Skerik is an American saxophonist from Seattle, Washington. Performing on the tenor and baritone saxophone with electronics and loops, he is a pioneer in a playing style, called saxophonics, he is a founding member of Critters Buggin, Garage a Trois and Skerik's Syncopated Taint Septet. He is an original member of both Les Claypool's Fancy Band and Frog Brigade. Skerik worked with grunge band Mad Season. Skerik began playing saxophone in the fifth grade, his father's love of jazz was an early inspiration. He played saxophone and drums in a rock band called Uncle Jaml, he has cited The Rolling Stones and Pink Floyd as bands from that time period who brought saxophone into rock music well. In the 1980s he travelled to London and the South Pacific working day jobs and playing in a variety of bands, his friendship with Leif Totusek introduced him to South African music and Zaire soukous bands in London where he first began playing music full time. Skerik returned to Seattle in the late 1980s. In the early 1990s he joined three ex-members of New Bohemians to form Critters Buggin.
Projects since that time have included Ponga and solo works of Stanton Moore as well as Garage A Trois. Beginning 2000 Skerik was a member of every incarnation of Les Claypool's Frog Brigade and Fancy Band. In 2001 Skerik played the Pacific Northwest portion of Roger Waters' tour, reproducing the sax lead in "Money". In 2002 Skerik formed Syncopated Taint Septet with fellow Seattle musicians. After touring nationally, their 2006 studio release Husky received positive reviews. Skerik won the award of "Northwest Jazz Instrumentalist of the Year" at the 2003 Earshot Jazz Golden Ear Awards. Skerik has expressed support of music education for young people and support for activism such as the voting project HeadCount. In interviews he has discussed creative spontaneity, he has provided music workshops. Skerik is a founding member of Critters Buggin, Garage a Trois, Crack Sabbath and The Dead Kenny G's. Skerik is an original member of Les Claypool's Fancy Band and Frog Brigade, Bobby Previte's Ponga and Coalition of the Willing and Joe Doria's McTuff.
In the 1990s he was a member of Tuatara and Seattle-based Sadhappy. Skerik has toured with Fred Wesley, Mike Clark and The Headhunters, Wayne Horvitz, Mad Season and Roger Waters, he has performed with Pearl Jam, Bonnie Raitt, The Meters, Dumpstaphunk, Johnny Vidacovich, Jacob Fred Jazz Odyssey, Ween. In Seattle Skerik leads Seattle-based punk-jazz band Skerik's Syncopated Taint Septet, he is a founding member of Seattle's Crack Sabbath. He is a member of Seattle-based McTuff. In New Orleans he is a member of Maelstrom Trio, including long-time duomates keyboardist Brian Coogan and drummer Simon Lott; the Maelstrom Trio combines disparate elements such as free jazz, funk and textural music. Skerik and percussionist Mike Dillon have toured as a trio with New Orleans bassist James Singleton as Illuminasti. Skerik and Dillon perform as a trio called The Dead Kenny G's with alternate third members. National tours have included bassist Brad Houser. With Houser they have toured as "Critters Buggin Trio" and in 2009 they released a debut CD entitled Bewildered Herd.
As the band's name implies there is an expressed disdain for smooth commercialism. Skerik has described The Dead Kenny G's as a "free-jazz version of The Melvins." 2001: Psychochromatic 2002: Skerik's Syncopated Taint Septet 2002: Black Frames Solarallergy 2004: Crack Sabbath Bar Slut 2006: Left for Dead in Seattle 2006: Skerik's Syncopated Taint Septet Husky 2009: The Dead Kenny G's Bewildered Herd 2010: Skerik's Syncopated Taint Septet Live at The Triple Door 2011: The Dead Kenny G's Operation: Long Leash 2012: Skerik's Bandalabra Live at the Royal Room With Critters Buggin 1994: Guest 1997: Host 1997: Monkeypot Merganzer 1998: Bumpa 1998: Amoeba 2004: Stampede 2007: Get the Clackervalve and the Old Clobberd Biscuits Out and Smack the Grand Ham Clapper's Mother 2009: Live in 95 at the OK Hotel – Seattle 1995 With Les Claypool 2001: Les Claypool's Frog Brigade Live Frogs Set 1 2001: Les Claypool's Frog Brigade Live Frogs Set 2 2002: Les Claypool's Frog Brigade Purple Onion 2005: 5 Gallons Of Diesel 2006: Of Whales and Woe 2007: Fancy With Stanton Moore 1998: All Kooked Out!
1999: Garage a Trois Mysteryfunk 2002: Flyin' the Koop 2003: Garage a Trois Emphasizer 2005: Garage a Trois Outre Mer 2006: III 2009: Garage a Trois Power Patriot 2011: Garage a Trois Always Be Happy, But Stay Evil With Bobby Previte 1998: Ponga Ponga 1999: Ponga Remix 2000: Ponga Psychological 2006: Bobby Previte – Jamie Saft – Skerik Live in Japan 2003 2006: Beta Popes Live Hate 2006: Coalition of the Willing 2007: April in New York – DVD2008: Beta Popes White Hate With Sadhappy 1992: Depth Charge 1994: Before We Were Dead – Live 1994: The Good and the Skary With others 1995: Mad Season Above 1995: Mad Season Live at
Kirk Joseph is a jazz sousaphone player from New Orleans, Louisiana. The son of trombonist Waldren "Frog" Joseph, Kirk Joseph began playing the sousaphone while a student at Andrew Bell Middle School, took part in his first professional gig at the age of fifteen when his brother Charles invited him to play a funeral with the Majestic Band. In 1977 he became one of the founding members of the Dirty Dozen Brass Band, a group, credited with reviving the brass band tradition in New Orleans, he has played with the Treme Brass Band and Forgotten Souls Brass Band, leads his own group called Kirk Joseph's Backyard Groove. Described as a "modern sousaphone pioneer", Joseph claims inspiration from renowned New Orleans tuba player Anthony "Tuba Fats" Lacen. In an interview with The Times-Picayune Joseph described the effect Lacen's playing had on his own: "He was the first person I heard walking the sousaphone, making it sound like bass.... I took it from there." The style of playing created by Lacen and Joseph was instrumental in establishing the modern New Orleans brass band sound, which combines traditional marching band and Dixieland traditions with strong jazz and funk influences
Donald Harrison Jr. is a jazz saxophonist from New Orleans, Louisiana. The foundation of Harrison's music comes from his life long participation in New Orleans culture, he started in New Orleans secondline culture and studied New Orleans secret tribal culture under his father, Big Chief Donald Harrison Sr.. Harrison Jr. is the Chief of Congo Square in Afro-New Orleans Culture. He studied at the Berklee College of Music; as a professional musician he worked with Roy Haynes and Jack McDuff before joining Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers with Terence Blanchard and recorded albums in a quintet until 1989. Two years Harrison released a tribute album to Blakey; this was followed by an album that reached into Harrison's New Orleans heritage with guest appearances by Dr. John and Cyrus Chestnut and chants by the Guardians of the Flame Mardi Gras Indians, he devoted half the album Nouveu Swing to mixing the swing beat of modern acoustic jazz with modern dance music and half to mixing the swing beat with Caribbean-influenced music.
On the next album his experiments continued by mixing modern jazz's swing beat with hip hop, Latin music, R&B, smooth jazz. His albums, 3D Vols. I, II, III, present him in three different musical genres. On Vol. I he writes and produces smooth jazz and R&B style. On Vol. II he writes and plays in the classic jazz style. On Vol. III he writes plays and produces hip hop, his group, Donald Harrison Electric Band, has recorded popular radio hits and has charted in the top ten of Billboard magazine. He performs as a producer and rapper in traditional New Orleans jazz and hip hop genres with his group, The New Sounds of Mardi Gras; the group, which has recorded two albums, has made appearances worldwide. Harrison is the Big Chief of the Congo Nation Afro-New Orleans Cultural Group, which keeps alive the secret traditions of Congo Square. In 2016 Harrison recorded his first orchestral work with The Moscow Symphony Orchestra, he followed up the piece for the MSO by writing classical orchestral works for the Thailand Philharmonic Orchestra, The New York Chamber Orchestra, The Jalapa Symphony Orchestra in 2017.
Harrison has nurtured a number of young musicians including trumpeter Christian Scott, Mark Whitfield, Christian McBride, The Notorious B. I. G. Harrison was in Spike Lee's HBO documentary When the Levees Broke and has appeared as himself in eleven episodes of the television series Treme. Harrison was chosen Person of the Year by Jazziz magazine in January 2007. 1990: Full Circle 1991: For Art's Sake 1992: Indian Blues with Dr. John 1994: The Power of Cool 1997: Nouveau Swing 1999: Free to Be 2000: Spirits of Congo Square 2001: Real Life Stories 2002: Kind of New 2003: Paradise Found 2004: Heroes 2004: Free Style 2005: New York Cool: Live at The Blue Note 2005: 3D 2006: The Survivor 2008: The Chosen 2011: This Is Jazz: Live at The Blue Note As co-leader with Terence Blanchard 1983: New York Second Line 1984: Discernment 1986: Nascence 1986: Eric Dolphy & Booker Little Remembered Live at Sweet Basil, Vol. 1 1986: Fire Waltz: Eric Dolphy & Booker Little Remembered Live At Sweet Basil, Vol. 2 1987: Crystal Stair 1988: Black Pearl With Art Blakey Oh-By the Way New York Scene Blue Night New Year's Eve at Sweet Basil With Joanne Brackeen Turnaround With The Headhunters Evolution Revolution With the Brian Lynch/Eddie Palmieri Project Simpático With Eddie Palmieri Palmas Arete Vortex Listen Here!
Wisdom/Sabiduria With Don Pullen The Sixth Sense With Lonnie Smith Rise Up! With Esperanza Spalding Esperanza With Jane Monheit Taking a Chance on Love Live with Clark Terry Live at the Supper Club with Lena Horne Harrison's website Donald Harrison Jr. Interview NAMM Oral History Library
Malcolm John Rebennack, better known by his stage name Dr. John, is an American singer and songwriter, his music combines blues, jazz, boogie woogie and rock and roll. Active as a session musician since the late 1950s, he gained a following in the late 1960s after the release of his album Gris-Gris and his appearance at the Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music, he performed a lively, theatrical stage show inspired by medicine shows, Mardi Gras costumes and voodoo ceremonies. Rebennack has recorded more than 20 albums and in 1973 produced a top-10 hit, "Right Place, Wrong Time"; the winner of six Grammy Awards, Rebennack was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame by singer John Legend in March, 2011. In May 2013, Rebennack was the recipient of an honorary doctorate of fine arts from Tulane University. Rebennack was born in New Orleans in 1941 of French heritage. Growing up in the Third Ward, he found early musical inspiration in the minstrel tunes sung by his grandfather and a number of aunts, uncles and cousins who played piano.
He did not take music lessons before his teens and endured only a short stint in choir before getting kicked out. His father, the owner of an appliance store and record shop, exposed him as a young boy to jazz musicians King Oliver and Louis Armstrong, who inspired his 2014 release, Ske-Dat-De-Dat: The Spirit of Satch. Throughout his adolescence his father's connections enabled him access to the recording rooms of rock artists, including Little Richard and Guitar Slim, he began to perform in New Orleans clubs on guitar, played on stage with various local artists. When he was about 13 years old, Rebennack met Professor Longhair. Impressed by the professor's flamboyant attire and striking musical style, Rebennack soon began performing with him, began his life as a professional musician. At age 16 Rebennack was hired by Johnny Vincent as a producer at Ace Records. There, he gained experience working including James Booker and Earl King. While a struggling student at Jesuit High School, he was playing in night clubs, something the Jesuit fathers disapproved of.
They told him to either leave the school. In late 1950s New Orleans, Rebennack gigged with local bands including Mac Rebennack and the Skyliners, Frankie Ford and the Thunderbirds, Jerry Byrne and the Loafers, he had a regional hit with a Bo Diddley-influenced instrumental called "Storm Warning" on Rex Records in 1959. At A&R he and Charlie Miller recorded monophonic singles on 45s for Johnny Vincent and Joe Corona for local labels Ace and Ric, he oversaw the rhythm section while Miller headed up the horns. This continued until Miller moved to study music formally. Rebennack's career as a guitarist was stunted circa 1960, when his left ring finger was injured by a gunshot during an incident at a Jackson, Mississippi gig. After the injury, Rebennack concentrated on bass guitar before making piano his main instrument, developing a style influenced by Professor Longhair. Rebennack became involved in illegal activities in New Orleans and selling narcotics and running a brothel, he was sentenced to two years in a federal prison at Fort Worth, Texas.
His sentence ended in 1965 and he left for Los Angeles. He moved to Los Angeles in 1965 where he became a "first call" session musician in the Los Angeles studio scene in the 1960s and 1970s and was part of the so-called "Wrecking Crew" stable of studio musicians, he provided backing for Sonny & Cher, for Canned Heat on their albums Living the Blues and Future Blues, for Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention on Freak Out!. As a young man Rebennack was interested in New Orleans voodoo, in Los Angeles he developed the idea of the Dr. John persona for his old friend Ronnie Barron, based on the life of Dr. John, a Senegalese prince, a medicinal and spiritual healer who came to New Orleans from Haiti; this free man of color claimed to have 15 wives and over 50 children. He kept an assortment of snakes and lizards, along with embalmed scorpions and animal and human skulls, sold gris-gris, voodoo amulets that protected the wearer from harm. Rebennack decided to produce a record and a stage show based on this concept, with Dr. John serving as an emblem of New Orleans heritage.
Although the plan was for Barron to front the act assuming the identity of "Dr. John", while Rebbenack worked behind the scenes as Dr. John's writer/musician/arranger/producer, this didn't come to pass. Barron dropped out of the project, Rebennack took over the role of Dr. John. Gris-Gris became the name of Dr. John's debut album, representing his own form of "voodoo medicine". Beginning in the late 1960s, Rebennack gained fame as a solo artist after adopting the persona of "Dr. John, The Night Tripper". Dr. John's act combined New Orleans-style rhythm and blues with psychedelic rock and elaborate stage shows that bordered on voodoo religious ceremonies, including elaborate costumes and headdress. In 1970, when Howard Smith asked him where the name "Dr. John the Night Tripper" came from, he responded, "Before that I was Professor Bizarre. Cats used to call me things like "Bishop" or "Governor" or somethin’ but they started callin’ me "Doctor" for a while, so I just hung it on myself for keeps."
On the earliest Dr. John records, the artist billing was "Dr
A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch. There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1-2 combination.
Most trumpets have valves of the piston type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country; each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period. Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder.
The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago, they were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho. They are still used on certain religious days; the Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series. Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument; the development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet."
During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae; the attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound.
Although the impetus for a tubular valve began as early as 1793, it was not until 1818 that Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the box valve as manufactured by W. Schuster; the symphonies of Mozart, as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century; as a consequence of this late development of the instrument's chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the variety of music written for the trumpet; the trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthp
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
The sousaphone is a brass instrument in the same family as the more known tuba. Created around 1893 by J. W. Pepper at the direction of American bandleader John Philip Sousa, it was designed to be easier to play than the concert tuba while standing or marching, as well as to carry the sound of the instrument above the heads of the band. Like the tuba, sound is produced by moving air past the lips, causing them to vibrate or "buzz" into a large cupped mouthpiece. Unlike the tuba, the instrument is bent in a circle to fit around the body of the musician; because of the ease of carrying and the direction of sound, it is employed in marching bands, as well as various other musical genres. Sousaphones were made out of brass but in the mid-20th century started to be made from lighter materials like fiberglass; the first sousaphone was built by James Welsh Pepper in 1893 at the request of John Philip Sousa, dissatisfied with the hélicons in use by the United States Marine Band. Some sources credit C. G. Conn with its construction, because of the first sousaphone he built in 1898.
Sousa wanted a tuba-like instrument that would send sound upward and over the band, much like a concert tuba. The new instrument had an oversized bell pointing straight up, rather than the directional bell of a normal hélicon; the sousaphone was developed as a concert instrument rather than for marching. Sousa wanted the new instrument for the professional band which he started after leaving the Marines, this band marched only once. Sousa used sousaphones built by C. G. Conn. Although less balanced on a player's body than a helicon, because of the large spectacular bell high in the air, the Sousaphone retained the tuba-like sound by widening the bore and throat of the instrument significantly, its upright bell led to the instrument being dubbed a "rain-catcher". