United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas and hard rock mining, the health care and government sectors are significant to the states economy.
Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan.
It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky Mountains
In rock climbing and other climbing disciplines, climbers give a grade to a climbing route that concisely describes the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. Different aspects of climbing each have their own grading system, and many different nationalities developed their own, different grading systems consider these factors in different ways, so no two grading systems have an exact one-to-one correspondence. They may be the opinion of one or a few climbers, a grade for an individual route may be a consensus reached by many climbers who have climbed the route. While grades are usually applied fairly consistently across a climbing area, because of these variables, a given climber might find a route to be either easier or more difficult than expected for the grade applied. In 1894, the Austrian mountaineer Fritz Benesch introduced the first known grading system for rock climbing, the Benesch scale had seven levels of difficulty, with level VII the easiest and level I the most difficult.
Soon more difficult climbs were made, which originally were graded level 0 and 00, in 1923, the German mountaineer Willo Welzenbach compressed the scale and turned the order around, so that level 00 became level IV-V. It prevailed internationally and was renamed in 1968 as the UIAA scale, originally a 6-grade scale, it has been officially open-ended since 1979. For free climbing, there are many different grading systems varying according to country and they include, The Yosemite Decimal System of grading routes was initially developed as the Sierra Club grading system in the 1930s to rate hikes and climbs in the Sierra Nevada range. The rock climbing portion was developed at Tahquitz Rock in southern California by members of the Rock Climbing Section of the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club in the 1950s and it quickly spread to Canada and the rest of the Americas. Originally a single-part classification system and protection rating categories were added later, the new classifications do not apply to every climb and usage varies widely.
When a route involves aid climbing, its unique aid designation can be appended to the YDS free climbing rating, Class 1 is the easiest and consists of walking on even terrain. Class 5 is climbing on vertical or near-vertical rock, and requires skill, un-roped falls would result in severe injury or death. Originally, Class 6 was used to aid climbing. However, the separate A rating system became popular instead, the original intention was that the classes would be subdivided decimally, so that a route graded 4.5 would be a scramble halfway between 4 and 5, and 5.9 would be the hardest rock climb. Increased standards and improved equipment meant that climbs graded 5.9 in the 1960s are now only of moderate difficulty. While the top grade was 5.10, a range of climbs in this grade was completed. Letter grades were added for climbs at 5.10 and above by adding a letter a, b, c, the system originally considered only the technical difficulty of the hardest move on a route. For example, a route of mainly 5.7 moves but with one 5. 11b move would be graded 5.
11b, the YDS system involves an optional Roman numeral grade that indicates the length and seriousness of the route
A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28,1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, in recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include promoting green energy, mitigating global warming, in 2015 Sierra Club launched its activism platform AddUp. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses, rock climbs, the Sierra Club is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors. Each year, five directors are elected to terms. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members, the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group. Michael Brune, formerly of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the executive director since 2010. Pope stepped down amid discontent that the group had strayed from its core principles, Sierra Club members belong to statewide chapters and local groups.
National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues, the national Sierra Club sets the organizations policy agenda. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an association to protect the Sierra Nevada. Others involved in the planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte. The Sierra Clubs charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914, Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, and two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government. The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the second national park. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from resource management conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams.
Gifford Pinchot, a supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service. Muir appealed to his friend U. S. President Roosevelt and attorney William Edward Colby began a national campaign against the dam, attracting the support of many eastern conservationists. With the 1912 election of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, the bill to dam Hetch Hetchy passed Congress in 1913, and so the Sierra Club lost its first major battle
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation, however, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly called topographic. The study or discipline of topography is a broader field of study. Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys, performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property, the first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle, as such, elevation information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure. Excluding borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and up to 66 cm wide, although the project eventually foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. TIGER was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990, digital elevation models were compiled, initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for security reasons. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments, by the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt, the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols.
For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads and these signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the national series is organized by a strict 7. 5-minute grid. Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines, contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude. In other words, every point on the line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level
Flathead County, Montana
Flathead County is a county located in the U. S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 90,928, the numerical designation for Flathead County is 7. It is south from the Canada–US border of British Columbia, Flathead County comprises the Kalispell, Montana Micropolitan Statistical Area. Flathead County was founded in 1893 and it contains much of Flathead Lake, the Flathead Valley, and the Flathead River. All of these treasures, originated by glaciers, are named for the unique geological formation of a broad flat valley surrounded by mountains at the head of a deep glacial lake. Some sources cite the practice of the Salish tribe flattening infants heads as the origin of the name Flathead. Several tribes have made use of the magnificent Flathead Lake, and the Bitterroot Salish, Kootenai. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,256 square miles. It is the third-largest county in Montana by land area and second-largest by total area, the western part of Glacier National Park is located in the county.
The population density was 15 people per square mile, there were 34,773 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 26% White,0. 15% Black or African American,1. 15% Native American,0. 46% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,0. 41% from other races, and 1. 50% from two or more races. 1. 42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,21. 7% were of German,11. 3% Irish,11. 0% Norwegian,10. 3% English and 9. 1% United States or American ancestry. 25. 20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was out with 25. 90% under the age of 18,7. 40% from 18 to 24,27. 40% from 25 to 44,26. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.10 males, the median income for a household in the county was $34,466, and the median income for a family was $40,702.
