Asian Kung-Fu Generation
Asian Kung-Fu Generation is a Japanese alternative rock band formed in Yokohama, Japan, in 1996. For nearly its entire career, the band has consisted of vocalist Masafumi Gotoh, guitarist Kensuke Kita, bassist Takahiro Yamada, drummer Kiyoshi Ijichi. Starting out as a college band, Asian Kung-Fu Generation released a series of independent EPs featuring lyrics sung in English. In 2002, they released their major-label EP debut Hōkai Amplifier, from that point singing their lyrics in Japanese; the band's musical style is influenced by seminal Western alternative rock acts as well as their own local Japanese indie-rock and punk scene. Their songs incorporate various aspects of the genres, most expressing fast tempos and prominent power chord guitar riffs in addition to rhythmic groove and emotional lyrics. Despite the indie nature of their music, the band has enjoyed worldwide commercial success in addition to critical acclaim. Asian Kung-Fu Generation has been cited as one of the best, most balanced modern rock bands to emerge from Japan in the 2000s.
Asian Kung-Fu Generation was first formed in 1996 when Masafumi Gotoh, Kensuke Kita, Takahiro Yamada met while attending a music club at Kanto Gakuin University, a private university in Yokohama, Japan. After realizing that they all shared similar musical tastes, the three decided to start their own band. Masafumi Gotoh became the lead vocalist and played rhythm guitar, Kensuke Kita played lead guitar and sang backup and Takahiro Yamada played bass. Drummer Kiyoshi Ijichi joined them on after parting with another college band he was in; the four began providing performances at their university as well as throughout the local Yokohama area. After graduating from college, following years of playing in several small venues and having collaborated with fellow Japanese rock musician Caramelman, AKFG released their first indie EP in 2000; the six-track EP contained original lyrics written and sung entirely in English. The four spent the remainder of the year hosting independent events; the year after, the band made an attempt to attain airplay on indie radio stations for their first Japanese single, "Konayuki".
The song was picked up by a popular radio DJ and put into heavy rotation on the station FM Yokohama upon the demand of listeners. AKFG released another indie EP, I'm Standing Here; this time, the band wrote songs in Japanese. At this time, the band had begun drawing an large number of audiences to their shows held in clubs in the districts of Shibuya, Kichijōji, Tokyo. On November 25, 2002, after contributing to the Under Flowers Records compilation, Whatch You Gonna Do?, Asian Kung–Fu Generation released their first major-label mini-album, Hōkai Amplifier. The group enlisted internet radio host and graphic artist Yusuke Nakamura to design and compose their single and album covers; the critically acclaimed EP topped the High Line Records' weekly chart for two consecutive weeks and peaked at number thirty-five on the Oricon indies sales chart. As a result of its success, Hōkai Amplifier was re-released on April 23, 2003, by the band's new record label, Ki/oon Records, a subsidiary of Sony Music Japan.
A month AKFG held their first headline show at Shimokitazawa Club Shelter. That same summer, the band performed at the annual rock festivals of Fuji Rock Festival 03's "ROOKIE A GO GO" and Summer Sonic'03 in Tokyo and Osaka. On August 6, the band released their major-label debut single, "Mirai no Kakera", with their second single, "Kimi to Iu Hana", following shortly after. Days AKG held the first of what would come to be many annual concert festivals, ASIAN KUNG-FU GENERATION presents NANO-MUGEN FES; the festival took place on August 11 at the Shinjuku LOFT. The band followed it up by releasing their first full-length studio album, Kimi Tsunagi Five M on November 19; the LP sold over 250,000 copies and landed in the number five spot on the Oricon charts in its first week. As their fame and following grew, fans began calling the band Ajikan, an abridgment of their full name; as they entered 2004, AKFG received the award for Best New Artist while their video for "Kimi to Iu Hana" won the award for Best Music Video at the SPACE SHOWER Music Video Awards.
