew of Malta.
He appears in its sequel, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois. John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee wrote The Duke of Guise, based on events during the reign of Henry III of France, he appears by Madame de La Fayette. He appears in Voltaire's epic poem "La Henriade", he is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas's novel La Reine Margot and its sequels, La Dame de Monsoreau and The Forty-Five Guardsmen. Stanley Weyman's novel A Gentleman of France includes the Duke of Guise in its tale about the War of the Three Henries. Ken Follett's novel A Column of Fire features Henry, Duke of Guise as a prominent character, explores his involvement with the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; the Duke is a leading character in the play The Massacre at Paris, by Christopher Marlowe. George Onslow's 1837 opera Le duc de Guise deals with the duke's assassination. L'Assassinat du Duc de Guise, Op. 128, first shown at the Salle Charras in Paris on 16 November 1908, was the first film to include a score written by a well-known classical comp
Marjoram is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. In some Middle Eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano, there the names sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram are used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum, it is called pot marjoram, although this name is used for other cultivated species of Origanum. Marjoram is indigenous to Cyprus and southern Turkey, was known to the Greeks and Romans as a symbol of happiness; the name marjoram does not directly derive from the Latin word maior. Leaves are smooth, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, 0.5–1.5 cm long, 0.2–0.8 cm wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, symmetrical but tapering base, reticulate venation. The texture is smooth due to the presence of numerous hairs. Considered a tender perennial, marjoram can sometimes prove hardy in zone 5. Marjoram is green or dry, for culinary purposes, it is used in herb combinations such as herbes de Provence and za'atar. The flowering leaves and tops of marjoram are steam-distilled to produce an essential oil, yellowish in color.
It has many chemical components, some of which are borneol and pinene. Oregano, sometimes listed with marjoram as O. majorana) is called wild marjoram. It is a perennial common in southern Europe and north to Sweden in dry copses and on hedge-banks, with many stout stems 30–80 centimetres high, bearing short-stalked, somewhat ovate leaves and clusters of purple flowers, it has a stronger flavor than marjoram. Pot marjoram or Cretan oregano has similar uses to marjoram. Hardy marjoram or French marjoram, a cross of marjoram with oregano, is much more resistant to cold, but is less sweet. O. pulchellum is known as showy showy oregano. Marjoram is used for seasoning soups, dressings and for herbal teas. Data related to Origanum majorana at Wikispecies Media related to Origanum majorana at Wikimedia Commons Origanum majorana List of Chemicals Origanum majorana "Marjoram"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Parable of the Good Samaritan
The parable of the Good Samaritan is a parable told by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. It is about a traveller, stripped of clothing and left half dead alongside the road. First a priest and a Levite comes by, but both avoid the man. A Samaritan happens upon the traveller. Samaritans and Jews despised each other. Jesus is described as telling the parable in response to the question from a lawyer, "And, my neighbour?". In response, Jesus tells the parable, the conclusion of, that the neighbour figure in the parable is the man who shows mercy to the injured man—that is, the Samaritan; some Christians, such as Augustine, have interpreted the parable allegorically, with the Samaritan representing Jesus Christ, who saves the sinful soul. Others, discount this allegory as unrelated to the parable's original meaning and see the parable as exemplifying the ethics of Jesus; the parable has inspired painting, satire, poetry and film. The phrase "good Samaritan", meaning someone who helps a stranger, derives from this parable, many hospitals and charitable organizations are named after the Good Samaritan.
In the Gospel of Luke, the parable is introduced by a question, known as the Great Commandment: Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it?" He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, with all your mind. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, you will live." But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor?" Jesus replies with a story: Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, departed, leaving him half dead. By chance a certain priest was going down that way; when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. In the same way a Levite when he came to the place, saw him, passed by on the other side, but a certain Samaritan, as he travelled, came. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion, came to him, bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine.
He set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, took care of him. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the host, said to him,'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers?" He said, "He who showed mercy on him." Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise." In the time of Jesus, the road from Jerusalem to Jericho was notorious for its danger and difficulty, was known as the "Way of Blood" because "of the blood, shed there by robbers". Martin Luther King, Jr. in his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech, on the day before his death, described the road as follows: As soon as we got on that road I said to my wife, "I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable." It's a winding, meandering road... In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the "Bloody Pass." And you know, it's possible that the priest and the Levite looked over that man on the ground and wondered if the robbers were still around.
Or it's possible that they felt that the man on the ground was faking, he was acting like he had been robbed and hurt in order to seize them over there, lure them there for quick and easy seizure. And so the first question that the priest asked, the first question that the Levite asked was, "If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?" Jesus' target audience, the Jews, hated Samaritans to such a degree that they destroyed the Samaritans' temple on Mount Gerizim. Due to this hatred, some think that the Lawyer's phrase "The one who had mercy on him" may indicate a reluctance to name the Samaritan. Or, on another, more positive note, it may indicate that the lawyer has recognized that both his questions have been answered and now concludes by expressing that anyone behaving thus is a "neighbor" eligible to inherit eternal life; the Samaritans in turn hated the Jews. Tensions were high in the early decades of the 1st century because Samaritans had desecrated the Jewish Temple at Passover with human bones.
