The Ranger L-440 are six-cylinder inline inverted air-cooled aero-engines produced by the Ranger Aircraft Engine Division of the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation of Farmingdale, New York, United States. The engine was produced for Fairchild's family of training aircraft in the mid-1930s. 6-440C-2 175hp variant with a 6:1 compression ratio. 6-440C-3 180hp variant with a 6.2:1 compression ratio. 6-440C-4 190hp variant with a 6.8:1 compression ratio. 6-440C-5 200hp variant with a 7.5:1 compression ratio. Fairchild 24 Fairchild PT-19/26 Falconar SAL Mustang Grumman Widgeon Maestranza Central de Aviación HF XX-02 St. Louis PT-LM-4 Data from Type: Six-cylinder inline inverted air-cooled Bore: 4 1⁄8 in Stroke: 5 1⁄2 in Displacement: 441 in³ Length: 53.156 in Width: 21.954 in Height: 33.50 in Dry weight: 376 lb Valvetrain: Underhead camshaft Fuel system: Upright carburetor Fuel type: 65 octane rating gasoline Oil system: Full pressure type Cooling system: air-cooled Power output: 175 hp at 2,450 rpm Compression ratio: 6:1 Comparable engines de Havilland Gipsy Six Menasco B6 Napier JavelinRelated lists List of aircraft engines Notes Bibliography
The Kinner R-5 is an American five cylinder radial engine for light general and sport aircraft of the 1930s. The R-5 was a development of the earlier Kinner B-5, with greater power and dimensions; the main change was the increase in cylinder bore from 117 mm to 127 mm and an increase in piston stroke from 133.3 mm to 139.7 mm. This led to a corresponding increase in displacement from 7.2 liters to 8.8 liters. The R-5 was a rough running but reliable engine. Thousands of the R-5 and its derivatives were produced, its military designation was R-540. Fleet Finch Model R Kinner Sportwing Kinner Playboy Meyers OTW N2T Tutor Ryan PT-22 Recruit R-5 R-53 R-55 R-56 Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1938 Type: 5-cylinder air cooled radial Bore: 5 in Stroke: 5.5 in Displacement: 540 cu in Length: 32.3 in Height: 45.6 in Dry weight: 330 lb Valvetrain: 1 inlet and 1 exhaust valve per cylinder Fuel system: 1 Stromberg carburetor Fuel type: 73 octane Oil system: Dry sump Cooling system: Air Power output: 160hp at 1,850 RPM max/113hp at 1,800 RPM cruise Compression ratio: 5.5:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.48 hp/lb Related development Kinner B-5 Comparable engines Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose Shvetsov M-11 Warner Super Scarab Wright R-540Related lists List of aircraft engines Gunston, Bill.
World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens. Pp. 99–100. Http://www.oldengine.org/members/diesel/Duxford/usaero4.htm
The Fleet Finch is a two-seat, tandem training biplane produced by Fleet Aircraft of Fort Erie, Ontario. There were a number of variants based on engine variations. Over several years beginning in 1939, a total of 447 Finches were built, nearly all of them for use as elementary trainers in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan during the Second World War; the Fleet 16B Finch II was a progressive development of the original Consolidated Fleet primary trainer, manufacture of which commenced in Canada by Fleet Aircraft in 1930. After a Royal Canadian Air Force evaluation in 1938 recommended a number of changes, a total of 431 Finch trainers were built for the RCAF between 1939 and 1941; the aircraft had conventional construction for the period with a welded steel-tube fuselage and composite metal and fabric design features, with Frise ailerons, a flat-bottom airfoiled lifting tailplane and "lifting airfoil" on the fixed vertical stabilizer, cambered into an airfoil on its port side only, to offset the P-factor of the propeller's swirling slipstream.
The RCAF acquired the aircraft type as an elementary trainer. The Fleet 16 first entered RCAF service with tandem open cockpits, but the severity of the Canadian winter necessitated the introduction of a sliding canopy at an early stage in the trainer's service career; the earlier Model 10's centre-hinged main landing gear radius rods were retained for the Model 16 series, as these centre-hinged units had replaced the "looped" left mainwheel's radius rod design, on the even-earlier Fleet Models 1, 2 & 7 biplanes from their own origins in November 1928. The Finch was a mainstay of the RCAF prior to and during the early part of the Second World War, flying at the Elementary Flying Training Schools in parallel with the better known de Havilland Tiger Moth produced in Canada; the earlier Fleet Model 7 was in use for primary training. During 1940, initial production problems were solved and timely deliveries were made to the RCAF, allowing the first training programs to start up. In the following year, the Portuguese Navy purchased ten Model 16Ds and a further five 16Ds were delivered in 1942.
