The Peace River is a 1,923-kilometre-long river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta. The Peace River joins the Athabasca River in the Peace-Athabasca Delta to form the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River; the Finlay River, the main headwater of the Peace River, is regarded as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The combined Finlay–Peace–Slave–Mackenzie river system is the 13th longest river system in the world; the regions along the river are the traditional home of the Danezaa people, called the Beaver by the Europeans. The fur trader Peter Pond is believed to have visited the river in 1785. In 1788 Charles Boyer of the North West Company established a fur trading post at the river's junction with the Boyer River. In 1792 and 1793, the explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled up the river to the Continental Divide. Mackenzie referred to the river as Unjegah, from a native word meaning "large river".
The decades of hostilities between the Danezaa and the Cree, ended in 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the Cree. The Treaty of the Peace was celebrated by the smoking of a ceremonial pipe; the treaty made the Peace River a border, with the Danezaa to the Cree to the South. In 1794, a fur trading post was built on the Peace River at Fort St. John; the rich soils of the Peace River valley in Alberta have been producing wheat crops since the late 19th century. The Peace River region is an important centre of oil and natural gas production. There are pulp and paper plants along the river in Alberta and British Columbia; the Peace River has two navigable sections, separated by the Vermilion Chutes, near Fort Vermilion. The first steam-powered vessel to navigate the Peace River was the Grahame, a Hudson's Bay Company vessel built at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. Brothers of the Oblate Order of Mary Immaculate built the St. Charles to navigate the upper reaches of the River, from Fort Vermilion to Hudson's Hope.
A dozen vessels were to navigate the river. Most of the early vessels were wood-burning steamships, fueled by wood cut from the river's shore; the last cargo vessel was the Watson's Lake, retired in 1952. This river is 1,923 kilometres long, it drains an area of 302,500 square kilometres. At Peace Point, where it drains in the Slave River, it has an annual discharge of 68.2 billion cubic metres. A large man-made lake, Williston Lake, has been formed on the upper reaches by the construction of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam for hydroelectric power generation. Prior to its flooding, the confluence of the Finlay and Parsnip Rivers at Finlay Forks was distinct. A half mile east of that location were the half-mile long Finlay Rapids and a further seven miles east is the Peace Pass, which separates the Muskwa Ranges and the Hart Ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the only river cutting through the Rockies, it nowadays flows into Dinosaur Lake, a reservoir for the Peace Canyon Dam. After the dams, the river flows east into Alberta and continues north and east into the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Wood Buffalo National Park, at the western end of Lake Athabasca.
Water from the delta flows into the Slave River east of Peace Point and reaches the Arctic Ocean via the Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River. Communities located directly on the river include: Hudson's Hope, British Columbia Taylor, British Columbia Peace River, Alberta Fort Vermilion, AlbertaMany provincial parks and wildland reserves are established on the river, such as Butler Ridge Provincial Park, Taylor Landing Provincial Park, Beatton River Provincial Park, Peace River Corridor Provincial Park in British Columbia and Dunvegan Provincial Park, Dunvegan West Wildland, Peace River Wildland Provincial Park, Greene Valley Provincial Park, Notikewin Provincial Park, Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta. A few Indian reserves are located on the river banks, among them Beaver Ranch 163, John D'Or Prairie 215, Fox Lake 162, Peace Point 222 and Devil's Gate 220. Tributaries of the Peace River include: List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of British Columbia List of longest rivers of Canada Steamboats of the Peace River "Peace River".
BC Geographical Names. "Peace Reach". BC Geographical Names. "Peace River Canyon". BC Geographical Names. "Peace Canyon Dam". BC Geographical Names. Http://pgnewspapers.pgpl.ca/fedora/repository Discover The Peace Country
Arthur Philemon Coleman
Arthur Philemon Coleman was a Canadian geologist and academic. Born in Lachute, the son of Rev. Francis Coleman and Emmeline Maria Adams, he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1876 and Master of Arts in 1880 from Victoria College in Cobourg, Ontario, he received a Ph. D. at the University of Breslau in 1881. Coleman joined the department of geology and natural history at Victoria College in 1882 as a Professor. From 1891 to 1901, he was a Professor of Geology at the School of Practical Science in Toronto. From 1893 to 1909, he was a geologist at the Bureau of Mines of the Government of Ontario. From 1901 to 1922, he was a Professor of Geology at the University of Toronto and was Dean of the Faculty of Arts from 1919 to 1922. From 1931 to 1934, he was a geologist with the Department of Mines of the Government of Ontario. In 1907, Coleman inferred a "lower Huronian ice age" from analysis of a geological formation near Lake Huron. Coleman was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1900 and was its President in 1921.
He was awarded the Murchison Medal of the Geological Society of London in 1910 and in 1928 was awarded the Royal Society of Canada's Flavelle Medal. In 1902, he was elected President of the Royal Canadian Institute and in 1910, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1915, he was President of the Geological Society of America. In 1929, he was appointed Honorary Vice-President of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, he was author of: Reports on the Economic Geology of Ontario Lake Ojibway. The Last Million Years Edited by George F. KayHe achieved the first ascent of Castle Mountain in 1884, in 1907, he was the first white man to attempt to climb Mount Robson, he made a total of eight exploratory trips to the Canadian Rockies, wholly four of them looking for the mythical giants of Hooker and Brown. Coleman was awarded the Penrose Medal of The Geological Society of America in 1936, his younger half-sister was poet Helena Coleman. Mount Coleman and Coleman Glacier in Banff National Park are named in his honour.