From January 19 to February 25, AKG held their first headlining tour: Five Nano Seconds. The tour consisted of thirteen shows. On July 1, the band held their third ASIAN KUNG-FU GENERATION presents Nano-Mugen Festival at the Tokyo arena Nippon Budokan. Over the course of the following summer, the band played in more than ten summer rock festivals, including Meet The World Beat, Rock In Japan Fes 04, Fuji Rock Festival 04. Over the course of the year, the band released four more singles: "Siren", "Loop & Loop", "Rewrite" and "Kimi no Machi Made", before releasing their second full-length album, Sol-fa on October 20; the album debuted at number-one on the Oricon charts where it stayed for two consecutive weeks and went on to sell more than 600,000 copies. The album received critical praised for its honed sound and high production quality, which nullified the language barrier that impeded non–Japanese-speaking audiences; this notion became evident following the domestic release of Sol-fa, when AKFG fans from around the world organized themselves and petitioned for copies of the second album to be distributed outside Japan.
The support for Ajikan resulted in Tofu Records striking a contract to release Sol-fa in the United States on October 18, 2005. Additionally, the song "Rewrite" found recognition both domes
Akasaka is a residential and commercial district of Minato, Japan, located west of the government center in Nagatachō and north of the Roppongi nightlife district. Akasaka was a ward of Tokyo City from 1878 to 1947, maintains a branch office of the Minato City government. Akasaka Sacas Embassy of the United States, Cambodia, Iraq and Syria as well as San Marino Ark Hills and Suntory Hall Hikawa Shrine Nogi Shrine Tokyo Midtown - the tallest high-rise complex in Tokyo Takahashi Korekiyo's residence and memorial park Riki Mansion home of RikidōzanIn neighbouring Moto-Akasaka to the North: Akasaka Palace Togu Palace Residence of the Crown Prince of Japan DefSTAR Records 4-5 Akasaka EMI Music Japan 5-3-1 Akasaka Epic Records Japan 9-6-35 Akasaka Fujifilm Fuji Xerox Hazama Ando Hudson Soft JETRO -1-12-32 Akasaka Johnny & Associates 8-11-20 Akasaka Ki/oon Records: Same as Epic Records Japan Kaneka Corporation Komatsu 2-3-6 Akasaka Sigma Seven 2-16-8 Akasaka Tokyo Broadcasting System Holdings, Inc.
5-3-6 AkasakaTokyo Broadcasting System Television, Inc. TBS Radio & Communications, Inc. BS-TBS, Inc. C-TBS, Inc. Toraya Confectionery Universal Music Japan LLC 8-5-30 Akasaka Wa Group Japan 4-3-27 Akasaka Geneon Universal Entertainment 5-2-20 Akasaka WOWOW Previously Jaleco Holding had its headquarters in the Akasaka DS Building in Akasaka; the Japanese offices of the following are based in Akasaka: Becton and Company 4-15-1 Akasaka Clifford Chance Iran Air ING 4-1 Akasaka Milbank Tweed Thomson Reuters GlaxoSmithKline Japan Akasaka Station Akasaka-mitsuke Station Nagatacho Station Aoyama-itchōme Station Nogizaka Station Tameike-Sannō Station Akasaka's public elementary and junior high schools are operated by the Minato City Board of Education. Akasaka High School was operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education, it closed down in March 2009. It reopened the next month as the Aoyama campus of Ōta Sakuradai High School; the Akasaka Library has moved to a new building in 2007, near the Aoba Park and the Aoyama-itchōme subway station.