A total of 606 Fleet Finches were produced as Model 16s, the majority for the RCAF. They were used as initial trainers in the BCATP at no fewer than 12 Elementary Flight Training Schools across Canada. Both the Fleet Finch and Tiger Moth were replaced by the Fairchild PT-26 Cornell; the Finch was progressively phased out of service from October 1944 with the last of the Model 16s struck off strength from the RCAF inventory in 1947. Model 10 Model was an improved Fleet 7 with a deeper rear fuselage, a new two-piece tail and a better cockpit. Model 10A Model powered by 100 hp Kinner K-5 five-cylinder radial engine Model 10B Model powered by 125 hp Kinner B-5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10D Model powered by 160 hp Kinner R-5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10-32D 32-foot-long span wing for high altitude operations in Mexico. Powered by 175 hp Kinner R5, five cylinder radial engine Model 10E Model powered by 145 hp Warner Super Scarab seven cylinder radial engine Model 10F Model powered by 145 hp Warner Super Scarab seven cylinder radial engine Model 10G Model powered by 90 hp Wright-Gypsy or 130 hp Gypsy Major inline engine, built under license in Romania at IAR, SET & ICAR factories used in Portugal.
Model 10H Model 150 hp supercharged Menasco C-4S Inline Model 16F One prototype based on the Fleet Model 10. Model 16Bregistration CF-GER, serial 399, at the Guelph Airport in Ontario and painted as 4488. Registration unknown, serial 542, at the Canadian Museum of Flight in British Columbia and painted as 4725. Registration N666J, one of two airworthy Finches based at the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome in New York State, since at least 1970, with at least three different color schemes in its four decades-plus of flying in Old Rhinebeck's weekend airshows. Model 16Rregistration C-FDAF, serial 92319, at the Guelph Airport in Ontario and painted as 4494. Model 16Bregistration C-GQWE, serial 567, at the RCAF No.6 Dunnville Museum in Ontario and painted as 4708. Registration C-FFUI, serial 623, at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Ontario and painted as 4738. Serial unknown, at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ontario and painted as 4510. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 21 ft 8 in Wingspan: 28 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 9 in Wing area: 194.4 ft2 Empty weight: 1,222 lb Gross weight: 2,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × Kinner B-5 five-cylinder radial piston engine, 125 hp Performance Maximum speed: 104 mph Cruise speed: 85 mph Range: 300 miles Service ceiling: 10,500 ft Rate of climb: 435 ft/min Related development Fleet Model 1 Fleet Fawn Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of British Commonwealth Air Training Plan facilities in Canada (specifies which BCATP schools used the
The Shvetsov M-11 is a five-cylinder air-cooled radial aircraft engine produced in the Soviet Union between 1923 and 1952. The Shvetsov M-11 was designed under a 1923 competition in the Soviet Union for a new engine to power trainer aircraft, it is a single-row five-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine with aluminum cylinder heads. Like the American Kinner B-5 5-cylinder radial of similar size, the M-11 had individual camshafts for each cylinder, operating the pushrods, rather than a single central cam ring; the initial versions of the M-11 suffered from a short service life of only 50 hours. The basic M-11 engine had a power output of 100 hp, the newer M-11D variant was higher at 125 hp; the ultimate version, M-11FR, introduced in 1946, increased power output to 160 hp at 1,900 rpm on takeoff and 140 hp at cruise and had provisions for a variable-pitch propeller, accessory drive and featured a floatless carburetor. Data from: M-100 Designation of prototype and initial designs. M-11 Initial production version at 75 kW, compression ratio 5:1 M-11a 75 kW / 82 kW M-11/A 75 kW / 82 kW M-11B 75 kW / 82 kW M-11D 86 kW / 93 kW M-11E Compression ratio 6:1 - 110 kW / 120 kW M-11F 108 kW / 123 kW M-11FM 108 kW M-11FR Compression ratio 5.5:1 - 100 kW / 120 kW M-11FR-1 Compression ratio 5.5:1 - 100 kW / 120 kW M-11FN 150 kW M-11G 75 kW / 82 kW M-11I Compression ratio 5.5:1 - 130 kW / 150 kW M-11K 86 kW / 93 kW M-11L 86 kW / 93 kW M-11M 108 kW M-11V 75 kW / 82 kW M-11Ya:A projected development of the M-11 at GAZ-41.