Lake Coleman, a lake with a higher water level, in the same basin as Lake Ontario, is named in Coleman's memory. The lake, like Lake Iroquois and Lake Scarborough, is a product of the melting and drainage, of the Laurentide Ice Sheet; the Arthur P. Coleman Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto "Arthur Philemon Coleman, 1852-1939". Internet Archive. A. P. Coleman: Geologist, Explorer – Science, Art & Discovery, a Virtual Exhibit Works written by or about Arthur Philemon Coleman at Wikisource Works by or about Arthur Philemon Coleman at Internet Archive Works by A. P. Coleman at Faded Page
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
Teslin Lake is a large lake spanning the border between British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. It is one of a group of large lakes in the region of far northwestern BC, east of the upper Alaska Panhandle, which are the southern extremity of the basin of the Yukon River, which are known in Yukon as "the Southern Lakes"; the lake is fed and drained by the Teslin River and north, but is fed from the east by the Jennings River and the Swift River, from the west by the Hayes River. According to the Yukon Geographical Names Project, "Teslin" means "long water", but in the Tlingit language the local kwaan or tribe of Tlingit is called Deisleen Kwáan", meaning "Big Sinew Tribe". There are three Indian Reserves of the Taku River Tlingit First Nation around the south end of the lake: Jennings River Indian Reserve No. 8, Teslin Lake Indian Reserve No. 7, Teslin Lake Indian Reserve No. 9. On the Yukon portion of the lake there are three Indian Reserves of the Teslin Tlingit Council - Teslin Post Indian Reserve No.
13, Nisutlin Indian Reserve No. 14 and Nisutlin Bay Indian Reserve No. 15, the community of Teslin, located where the Alaska Highway meets the lake, following its northern/eastern shore from there towards Whitehorse. The Nisutlin Plateau limns the eastern side of the lake north of the mouth of the Teslin River and extends into Yukon
Mount Robson Provincial Park
Mount Robson Provincial Park is a vast provincial park in the Canadian Rockies with an area of 2,249 km². The park is located within British Columbia, bordering Jasper National Park in Alberta; the B. C. legislature created the park in 1913, the same year as the first ascent of Mount Robson by a party led by Conrad Kain. It is the second oldest park in the provincial system; the park is named for Mount Robson, which has the highest point in the Canadian Rockies and is located within the park. The first recreational trail was built in 1913 by Jasper outfitter Donald "Curly" Phillips along the Robson River to Berg Lake. From May to September, the Mt. Robson Visitor Information Centre is open to the public, is a common stop on the Yellowhead Highway; the only commercial services within the park are at a combination coffee-shop gas station complex at the same viewpoint. There are one near Yellowhead Pass; the park spans the Yellowhead Highway and is located 390 kilometres west of Edmonton or 290 kilometres east of Prince George.
The source of the Fraser River is in Mount Robson Provincial Park. A dripping spring just west of a pond at Fraser Pass is the actual source of British Columbia's longest river, it is located 40 km south of the Yellowhead Highway at Lucerne Campground. There are no trails there and the best access is by helicopter from Valemount. In 1990 Mount Robson Park was included within the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks UNESCO World Heritage Site. Together with the other national and provincial parks that comprise the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, the park was recognized for its natural beauty and the geological and ecological significance of its mountain landscapes containing the habitats of rare and endangered species, mountain peaks, lakes, canyons, limestone caves and fossils. List of British Columbia Provincial Parks List of Canadian provincial parks List of National Parks of Canada List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Adams, Ansel. Ansel Adams In The Canadian Rockies. Little and Company. ISBN 978-0316243414 Mount Robson Provincial Park website—BC Parks
Howe Sound is a triangular sound, or more a network of fjords situated northwest of Vancouver. Howe Sound's mouth at the Strait of Georgia is situated between West Vancouver and the Sunshine Coast; the sound is triangular, opening to the southeast into the Strait of Georgia, extends 42 kilometres northwest to its head at Squamish. There are several islands in the sound, three of which are mountainous in their own right; the steep-sided mainland shores funnel the breezes as the daily thermals build the wind to 20 knots plus at the northern end of the sound on a typical summer day. A small outcrop of volcanic rock is located on the eastern shore of Howe Sound called the Watts Point volcanic centre; the history of Howe Sound begins with the Indigenous people, the Squamish and Shishalh, who have roamed this land and traveled on this body of water for thousands of years, whose village sites and camp sites are spread throughout the area. The land and islands are still used by Shishalh for cultural practices.