As the story reached those who were unaware of the oppression of the Samaritans, this aspect of the parable became less and less discernible: fewer and fewer people heard of them in any context other than as a description. Today, the story is recast in a more modern setting where the people are ones in equivalent social groups known not to interact comfortably. Thus, cast appropriately, the parable regains its message to modern listeners: namely, that an individual of a social group they disapprove of can exhibit moral behavior, superior to individuals of the groups they approve. Christians have used it as an example of Christianity's opposition to racial and sectarian prejudice. For example, anti-slavery campaigner William Jay described clergy who ignored slavery as "following the example of the priest and Levite". Martin Luther King, Jr. in his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech, described the Samaritan as "a man of another race". Sundee Tucker Frazier saw the Samaritan more as an example of a "mixed-race" person.
Klyne Snodgrass wrote: "On the basis of this parable we must deal with our own racism but must seek justice for, offer assistance to, those in need, regardless of the group to which they belong."Samaritans appear elsewhere in the Gospels and Book of Acts. In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus heals ten lepers and onl
Order of Saint Michael
The Order of Saint Michael is a French dynastic order of chivalry, founded by Louis XI of France on 1 August 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis' chief competitor for the allegiance of the great houses of France, the Dukes of Orléans and Brittany. As a chivalric order, its goal was to confirm the loyalty of its knights to the king. There were a limited number of knights, at first thirty-one increased to thirty-six including the king. An office of Provost was established in 1476; the Order of St Michael was the highest Order in France until it was superseded by the Order of the Holy Spirit. Although abolished by the government authorities of the July Revolution in 1830 following the French Revolution, its activities carried on, it is still recognised by the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry. The first knights were among the most powerful nobles in France, close relatives of the king and a few from other royal houses in Europe.
The number of members was limited to thirty-five. In 1565, during the Wars of Religion, when loyalties were strained and essential, Charles IX increased the membership to fifty, but there may have been as many as seven hundred knights under Henry III in 1574; the Order of St. Michael dedicated to the Archangel Michael conveyed to every member a gold badge of the image of the saint standing on a rock in combat with the serpent; the motto of the order was "immensi tremor oceani", derived from the idea of Saint Michael looking out over the Atlantic from Mont Saint-Michel. It was suspended from an elaborate gold collar made of scallop shells linked with double knots; the statutes state that the badge could be hung on a simple chain, it was suspended from a black ribbon When the Order of St Michael was founded, the famous illuminator Jean Fouquet was commissioned to paint the title miniature of the Statutes, showing the king presiding over the knights. The original plan was for the knights to meet yearly on 29 September at Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy.
Such an isolated location was impractical causing Charles VIII to transfer this meeting place to the chapel of Saint-Michel-du-Palais, part of Paris' medieval royal residence the Palais de la Cité which the kings no longer used, to the control of the order in 1496. By letters patent dated 15 August 1555, the seat of the Order was transferred to the royal Château de Vincennes outside Paris; the Order of St. Michael was abolished by Louis XVI on 20 June 1790, it was revived by Louis XVIII on 16 November 1816 but the king took little interest in the order and no new knights were added after 1816. The Order was again abolished by the French authorities in 1830; the Order's last member died in 1850, although ten nominations of knights were conferred in 1929, 1930, in the 1970s and 1980s. The French government considers the Order to be the origin of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres: Saint-Michel Order can be considered as the precursor of the Order of the Arts and Lettres. Destined to the aristocracy, from 17th to 18th centuries it became an order of civil merit, which distinguished many artists, architects and people of lettres No formal list of members of the order exists.
The names of members can be gleaned from reference to their receipt of the order, from secondary sources, or from periodic lists compiled showing companions from particular families or regions. Samson de Saint-Germain, Baron of Asnebec, Baron of Ranes, Lord of Rouvrou, Lord of Saint-Georges, in 1469 by Louis XI Cesare Borgia, in 1499 by Louis XII Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua in 1507 by Louis XII Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, in 1532 by Francis I James V of Scotland, in 1534 by Francis I Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus in 1545 by Francis I James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault in 1548 by Henry II George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly in 1548 by Henry II Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll in 1548 by Henry II Paul de Thermes in 1549 André de Montalembert in 1549 Edward VI of England, 1551 by Henry II Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley under the name King Henry of Scotland, 1565 by Charles IX Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, 1566 by Charles IX Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, 1566 by Charles IX Michiel de Ruyter, in 1666 by Louis XIV François Caron, in 1672 by Louis XIV Constance Phaulkon, in 1687 by Louis XIV
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray a member of the House of Stewart as the illegitimate son of King James V, was Regent of Scotland for his half-nephew, the infant King James VI, from 1567 until his assassination in 1570. Moray was born in about 1531, the most notable of the many illegitimate children of King James V of Scotland, his mother was the King's favourite mistress, Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine, wife of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven. On 31 August 1536 he had a charter of the lands of others. James was appointed Prior of St Andrews, Fife, in his childhood in 1538; this position supplied his income. As early as May 1553, the imperial ambassador to England, Jean Scheyfve, heard that Mary of Guise planned to make him Regent of Scotland in place of James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault. On 5 August 1557, his half-brother Lord Robert, Lord Home led a raiding party from Edinburgh towards Ford Castle in Northumbria and burnt houses at Fenton before retreating on the approach of an English force led by Henry Percy.
James attended the wedding of his legitimate half-sister, Queen of Scots, in Paris. To fund this trip his mother obtained credit from an Italian banker in Edinburgh. James became a supporter of the Scottish Reformation. At Perth in June 1559 he plucked down the images in various churches. An English commentator praised James for his virtue, manhood and stoutness as a leader of the Protestant Lords of the Congregation. Despite their religious differences, Moray became the chief advisor to his sister, Queen of Scots, in 1561 after her return from France, she was the only surviving child of his father's marriage to Mary of Guise. Although James disturbed her priests celebrating mass at Holyroodhouse in September 1561, she made him Earl of Moray and Earl of Mar the following year, both earldoms being new creations. With the Moray earldom came Darnaway Castle with its medieval hall, notable then as "verie fayer and large builded." Moray had a smaller house called Pitlethie near Leuchars in Fife, which his father had used.
In October 1562, Moray defeated a rebellion by George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, at the Battle of Corrichie near Aberdeen. Moray opposed the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to Lord Darnley in 1565, he embarked upon the unsuccessful Chaseabout Raid, together with the Earl of Argyll and Clan Hamilton, he took refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder of David Rizzio, he was pardoned by the Queen, he contrived, however, to be away at the time of Darnley's assassination, avoided the tangles of the marriage with James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell by going to France. Mary abdicated at Loch Leven Castle on 24 July 1567. Moray returned to Edinburgh from France on 11 August 1567, escorted from Berwick-upon-Tweed by James Melville of Halhill, with a French ambassador, De Lignerolles. William Cecil, the English secretary of State had arranged his transport from Dieppe in an English ship, he was appointed Regent of Scotland on 22 August. The appointment was confirmed by Parliament in December.
When Mary escaped from Loch Leven on 2 May 1568 the Duke of Chatelherault and other nobles rallied to her standard, but Moray gathered his allies and defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside, near Glasgow on 13 May 1568. Mary was compelled to flee to England. For this and the subsequent management of the kingdom he secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, earned the title of "The Gude Regent". In September 1568, Moray went to York to discuss a treaty with England. During this conference he produced the casket letters, which were supposed to incriminate Queen Mary, justify his rule in Scotland, it was said that a plan to assassinate him at Northallerton, Yorkshire, on his way back had been called off. Scotland was now in a state of civil war. Moray moved against the supporters of Queen Mary in their south-west homelands with a military expedition in June 1568 called the'Raid of Dumfries' or'Raid of Hoddom.' The Regent's army and the royal artillery was taken to Biggar, where his allies were commanded to muster on 10 June, on to Dumfries.
The army was protected by a scouting party led by Alexander Hume of Manderston, the vanguard was commanded by the Earl of Morton and Lord Hume. Behind was the'carriage', the artillery train, followed by Moray himself; the Laird of Cessford followed behind, the army was flanked by the scouting parties of the Lairds of Merse and Buccleuch. Along the way Moray captured houses belonging to supporters of Queen Mary, including Lord Fleming's Boghall, Crawford, Sanquhar and Hoddom where the cannon were deployed, Annan where he rendezvoused with Lord Scrope the Captain of Carlisle Castle to discuss border matters. Scrope estimated the army to number 6,000 men, returned to Carlisle where he saw Queen Mary's servants play football on 14 June. Moray took Lochmaben Castle, which the Laird of Drumlanrig was left to hold, captured Lochwood and Lochhouse before returning to Edinburgh via Peebles. At Dumfries, a number of Lord Maxwell's supporters surrendered. Moray was responsible for the destruction of Rutherglen castle, which he burned to the ground in 1569 in retribution against the Hamiltons for having supported Mary at the Battle of Langside.
In June 1569 Moray went north to Brechin where he accepted hostages sent by the Earl of Huntley at Dunnotar Castle he proclaimed that he had, "reparit in proper person to thir north partis of firm purpose and deliberation to reduce sic as hes neglectit their duty in time bypast... intending to use lenitie and moderation."At Aberdeen Moray held talks with Huntly himself. At Inverness, on 4
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i