Margaret Bridge or Margit híd is a three-way bridge in Budapest, connecting Buda and Pest across the Danube and linking Margaret Island to the banks. It is the second-oldest public bridge in Budapest, it was designed by French engineer Ernest Goüin and built by the construction company Maison Ernest Goüin et Cie. between 1872 and 1876, the engineer in charge being Émile Nouguier. Margaret Bridge was the second permanent bridge in Budapest after Széchenyi Chain Bridge; this bridge leads up to Margaret Island, its two parts enclosing 165 degrees with each other at the embranchment towards the island. The reason for this unusual geometry is that the small extension to connect to Margaret Island was hastily inserted into the original design but not built until two decades due to lack of funds; the bridge's two ends are Germanus Gyula park. It is 25 metres in width. All the bridges of Budapest were blown up by World War II Wehrmacht sapper troops in January 1945 during their retreat to the Buda side of the surrounded capital.
However, Margaret Bridge had been damaged earlier, on 4 November 1944, when an accidental explosion destroyed the eastern span of the bridge. 600 civilians and 40 German soldiers died. During reconstruction, much of the original steel material was lifted from the river and incorporated into the rebuilt structure. By the beginning of the 2000s, the bridge was in bad shape, it became life-threatening therefore, its reconstruction became important. The recondition began 21 August 2009, it was closed to road traffic for at least a year, but trams maintained a partial service over the bridge using temporary track. The whole project took more than 20 billion forints and half of the costs were financed from EU funds; the restoration was completed in 2011. They tried to restore the original appearance of the bridge. Instead of reinforced concrete, durable steel was used and new barriers and floodlights were installed; the middle lanes were widened, the sidewalk expanded by approx. 2 meters and the bike path completed.
Soon after the bridge was inaugurated, it became a preferred spot for people seeking to take their own lives over personal or financial troubles. The wave of suicides inspired János Arany, a renowned Hungarian poet to compose a ballad, "Híd-avatás", about the jumpers, it was distributed in leaflet format, illustrated with Mihály Zichy's romantic styled intricate pencil drawings. Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube River Bridges of Budapest - Margaret Bridge Coordinates: 47°30′53″N 19°02′37″E
A Turkish bath is a place of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more the Islamic world. A variation on it as a method of cleansing and relaxation became popular during the Victorian era, spread through the British Empire and Western Europe; the buildings are similar to the thermae. Unlike Russian saunas, which use ambient steam, Turkish baths focus on water; the process is similar to that of a sauna, but is more related to ancient Greek and ancient Roman bathing practices. It starts with relaxation in a room heated by a continuous flow of hot, dry air, allowing the bather to perspire freely. Bathers may move to an hotter room before they wash in cold water. After performing a full body wash and receiving a massage, bathers retire to the cooling-room for a period of relaxation; the difference between the Islamic hammam and the Victorian Turkish bath is the air. The hot air in the Victorian Turkish bath is dry; the bather in a Victorian Turkish bath will take a plunge in a cold pool after the hot rooms.
In the Islamic hammams the bathers splash themselves with cold water. The Victorian Turkish bath was described by Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Thudichum in a lecture to the Royal Society of Medicine given in 1861, one year after the first such bath was opened in London: The discovery, lost and has been found again, is this, in the fewest possible words: The application of hot air to the human body, it is not vapoury air. It is an immersion of the whole body in hot common air. One of the Five Pillars of Islam is prayer, it is customary before praying to perform ablutions. The two Islamic forms of ablution are ghusl, a full-body cleansing, wudu, a cleansing of the face and feet. In the absence of water, cleansing with pure soil or sand is permissible. Mosques always provide a place to wash, but hammams are located nearby for those who wish to perform deeper cleansing. Hammams in Morocco, evolved from their Roman roots to adapt to the needs of ritual purification according to Islam. For example, in most Roman-style hammams, one finds a cold pool for full submersion of the body.