Both the Squamish and Shishalh are a part of the Coast Salish cultural groupings. Spanish explorers named it Boca del Carmelo. Captain George Vancouver entered the sound in 1792, named it after Admiral Earl Howe. In 1888, copper was discovered in the mountains around Britannia Creek, south of Squamish. Large scale mining began at Britannia Beach in 1905, by 1929, the largest copper mine in the British Empire was located here, beside the shores of Howe Sound; the mine closed in 1974, but part of its historical legacy has been the large amounts of toxic effluent it has deposited into Howe Sound. Passage Island marks the entrance to Howe Sound, it has views of Downtown Vancouver and Vancouver Island. An unincorporated area, it is part of the Greater Vancouver Electoral Area A, a member of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Ships entering Howe Sound will pass west of Passage Island. Bowen Island is the most populous island and is nearest Vancouver, being just opposite Horseshoe Bay, it is a member municipality of Metro Vancouver.
Gambier Island is the largest of the Howe Sound islands, to the northwest of Bowen, near the Langdale ferry landing. Gambier has a small resident population, plus hundreds more who enjoy the SW peninsula community in the summer months; this area has a year-round foot ferry, Stormaway IV, run by BC Ferries, a community centre. Until the only commercial location on the island, the General Store, was located here, near New Brighton, where the ferry lands; the store is now closed. This area of Gambier has landline telephone. There are numerous seasonal homes line the shores of the southern bays along with several local yacht club outstations in both the southern and northern parts of the island. Beyond the SW peninsula, seasonal visitors rely on solar and generator power; the northwestern shore of Gambier, with adjacent Thornborough Channel, is still dominated by the forest industry. The "pond" at Andy's Bay is one of North America's largest logsorts. A resident-operated woodlot on provincial land is located near Andy's Bay, with active logging and reforestation.
The northeast quadrant of Gambier is Crown land, with two more major woodlots proposed by the provincial Ministry of Forests, but not pursued as yet due to the opposition of many local residents, members of the Squamish Nation, whose territory this includes, concerned supporters of a less-industrial Howe Sound. The island has excellent hiking in the provincial Crown land. A third, smaller but steep and conical island to the northeast of both is Anvil Island known as Hat Island. Anvil Island has a summer church camp as well as a number of seasonal homes in the southern bay formed by a prominent eastward projecting peninsula; the north facing bay of this peninsula is exposed to strong overnight and winter outflow northerly winds. Keats Island, near Gibson's Landing, has numerous summer homes lining its shores, in addition to a large church camp for children, a large retreat resort and Plumper Cove Marine Provincial Park; the island is serviced by water taxi from Langdale. There is a small core of permanent residents living in Eastbourne.
Between Keats and Bowen Islands lie the Pasley group, a cluster of owned islands, each with a scattering of seasonal homes. Further southeast lies Worlcombe Island seasonally inhabited. Just north of Horseshoe Bay lies Bowyer Island, another steep sided island with seasonal homes along its south and west shores. Like Passage Island, Bowyer Island is an unincorporated area and part of the Greater Vancouver Electoral Area A, a member of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Uninhabited islands in the northern section of Howe Sound include the Defence Islands, a pair of rocky islands that comprise the Defence Islands Indian Reserves 28 and 28A. Christie Islet and Pam Rocks just south of Anvil Island are recognized bird breeding sites and a great place to view seals sunning themselves. Pam Rocks is a reporting weather station for the marine weather system. Winter northerly gales can reach close to hurricane force here. Between Gambier Island and the Port Mellon mill lies Woolridge Island owned with a single residence.
British Columbia Highway 99 runs along the east shore of Howe Sound, linking the Lower Mainland to Lions Bay, Britannia Beach, where it proceeds inland to Whistler and beyond. From 2007 to 2010, this highway was u
Queen Charlotte Sound (Canada)
There is a Queen Charlotte Sound. Queen Charlotte Sound is a sound of the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia, between Vancouver Island in the south and Haida Gwaii in the north, it merges with Queen Charlotte Strait in the south. Queen Charlotte Sound is part of the Inside Passage shipping route. According to the BCGNIS, the northern boundary of Queen Charlotte Sound is defined as a line running from the southernmost point of Price Island to Cape St James on Kunghit Island, the southernmost point of Haida Gwaii; the western boundary is a line from Cape St James to Cape Scott at the north end of Vancouver Island. The southern boundary runs along the coast of Vancouver Island from Cape Scott to Cape Sutil to Cape Caution on the mainland. An older definition placed the northern boundary as a line from the southernmost point of Aristazabal Island to Cape St James. Queen Charlotte Sound was named by James Strange on August 5, 1786, in honour of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the wife of King George III.
Strange was the leader of a fur trading expedition of two vessels, the Captain Cook, under Captain Henry Lawrie, the Experiment, under Captain John Guise. During a boat excursion up Goletas Channel Strange saw an opening ahead and named it Queen Charlotte Sound; the body of water he named was. For some time Queen Charlotte Strait was called Queen Charlotte Sound, until 1920 when the BCGNIS and Hydrographic Service distinguished between Queen Charlotte Sound and Queen Charlotte Strait. George Vancouver, who used the name in his maps and writings, wrote that the sound was named by Mr. S. Wedgeborough, in command of the Experiment under James Strange, but Vancouver was wrong—Strange was the one who gave the name