The prototpye was run but results were unsatisfactory, re-designated M-12 M-11Ye Developed by Okromechko 110 kW 3M-11 An alternative designation for the M-50 three cylinder derivative of the M-11 M-12 A 190 hp development of the M-11 by M. A. Kossov, un-related to the NAMI-100, earlier designated M-12. M-12 A projected development of the M-11 at GAZ-41; the prototpye was run but results were unsatisfactory, re-designated from M-11Ya M-13 A 1944 development by M. A. Kossov to be assembled from various M-11 variants M-13 In parallel with the M-13K, E. V. Urmin at GAZ-41 mated cylinders from the M-11D with new crankshaft and crankcase M-13 A M-13 was created by I. A. Muzhilov at OKB-41 in 1946. Despite passing state acceptance test in June 1948, this engine was not put into production. M-48 A 7-cylinder further development at GAZ-29 150 kW M-49 A 9-cylinder further development at GAZ-29 200 kW / 230 kW M-50 A 3-cylinder further development at GAZ-29 45 kW M-51 A 5-cylinder further development at GAZ-29 93 kW / 108 kW MG-11 Development of the M-51 at the NIIGVF by M.
A. Kossov. 110 kW / 130 kW MG-21 Development of the M-48 at the NIIGVF by M. A. Kossov. 160 kW / 190 kW MG-31 Development of the M-49 at the NIIGVF by M. A. Kossov. 200 kW / 240 kW MG-50 A projected 18 cylinder, two-row radial derived from M-11 components by M. A. Kossov. 600 kW / 630 kW The M-11 powered a number of Soviet and Polish aircraft. The M-11 remained in production. Several hundreds of M-11D and M-11FR-1 variants were manufactured under license in the Polish WSK-Kalisz works in Kalisz, it was used for the up-engined GAZ-98K aerosani winter-used sled in a pusher configuration, as the standard powerplant for the similar NKL-26 propeller-driven sledges during the World War II years. Gribovsky G-15 Gribovsky G-20 Gribovsky G-21 Gribovsky G-23 Gribovsky G-27 Laz-7M LWD Junak Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-8 Utka Polikarpov Po-2 PZL S-4 Kania Shavrov_Sh-2 amphibian Shcherbakov Shche-2 Yakovlev UT-1 Yakovlev UT-2 Yakovlev Yak-6 Yakovlev Yak-12 Yakovlev Yak-18 Data from Kotelnikov. Type: 5-cylinder air-cooled radial engine Bore: 125 mm Stroke: 140 mm Displacement: 8.6 L Dry weight: 165 kg Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 82 kW at 1,650 rpm for takeoff 75 kW cruise Specific power: 9.5 kW/L Compression ratio: 5:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.5 kW/kg Comparable engines Armstrong Siddeley Genet Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose Kinner K-5 Walter Vega Warner Scarab Junior Wright R-540Related lists List of aircraft engines
The Monocoupe 90 was a two-seat, light cabin airplane built by Donald A. Luscombe for Monocoupe Aircraft; the first Monocoupe was built in an abandoned church in Davenport and first flew on April 1, 1927. Various models were in production until the late 1940s; the Monocoupes were side-by-side two-seat lightplanes of mixed wood and steel-tube basic construction with fabric covering. A braced high-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid landing gear, the reverse curve rear fuselage lines that were to become one of the signature identifier features of the Monocoupes; the fuselage framework was built up of welded steel tubing in a rigid, triangular-framed Warren truss form for the side panel structures faired to shape with dural metal sheet formers and wooden fairing strips. The wings were built up of solid spruce spars with wing ribs of spruce cap-strips; the leading edges were covered with dural metal sheet and the entire framework was covered in fabric. The aircraft was powered by either a 60 hp Anzani engine or the unsuccessful 65 hp Detroit Air Cat radial.
The Model 22 was the first light aircraft awarded a type certificate and in 1930 it was fitted with the Velie M-5 62 hp five-cylinder radial engine to become the Model 70. In 1930 Monocoupe introduced the Model 90 with refined lines and a fuselage, longer and wider, this being sold in Model 90 and Model 90A versions with a 90 hp Lambert R-266 radial engine; the Monocoupe 90 DeLuxe introduced trailing edge flaps, wheel speed fairings and an improved engine cowling. The Model 90AF was fitted with a 115 hp Franklin engine; the Model 90AL had Avco Lycoming engines. The Model 90J was introduced in 1930 with a 90 hp Warner Scarab Jr engine; the final two high performance Monocoupe models developed from the Model 90 were the Model 110 with a 110 hp Warner Scarab, the Model 125 with a 125-hp Kinner B-5 engine. The Monocoupe 110 Special was a clipped wing racing aircraft; the Monocoupe Model 70V of 1932, had the low-powered 65-hp Velie M-5 engine reintroduced to provide more economical operation at the cost of a fall in performance.