The style of bathing is less preferable in the Islamic faith, which finds bathing under running water without being submerged more appropriate. Al-Ghazali, a prominent Muslim theologian writing in the 11th century, wrote Revival of the Religious Sciences, a multi-volume work on dissecting the proper forms of conduct for many aspects of Muslim life and death. One of the volumes, entitled The Mysteries of Purity, details the proper technique for performing ablutions before prayer and great ablutions after physical activities deemed unclean, such as sex or defecation. For al-Ghazali, the hammam is a male experience, he cautions that women are to enter the hammam only after childbirth or illness. Al-Gazali finds it admissible for men to prohibit their wives or sisters from using the hammam; the major point of contention surrounding hammams in al-Ghazali's estimation is nakedness. In his work he warns. "… he should shield it from the sight of others and second, guard against the touch of others." He focuses extensively in his writing on the avoidance of touching the penis during bathing and after urination.
He writes that nakedness is decent only when the area between the knees and the lower stomach of a man are hidden. For women, exposure of only the face and palms is appropriate. According to al-Gazali, the prevalence of nakedness in the hammam could incite indecent thoughts or behaviours and so it is a controversial space. Ritual ablution is required before or after sexual intercourse. Knowing that, May Telmissany, a professor at the University of Ottawa, argues that the image of a hyper-sexualised woman leaving the hammam is an Orientalist perspective that sees leaving or attending the hammam as a sign of pre-eminent sexual behaviour. Arab hammams are gendered spaces where being a woman or a man can make someone included or a representant of the "other" respectively. Therefore, they represent a special departure from the public sphere in which one is physically exposed amongst other women or men; this declaration of sexuality by being nude makes hammams a site of gendered expression. One exception to this gender segregation is the presence of young boys who accompany their mothers until they grow old enough to necessitate attending the male hammam with their fathers.
The separation from the women’s hammam and entrance to the male hammam occurs at the age of 5 or 6. As a female space, women's hammams play a special role in society. Valerie Staats finds that the women's hammams of Morocco serve as a social space where traditional and modern women from urban and rural areas of the country come together, regardless of their religiosity, to bathe and socialise. While al-Ghazali and other Islamic intellectuals may have stipulated certain regulations for bathing, the regulations, being outdated and fundamental, are not upheld in the everyday interactions of Moroccans in the hammam. Staats argues that hammams are places where women can feel more at ease than they feel in many other public interactions. In addition, in his work "Sexuality in Islam," Abdelwahab Bouhiba notes that some historians found evidence of hammams as spaces for sexual expression among women, which they believed was a result of the universality of nudity in these spaces. Arab hammams in general are not researched among Western scholars
Árpád Bridge or Árpád híd is a bridge in Budapest, connecting northern Buda and Pest across the Danube. Until the inauguration of Megyeri Bridge in 2008, it was the longest bridge in Hungary, spanning about 2 km with the sections leading up to the bridge, 928 m without them, it is 35.3 m wide with a tramline. At its Óbuda end is Flórián tér, Szentlélek tér. Margaret Island is connected to Árpád Bridge through an embranchment in the middle of the bridge, crosses the Southern tip of Óbuda Island as well, although there is no road, pedestrian or any other connection whatsoever between the two. At the Pest end, the adjoining Line 3 metro station is called "Árpád híd". In earlier times there was a bridge in the same area established by the Romans, it was connecting a fort and the old Roman settlement of Aquincum. There was a plan at the beginning of the 19th century, to create a new bridge named Árpád, however the tender was announced only in 1929. Construction began in 1939 by the plans of János Kossalka.
It was planned to be named "Árpád Bridge" after Grand Prince Árpád, the second Grand Prince of the Magyars. Due to World War II, the bridge was finished only after the war in 1950; because of the communist regime ruling Hungary, the bridge was opened as Stalin Bridge. The final construction works were directed by Pál Sávoly. Although the pillars were built in their current dimensions, the original bridge contained only a 2x1 lane road, railroad tracks with pedestrian paths; this bridge was 13 m wide, 11 meters of this was the road and the tracks, an additional 1 m wide pedestrian path were on each sides. Today the tram tracks are; the name was changed back to Árpád Bridge in 1958. Between 1980 and 1984, by extensive reconstruction and expansion works, two more lanes were added for cars, the pedestrian pathways were widened, the tram track was modernized and overpasses were built for the intersections at both Eastern and Western ends of Árpád Bridge; this was planned and executed in connection with the expansion of the adjacent Róbert Károly körút to 2x3 lanes and double tramway tracks.