Media related to Akasaka, Tokyo at Wikimedia Commons Akasaka, Tokyo travel guide from Wikivoyage
Denki Groove is a Japanese synthpop group founded in 1989. Influenced by Yellow Magic Orchestra and Kraftwerk, Denki Groove is a part of Sony Music Japan's Ki/oon Records sublabel. Current members are Pierre Taki. Former members are Jun Kitagawa, their works are popular in Germany, where a handful of singles as well as solo releases from Ishino have been published, Denki Groove is booked for live performances and DJ sets for the Mayday festival. The duo performed in front of 15,000 people on the Green Stage at the 2006 Fuji Rock Festival in Naeba, Niigata. Early works have a focus more with a mixture of hip hop and breakbeat. With releases the style evolved through several types of electronic dance music, though with many asides in unrelated genres. Recent work has been composed of German-style techno; the group's lyrics are tongue-in-cheek and sometimes quite bizarre. One of their biggest hits was "Shangri-La", which peaked at number 10 on the Oricon Weekly Singles Charts in 1997. After their 2000 album Voxxx, the band went on hiatus, but during the break released the best-of album Singles and Strikes and collaborated with Scha Dara Parr on the singles "Twilight" and "Saint Ojisan" that were included on an album that the groups released in 2005.
Their popularity had a resurgence in 2006 when their 1995 single "Niji" was featured in the final episode of Eureka Seven. The following year they began recording new material, such as their new single "Shonen Young", the first new single in eight years, "Mononoke Dance" as the theme song for Hakaba Kitaro, the 2008 adaptation of the manga by the same name, popularized as GeGeGe no Kitaro. Both would be included on their 2008 album J-Pop, followed by single "The Words" and Yellow that same year; the year 2009 saw the release of an album commemorating their 20th anniversary. In 2011, they released a new best-of album Denki Groove Golden Hits: Due to Contract and in 2012 and 2013 released new singles "Shameful" and "Missing Beatz" which were used to promote the 2013 album Human Beings and Animals. On March 13, 2019. Pierre Taki was arrested for cocaine possession. Soon afterwards, Sony Music Japan removed worldwide all videos and digital tracks from streaming services and halted re-stocking of physical product in response.
Current members Takkyū Ishino - vocals, sampling Pierre Taki - vocals, sampling Former members Wakaōji Mimio - guitar Kouji Takahashi - programming Jun Kitagawa a.k.a. CMJK - sequencer, DJ Yoshinori Sunahara - programming 662 BPM by DG Flash Papa U. F. O. Karateka Flash Papa Menthol Vitamin Drill King Anthology DRAGON ORANGE A recycled A VOXXX Ilbon 2000 The Last Supper SINGLES and STRIKES Denki Groove toka Scha Dara Parr J-POP YELLOW 20 Denki Groove Golden Hits: Due to Contract Human Beings and Animals TROPICAL LOVE "Zinsei" As Masaru Taki "MUD EBIS / COSMIC SURFIN'" "SNAKEFINGER" "N. O." "Popo" "Kame Life" "Niji" "Dareda!" "Shangri-La" "Pocket Cowboy" "FLASHBACK DISCO" "Nothing's Gonna Change" "Technopolis" "Twilight" As Denki Groove × Scha Dara Parr "Saint Ojisan" As Denki Groove × Scha Dara Parr "Shonen Young" "Mononoke Dance" "The Words" "Upside Down" "SHAMEFUL" "Missing Beatz" "Man Human" Denki Groove Official Homepage Official Homepage at Sony Music
Epic Records Japan
Epic/Sony Records is a Japanese record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment Japan. Its founder was Shigeo Maruyama. Between 1978 and 1988 the label operated as a wholly owned subsidiary: Epic/Sony Inc. was established in August 1978 and was folded back into CBS/Sony Group in March 1988. Notable music artists for this company have included Motoharu Sano, Tetsuya Komuro, Kimiko Itoh. In 2001, it was re-established as Epic Records Japan Inc.. During the late 1980s and early 1990s they published video games for Nintendo consoles. 