Males had an income of $31,908 versus $20,619 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,112, about 9. 40% of families and 13. 00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16. 70% of those under age 18 and 8. 60% of those age 65 or over
In climbing, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with risks, challenges. The person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist, the details of the first ascents of even many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown, sometimes the only evidence of prior summiting is a cairn, artifacts, or inscriptions at the top. Today, first ascents are generally recorded and usually mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a first ascent is a one, especially in places such as Africa. There may be little or no evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents, particularly for difficult routes, involved a mix of free, as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only.
Some other first ascents could be recorded for particular mountains or routes, one is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name easily suggests, the first ascent made during winter season. This is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route, in the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. Also in the Himalayan area, although Nepal and Chinas winter season permits start on December 1, another is the First Solo Ascent, which is the first ascent made by a single climber. This is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or even when climbing without any protection at all, another type of ascent, known as FFA is the first female ascent. The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has changed to such an extent – often because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists.
It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb that is so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent partys ordeal. List of first ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimers First Ascent, Issue 17
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
The Livingston Range is a mountain range located primarily in Glacier National Park in the U. S. state of Montana, and in the extreme southeastern section of the Canadian province of British Columbia. The range is 36 miles long and 28 miles wide, over 15 summits exceed 9,000 ft above sea level, and the highest point is Kintla Peak at 10,101 feet. List of mountain ranges in Montana Mountains and mountain ranges of Glacier National Park Glacier National Park, archived from the original on 2006-06-18
It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peaks key col is a point on this contour line. By convention, the prominence of Mount Everest, the Earths highest mountain, is taken to equal the elevation of its summit above sea level, if the peaks prominence is P metres, to get from the summit to any higher terrain one must descend at least P metres. Together with the convention for Mount Everest, this implies that the prominence of any island or continental highpoint is equal to its elevation above sea level, for every ridge connecting the peak to higher terrain, find the lowest point on the ridge. The key col is defined as the highest of these cols, the prominence is the difference between the elevation of the peak and the elevation of the key col. The following mental exercise may illustrate the meaning of topographic prominence, imagine you are standing at the top of a peak and imagine that an imaginary sea level rises to your feet. Now slowly lower the sea level and an imaginary island appears beneath your feet.
Your island will grow and will merge with other islands that emerge, the parent peak may be either close or far from the subject peak. The summit of Mount Everest is the parent peak of Aconcagua at a distance of 17,755 km, the key col may be close or far from the subject peak. The key col for Aconcagua is the Bering Strait at a distance of 13,655 km, the key col for the South Summit of Mount Everest is about 100 m distant. Prominence is interesting to many mountaineers because it is a measurement that is strongly correlated with the subjective significance of a summit. Peaks with low prominences are either subsidiary tops of some higher summit or relatively insignificant independent summits, peaks with high prominences tend to be the highest points around and are likely to have extraordinary views. Only summits with a sufficient degree of prominence are regarded as independent mountains, for example, the worlds second-highest mountain is K2. While Mount Everests South Summit is taller than K2, it is not considered an independent mountain because it is a subsummit of the main summit, many lists of mountains take topographic prominence as a criterion for inclusion, or cutoff.
John and Anne Nuttalls The Mountains of England and Wales uses a cutoff of 15 m, in the contiguous United States, the famous list of fourteeners uses a cutoff of 300 ft /91 m. Also in the U. S.2000 feet of prominence has become a threshold that signifies that a peak has major stature. This generates lists of peaks ranked by prominence, which are different from lists ranked by elevation. Such lists tend to emphasize isolated high peaks, such as range or island high points, one advantage of a prominence-ranked list is that it needs no cutoff, since a peak with high prominence is automatically an independent peak
Norman Clyde was a mountaineer, mountain guide, freelance writer, nature photographer, and self trained naturalist. He is well known for achieving over 130 first ascents, many in Californias Sierra Nevada and he set a speed climbing record on Californias Mount Shasta in 1923. The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley has 1467 articles written by Clyde in its archives, Clyde was born in Philadelphia, the son of a Reformed Presbyterian minister. He attended Geneva College graduating in the Classics in June 1909, after teaching at several rural schools, including Fargo, North Dakota and Mount Pleasant, Utah, he enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley in 1911. After two years of work he returned to teaching, mostly in northern California, including the towns of McCloud. He taught history and Latin and he continued graduate studies at the University of California in Berkeley in 1923–24. On June 15,1915, Norman Clyde married Winifred May Bolster in Pasadena and she was a nurse at a tuberculosis hospital, and contracted the disease herself at approximately the time of their marriage.
After 4 years of suffering she died at age 28 in 1919 and his wifes death appears to have profoundly affected him as he moved to the Eastern Sierra to spend much of his latter life alone in the mountains. He became principal of the school at Independence, California in 1924. He admitted firing a pistol during a confrontation with some students who came to vandalize the school on Halloween night. One bullet hit the side of a car carrying eight high school students, Clyde said that considerable damage had been done to the school grounds the previous Halloween. He had been issued a license to carry a firearm on February 2,1928. This was the end of his career as a schoolteacher and principal, subsequently he spent his winters as the caretaker of the local lodges, including Glacier Lodge on Big Pine Creek, and a fishing cabin which belonged to Lon Chaney, Sr. He earned some income as a mountain guide and freelance writer. Clyde began climbing in the Sierra Nevada in 1910, when he visited Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks and he visited McCloud, near Mount Shasta, that summer.
He began a program of mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada in 1914. He joined the Sierra Club in 1914 and he first climbed Mount Shasta in 1916, and climbed that peak a total of 12 times. While living in Southern California during his wifes illness, he climbed Mount San Jacinto in 1917, following his wifes death in 1919, he climbed extensively in the Kings-Kern Divide region of the southern Sierra