In 1941 Monocoupe combined with three other companies to form Universal Molded Products Corp. 20 Model 90AFs were bought by the USAAF, who designated them the Universal L-7, for transfer to the Free French Forces. One was lost during delivery. Aircraft production halted during World War II, resuming in 1948-1950 under the name Monocoupe Airplane and Engine Corporation; the last of this remarkable line of two-seat aircraft was the Monocoupe D-145 of 1934, a high-performance version with a enlarged cabin and powered by a 145 hp Warner Super Scarab engine. Monocoupe Model 5 prototype Monocoupe Model 22 60 hp Anzani engine or 65 hp Detroit Air Cat radial. Monocoupe Model 70 Velie M-5 62 hp five-cylinder radial engine Monocoupe Model 113 revised landing gear and a number of improvements Monocoupe Monoprep dedicated trainer similar to the Monocoupe 113 Mnocoupe Monosport Model 1 air racing model, had a 110-hp Warner Scarab seven-cylinder radial engine Monocoupe Monosport Model 2 air racing model, had a 100-hp Kinner K-5 radial engine Monocoupe Model 90 longer wider fuselage Monocoupe Model 90A 90 hp Lambert R-266 radial engine Monocoupe 90 DeLuxe trailing edge flaps, wheel speed fairings and an improved engine cowling Monocoupe Model 90AF 115 hp Franklin engine Monocoupe Model 90AL Avco Lycoming engine Monocoupe Model 90AW with 145 hp Warner engine, Wing Span 32 ft. Length 20 ft. 5.75 in.
Monocoupe Model 110 110 hp Warner Scarab engine Monocoupe Model 110 Special racing model, 110 hp Warner Scarab engine, shorter span Monocoupe Model 125 125-hp Kinner B-5 engine Universal L-7 military version of the Model 90AF. Monocoupe D-145 145 hp Warner Super Scarab engine; the majority of the Monocoupe 90s to be built were flown by private pilot owners. SpainSpanish Republican Air Force - Monocoupe 90 A FranceFree French Forces Armée de l'Air - Monocoupe 90 AF19 delivered early 1943 by sea to Abu Sweir, Egypt, to be reassembled by RAF MU 109. Main delivery to create a flying school in Rayack, opening September 1, 1943; the Monocoupe 90 was too sensitive to be used for basic training and many accidents occurred until school disbandment January 4, 1944. One aircraft survived the war and remained on the French civil register until written-off in 1962. 5 aircraft delivered to Madagascar in early September 1943 and operated by Escadrille d'Avions Sanitaires et de Liaison based at Ivato. EASL became Escadrille de Liaison et de Commandement on January 1, 1944 SAL-51 and last SLA-50.
The last two Monocoupes were sold to local aéro-club in 1948. Data from Specifications of American AirplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 passenger Length: 20 ft 5 3⁄4 in Wingspan: 32 ft 0 in Height: 6 ft 9 3⁄4 in Wing area: 134.5 sq ft Empty weight: 967 lb Gross weight: 1,610 lb Fuel capacity: 28 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Lambert R-266 radial engine, 90 hp Performance Maximum speed: 130 mph at sea level Cruise speed: 110 mph Stall speed: 40 mph Range: 600 mi Service ceiling: 16,000 ft Rate of climb: 850 ft/min Related development Monocoach Model 201 Monocoach Model 275 MullicoupeAircraft of comparable role and era Potez 36 Howard DGA-6 Mister Mulligan Taylorcraft B Velie Monocoupe Notes BibliographyBell, Dana ed. The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes their Designers and Manufacturer
De Havilland Gipsy Major
The de Havilland Gipsy Major or Gipsy IIIA is a four-cylinder, air-cooled, inline engine used in a variety of light aircraft produced in the 1930s, including the famous Tiger Moth biplane. Many Gipsy Major engines still power vintage aircraft types worldwide today. Engines were produced both by de Havilland in the UK, by the Australian arm of the company, de Havilland Australia, the latter modifying the design to use imperial measures rather than the original metric measurements; the engine was a modified Gipsy III, a de Havilland Gipsy engine modified to run inverted so that the cylinders pointed downwards below the crankcase. This allowed the propeller shaft to be kept in a high position without having the cylinders blocking the pilot's forward view over the nose of the aircraft. One initial disadvantage of the inverted configuration was the high oil consumption requiring regular refills of the external oil tank, this problem improved over time with the use of modified piston rings; the Major was a bored-out Gipsy III.
First built in 1932, total production of all Gipsy Major versions was 14,615 units. In 1934, when Geoffrey de Havilland needed a more powerful engine for his twin-engined transport aircraft, the four-cylinder Gipsy Major was further developed into the 200 hp six-cylinder Gipsy Six. In 1937 more power was needed for the new D. H.91 Albatross four-engined transatlantic mailplane, so two Gipsy Six cylinder banks were combined to form one 525 hp Gipsy Twelve 12-cylinder inverted Vee. In military service, the Gipsy Twelve became known as the Gipsy King and the Gipsy Six the Gipsy Queen; the advent of World War II cut short all civilian flying and after the war de Havilland was too busy concentrating on jet engines to put much energy into its piston engines. The Gipsy did not go without a fight though. In Canada the Gipsy Major was the engine of choice for the DHC1 Chipmunk trainer, which replaced the Tiger Moth in the RAF. By that time however, the Gipsy Major was eclipsed by the Blackburn Cirrus Major in Britain and the American Lycoming and Continental horizontally opposed engines abroad.
In its final supercharged form, the Gipsy Major used in helicopter applications delivered 220 hp. By 1945 the Gipsy Major had been cleared for a world record 1,500 hours Time between overhaul, surpassing its held world record of 1,260 hours TBO achieved in 1943. 1,000 hours TBO had earlier been achieved in 1938. Gipsy Major I Gipsy Major IC Higher compression ratio and maximum RPM for racing use. Gipsy Major ID Fuel pump added, plus screened ignition priming system. Gipsy Major IF Aluminium cylinder heads, 5.25:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major II Variable pitch propeller Gipsy Major 7 Military version of Gipsy Major 1D, increased climb RPM. Gipsy Major 8 Sodium cooled exhaust valves, cartridge starter for DHC Chipmunk. Gipsy Major 10 Electric starter option. Gipsy Major 30 Major redesign and stroke increased. 6.5:1 compression ratio. Gipsy Major 50 Supercharged. 197 hp. Gipsy Major 200 Designed as a light helicopter engine. 200 hp. Gipsy Major 215 Turbo-supercharged helicopter engine. 220 hp. Alfa Romeo 110 Alfa Romeo licence production/derivative de Havilland L-375-1 US military designation for the Gipsy Major I IAR 4-G1 IAR licence produced in Romania Application list from Lumsden unless otherwise noted.
Many Gipsy Major engines remain in service today worldwide, in the United Kingdom alone 175 de Havilland Tiger Moths were noted on the Civil Aviation Authority register in September 2011 although not all of these aircraft were airworthy. Examples of the Gipsy Major are on display at the following museums: de Havilland Aircraft Museum Fleet Air Arm Museum Shuttleworth Collection Royal Air Force Museum Cosford Data from Jane's. Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled inverted inline piston aircraft engine Bore: 4.646 in Stroke: 5.512 in Displacement: 373.7 in³ Length: 48.3 in Width: 20.0 in Height: 29.6 in Dry weight: 300 lb Mk 1F to 322 lb Mk 1D Valvetrain: OHV Fuel system: Downdraught Hobson A. I.48 H3M or H1M Oil system: Dry sump, gear-type pump Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 122 hp at 2,100 rpm, 145 hp at 2,550 rpm Specific power: 0.39 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 5.25:1 or 6.0:1 Fuel consumption: 6.5 to 6.75 gph at 2,100 rpm Oil consumption: 1.75 pints per hour. Power-to-weight ratio: 0.48 hp/lb de Havilland Aircraft Museum Frank HalfordRelated development de Havilland Gipsy Comparable engines Alfa Romeo 110 Argus As 8 Blackburn Cirrus Major Elizalde Tigre IV Hirth HM 504 Menasco PirateRelated lists List of aircraft engines Wesselink, Theo.
De Nederlandse vliegtuigen. Haarlem: Romem. ISBN 90 228 3792 0. Royal Air Force Museum - Gipsy Major