1987-06-27 - Tokoro-san no Mamoru mo Semeru mo for Famicom - developed by HAL Laboratory 1988-09-30 - Vegas Dream for Famicom 1989-02-17 - 飛ing ヒーロー Flying Hero for Famicom - developed by Aicom 1989-10-27 - Tashiro Masashi no Princess ga Ippai for Famicom 1990-04-27 - サッカー・ボーイ Soccer Boy = Soccer Mania for Game Boy 1990-07-20 - Solstice for Famicom - developed by Software Creations 1991-03-01 - Robocop for Game Boy 1991-08-09 - Hakunetsu Pro Yakyuu Ganba League = Extra Innings for Famicom - developed by Sting 1991-09-13 - Jerry Ball = Smart Ball for Super Famicom 1991-09-20 - Dragon's Lair for Famicom - developed by Motivetime 1991-10-25 - Dragon's Lair for Game Boy - developed by Motivetime 1991-11-29 - Altered Space for Game Boy 1991-12-27 - Hudson Hawk for Famicom 1992-03-13 - Hudson Hawk for Game Boy 1992-03-19 - Robocop2 for Game Boy 1992-03-27 - Hook for Famicom - developed by Ocean 1992-04-03 - Hook for Game Boy - developed by Ocean 1992-07-17 - Hook for Super Famicom - developed by Ukiyotei 1992-12-11 - Ganba League'93 for Famicom - developed by Sting 1993-10-29 - ユートピア = Utopia: The Creation of a Nation for Super Famicom 1993-11-12 - Solstice II = Equinox for Super Famicom - developed by Software Creations 1993-12-10 - Ganba League'94 1994-02-18 - Karura Ou = Skyblazer for Super Famicom - developed by Ukiyotei Antinos Dohb Discs So What?
Records Kowalski mf Records Mint Age 2PM 7!! Abingdon Boys School Akeboshi, Yoshio Aki, Angela Aqua Timez Atari, Kousuke Aura Cinemusica The Condors Daisuke Deen Dustz Hajime, Chitose Halcali Haneyuri Ikimono-gakari Isoya, Yuki Kawauchi, Sawa LGMonkees Makino, Yui Matsushita, Nao Matsushita, Yuya Nakama, Yukie Nangi Naoto No3b Nodame Orchestra Nothing's Carved in Stone Pengin Sano, Motoharu Shigi Solita Stance Punks Sugaru, Matsutani Suzuki, Masayuki Takachiya Take, Yutaka Theatre Brook T. M. Revolution Uranino Utada, Hikaru ViViD Watanabe, Anne Watanabe, Misato Got7 Yacht. Official Web Site Epic/Sony at discogs.org
Flow (Japanese band)
Flow is a Japanese rock band, formed in 1998 and signed to Sony Music Japan's Ki/oon Music label and represented by the talent agency Amuse. Flow is a five-piece band made up of two vocalists, a drummer, a bassist, a guitarist; as of February 2017, the band has released 10 studio albums. Their songs have been featured in the opening sequences of several anime series; the group's base was created in 1993 when brothers Take began playing together. They formed Flow in 1998, were joined by Keigo, Gotō and Iwasaki. In 2001, the band released its first maxi single, "Flow #0"; the group released two mini-albums within the same year, both of which took nationwide indie charts by storm. "Okuru Kotoba", Flow's first cover single, was released in January 2003. It remained on the Oricon indie chart for seven consecutive weeks and hit an impressive No. 6 on the overall singles chart. In the spring of that year, their first full-scale album Splash!!! debuted at No. 2. In July 2003, Flow released the single "Blaster" on Ki/oon Records.
In April 2004, they released "GO!!!". In May 2004, Flow released their first major album Game. A string of singles followed and in July 2005 the band released its third album, Golden Coast. Since the release of Golden Coast, Flow has released two singles with new A-sides, but one of these Around The World / Kandata was a double A-side release; the songs "GO!!!" and "Re:member" both served as opening themes to the anime series Naruto, as well as "Sign" for Naruto Shippuden. "Days" was the first opening for Bones' Eureka Seven anime, "Realize" was the opening for the PlayStation 2 video games based on the same series. Flow performed live in America for the first time in Dallas, Texas on September 2, 2006 at AnimeFest, held at the Hyatt Hotel and Convention Center in downtown Dallas. Flow released "Colors" in 2006, the first opening for Sunrise's original series, Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion, their song "Answer" is the first opening theme for the live action Japanese drama Detective School Q.
They performed "Night Parade" with the hip-hop band Home Made Kazoku. In February 2008, they released a new single titled "Arigatō", followed by Persona -trinity soul-'s new opening, "Word of the Voice" in June 2008, they performed Code Geass: Lelouch of the Rebellion R2's second opening theme "World End" released in 2008. In 2009, the band performed "Sign", the sixth opening for Naruto Shippuden; the band released a B-side compilation album on November 4, 2009. Their single "Calling" was featured as the ending for the anime Heroman. Flow returned to North America to perform at Anime Central, in Rosemont, Illinois on May 20, 2011, FanimeCon in San Jose, California on May 28, 2010 and in May 2011, their song "Hey!!!" was the third opening theme for the anime Beelzebub, the song "Brave Blue" was used as the second opening theme for the anime Eureka Seven AO. In 2012, they performed in France for the first time at Japan Expo, they provided a cover of "Cha-La Head-Cha-La" as the main theme song for the film Dragon Ball Z: Battle of Gods.
Flow released their eighth studio album Flow The Max!!! on March 27, 2013. Flow went to Brazil for the first time to perform at Ressacca Friends in 2013, their single "Ai Ai Ai ni Utarete Bye Bye Bye" released on February 26, 2014 was used as the second opening to the anime Samurai Flamenco. Flow returned to Brazil in the summer of 2014 to perform at Anime Friends in Sao Paulo and at SuperCon in Recife, they returned to perform at AnimeFest after 8 years in August 2014 at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Their single, "7 -seven-", was a collaboration with the band Granrodeo and was featured as the ending theme to the anime The Seven Deadly Sins. Flow released their second anime best album compilation Flow Anime Best Kiwami on February 25, 2015. Flow's first-ever world tour, Flow World Tour 2015 Kiwami, will see them performing five times in Japan and fourteen times in seven other countries, their first digital single, "Hikari Oikakete", was released on March 21, 2015 and was used as the image song for the Naruto stage play Live Spectacle Naruto.
Their single "Niji no Sora" was used as the 34th ending theme of Naruto Shippuden. Their single. Flow's single "Kaze no Uta / Burn" was released on August 24, 2016, their single "Innosense" was released on February 8, 2017. They covered "D. O. D." for the June 6, 2018 hide tribute album Tribute Impulse. They performed the theme song "Neiro" for the drama series Sachiiro no One Room. KohshiPosition: Vocalist, Rhythm Guitarist Real name: Kōshi Asakawa Birthday: April 22, 1977 Birthplace: SaitamaKohshi is one of the vocalists of Flow and helped create the band with his younger brother Take. Back both were huge fans of X Japan and so they formed a X Japan cover band called Wyburn in 1993 with Kohshi acting as Hide and Take acting as Pata; when X Japan disbanded in 1997, Kohshi decided to shift the band away from being a cover band to an original band with combined influences of rock and hip hop. He changed the band's name to Pinking but would later
Sony Music Entertainment Japan
Sony Music Entertainment Inc. abbreviated as SMEJ or SME, known as Sony Music Japan for short, is Sony's music arm in Japan. SMEJ is directly owned by Sony Corporation and independent from the United States-based Sony Music Entertainment due to its strength in the Japanese music industry, its subsidiaries including the Japanese animation production enterprise, established in September 1995 as a joint-venture between Sony Music Entertainment Japan and Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan, but which in 2001 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment Japan. It was prominent in the early to mid'90s producing and licensing music for animated series such as Roujin Z from acclaimed Japanese comic artist Katsuhiro Otomo and Capcom's Street Fighter animated series; until March 2007, Sony Music Japan had its own North American sublabel, Tofu Records. Releases of Sony Music Japan now appear on Columbia Records and/or Epic Records in North America. Sony does not have the trademark rights to the Columbia name in Japan, so releases under Columbia Records from another country appears on Sony Records in Japan, but retains the usage of the "walking eye" logo.
The Columbia name and trademark is controlled by Nippon Columbia, which was, in fact, the licensee for the American Columbia Records up until 1968 though relations were severed as far back as World War II. Nippon Columbia does not have direct relations with the British Columbia Graphophone Company, so the licensee for the British Columbia Graphophone Company was Toshiba Musical Industries. With Sony Corporation of America's buyout of Bertelsmann's stake in Sony BMG, Sony Music Entertainment Japan stepped in to acquire outstanding shares of BMG Music Japan from Sony BMG, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Japan. Sony Music Entertainment Japan was incorporated in March 1968 as a Tokyo-based 50/50 joint venture between Sony Corporation and U. S. conglomerate CBS to distribute the latter's music releases in Japan. The company was incorporated with Sony co-founder Akio Morita as president. Norio Ohga was part of the management team from the formation of the company and served as president and representative director since April 1970.
In 1972, when CBS/Sony was generating robust profits, Ohga was named chairman and at the same time gained further responsibility and influence within Sony. He would continue to work for the music company one morning a week. In 1980, Toshio Ozawa succeeded Ohga as president. In 1983, the company was renamed CBS/Sony Group. In January 1988, after more than a year of negotiations, Sony acquired CBS Records and the 50% of CBS/Sony Group that it did not own. In March 1988, four wholly owned subsidiaries were folded into CBS/Sony Group: CBS/Sony Inc. Epic/Sony Records Inc. CBS/Sony Records Inc. and Sony Video Software International. The company was renamed Inc.. Shugo Matsuo was named new president in January 1992, replacing Toshio Ozawa, appointed to the post of chairman. Overall sales for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1991 were 83.8 billion yen with a pretax profit of 9.2 billion yen. In June 1996, Ryokichi Kunugi became the new president. Shugo Matsuo was named chairman. Shigeo Maruyama was appointed to the new post of CEO on October 1, 1997 and replaced Kunugi as president in February 1998.
As of 2007, Naoki Kitagawa is the current CEO of the group. In May 2018, SMEJ acquired a 39% stake in the Peanuts comic strip franchise from DHX Media. Sony Music Entertainment announced the launch of its first video game publishing label, Unties, in October 2017. Unties will publish indie games for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation VR, Nintendo Switch, PC; the name was selected by Sony as representative of helping to "unleash" the power of independent video game development and "unshackle" such developers from the traditional video game publishing process. Unties’ first release was Tiny Metal, a turn-based tactics video game developed by Area 35, for the Nintendo Switch, PS4, PC; the game was first premiered at PAX West Indie Megabooth. Published Azure Reflections, a side-scrolling bullet hell developed by Souvenir Circ. on May 15 2018 for the PS4. Published Touhou Gensou Wanderers Reloaded, a roguelike rpg developed by Aqua Style, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Published Necrosphere, a platformer developed by Cat Nigiri, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC, PSVita.
Published Midnight Sanctuary, a VR/3D Novel game developed by CAVYHOUSE, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC. Published Tokyo Dark, a visual novel mystery adventure hybrid developed by Cherrymochi, for the PC. Published Chiki-Chiki Boxy Racers, an arcade racing game developed by Pocket, for the Nintendo Switch on August 30 2018. Scheduled to publish on Last Standard, a 3d action game developed by I From Japan, intended for PC. Scheduled to publish The Good Life, a daily-life rpg developed by White Owls Inc. for the PS4 and PC. Scheduled to publish Merkava Avalanche, a 3d cavalry warfare action game developed by WinterCrownWorks, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Olija, an action adventure game developed by Skeleton Crew Studio, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Deemo Reborn, a music rhythm and urban fantasy game developed by Taiwanese studio Rayak, for the PS4 with PSVR support. Scheduled to publish Giraffe and Anika, a 3d adventure game developed by Atelier Mimina, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC.
Scheduled to publish 3rd Eye, a 2d horror exploration game, based on the Touhou franchise, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Scheduled to publish Gensokyo Defenders, a tower-defense game developed by Neetpia, for the PS4 and Nintendo Switch; the company's leading role on the Ja
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t