The project was called Hungária körgyűrű, although the last third of the belt was finished only around the millennium, years after the completion of Lágymányosi Bridge at the other end of the planned beltway. Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube River Page about transportation in Hungary Hungarian electronic library's page on Hungarian Bridges DBridges - Árpád híd Photos of Budapest bridges Bridges of Budapest - Arpad Bridge Coordinates: 47°32′16″N 19°03′12″E
Rákóczi Bridge is a bridge in Budapest, connecting the settlements of Buda and Pest across the Danube. The construction of the steel girder bridge was started in 1992 to the plans of Tibor Sigrai, it is named after the Rákóczi family, but is still more referred to as Lágymányosi híd. This bridge is the southernmost, the second newest, public bridge in the capital, its Pest end is a station of Csepel HÉV, the venue of the new Hungarian National Theatre and the Palace of Arts. The bridge has been designed to the transfer of trams; the place left to the tram track in the middle of the bridge. The Reconstruction of the tram 1 and the bridge passage line section were built together; the bridge is planned to deliver by Jan. 2015, but the opening was delayed, because the National Transport Authority. They required one more load test with 1000t and after. Erzsébet Bridge Liberty Bridge Margaret Bridge Petőfi Bridge Széchenyi Chain Bridge Bridges of Budapest List of crossings of the Danube River DBridges - Lágymányosi bridge Photos of Budapest bridges National Theatre Palace of Arts Bridges of Budapest - Lagymanyosi Bridge
Hungarian Railway History Park
The Magyar Vasúttörténeti Park is a railway museum located in Budapest, Hungary at a railway station and workshop of the Hungarian State Railways, the former Budapest North Depot. The museum covers more than 70,000 square meters and it features over one hundred exhibits including railway vehicles and equipment; the museum has a fleet with many locomotives of the Hungarian State Railways, ranging from steam engines to electric engines, of which some are still operational. The museum exhibits other forms of rail transport, such as hand-powered cars and inspection cars; some exhibits include a teak dining car built for the Orient Express and the Árpád railcar built in 1912 and 1934. The museum has an automobile, a Soviet Chaika, that has served as an official car of Hungarian Prime Minister Jenő Fock; the car was converted by the Hungarian State Railways to travel on rails. The main building of the museum features exhibitions on the history of railway stations, railway equipment and the history of railways in Hungary.
Many of the exhibits can be interacted with, such as operating a handcart and experiencing an engine simulator, built for the MÁV V63. There is a building with model railways; the museum has a ridable miniature railway for children. The museum features a turntable and a roundhouse with 34 bays; the operational locomotives are used for nostalgic railway trips in Hungary and abroad. One of the steam locomotives at the Hungarian Railway Museum is the MÁV 411.118 of the USATC S160 Class. The Hungarian Railway Museum opened its doors on July 14, 2000; the museum is supported by the Hungarian Railway Museum Foundation, founded on November 22, 1999. MÁV Nostalgia Vasúttörténeti park
Müpa Budapest is a building in Ferencváros, Hungary opened in March 2005. It is located near Rákóczi Bridge and was designed by Zoboky and Partners Architectural Office; the National Theatre, which opened in 2002, is located next to it. Both Müpa Budapest and the National Theatre are part of the new Millennium City Center being created in Budapest; the structure of Müpa Budapest covers a ground area of 10,000 m² and the total floor space of the building is 70,000 m². It received the Prix d’Excellence of FIABCI in 2006; the general manager is Csaba Kael. Bartók National Concert Hall is 25 m high, 25 m wide and 52 m long, providing a total capacity for 1,699 people; the concert hall features acoustics designed by Russell Johnson, who told the Wall Street Journal "in two or three years’ time, Hungarian musicians say this was the best concert hall in the world" The organ of the concert hall, inaugurated on 22 May 2006, has 92 stops and 5 manuals as well as 470 wooden pipes, 5028 tin pipes and 1214 reed pipes.
The extensive intonation period of the organ lasted 10 months. It is one of the largest organs in Europe. A playable virtual version of this pipe organ named Palace of Arts Budapest Pipe Organ Samples was developed in 2008. Ludwig Museum This is a state of the art Contemporary Art Museum with paintings by. Laszlo Feher,and Imre Bak. There are creations by. Festival Theatre The Festival Theatre, in the Eastern third of the Palace of Arts building, seats 452 and has the most modern technology. Millennium City Center Budapest List of concert halls Müpa Budapest official site Millennium City Pictures Organ performance at the Bartók National Concert Hall
The Danubius Hotel Gellért is an Art Nouveau hotel on the right river of Danube in Budapest, Hungary. Construction on the Hotel Saint Gellért started in 1912; the hotel was named for Saint Gellért the first bishop of Hungary in the 11th Century. The 176-room hotel was designed by Hungarian architects Ármin Hegedűs, Artúr Sebestyén and Izidor Sterk. Work on the hotel slowed due to World War I, it did not open until September 1918, just as the war was ending and the Austro-Hungarian Empire was descending into chaos; the hotel was commandeered for the national government's use in 1919, after the downfall of Hungarian Soviet Republic. Once Hungary was established as an independent country, the hotel in its early years were so successful that it was expanded in 1927 with 60 more rooms and a wave pool. Noted Hungarian restaurateur Károly Gundel took over management of the hotel's restaurants in 1927 as well. In 1934, the hotel added a jacuzzi pool; the hotel was damaged in World War II. Post-war Communist authorities removed the "St." from the hotel's name and it became the Hotel Gellért.
Restoration of the Gellért Hill wing began in 1946, while work on the main Danube River wing began in 1957. Restoration work was completed in 1962; the hotel was again renovated in 1973. Danubius Hotels assumed management of the hotel in 1981. After the company was privatized in 1992, it purchased the hotel outright in June 1996; the adjoining spa is operated by the City of Budapest. Hotel Gellért is famous for its thermal baths; the Gellért Spa, connected to the hotel, is a special attraction with its indoor and outdoor swimming pools, wave bath, sunbathing terrace and thermal spa. The jacuzzi, with its glass roof, the wave bath are favorites among guests. Though Gellért Spa is independently owned, guests of the hotel can use the facilities for a discount; the hotel was built in the Secessionist style with some biomorphic elements. The cone-shaped towers of the hotel that frame the hotel make it distinctive from long distances; the interiors of the hotel was built in Art Nouveau style with high glass cupola and wrought iron decoration.
The ornamentation of the stairs originating from the hotel reception is a bespoke glass window whose design represents the Chase of the Miraculous Deer from ancient Hungarian mythology. In the spa, the original Art Nouveau ornamentation has artistic mosaics, colorful windows and statues. During and after World War II the hotel and the thermal baths suffered a great amount of damage. By the end of the 1950’s the reconstruction and renovation of the hotel and its spa was started. From Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport the hotel is 21 km away and can be reached by taxi, minibus, or public transport; the principal streets of the city center and the Great Market Hall are just a short ride by public transport or a ten minute walk across the Liberty Bridge. The closest train station, Kelenföld railway station is just 3 km away and is accessible directly by Line 4 of the Budapest Metro as well as trams and buses that stop in front of the hotel. Budapest Keleti railway station is easily reached using the Line 4 metro.
Gellért Hill is next to the hotel and the Cave Church and Citadella are reachable on foot for those that can manage going up somewhat steep paths. Since it began in 1997, the Balint Balassi Memorial Sword Award international literature prize ceremony has been hosted annually at the hotel; the hotel is among the settings of the computer video game series Hitman in Hitman: Codename 47 and Hitman: Contracts, under the name Hotel Gallàrd, although it is more referred within the game as the "Thermal Bath Hotel". A music video for the song "You Can Get It" by German Eurodance act Maxx was filmed inside the Gellért Spa in 1994. Portions of the 2015 French film, "Le Tournoi" was filmed at the hotel; the 2018 Italian film, "Natale a 5 stelle" was filmed at the hotel. A section of the American film "Red Sparrow", was filmed at the hotel. Balint Balassi Memorial Sword Award Gellért Baths Official website of Hotel Gellért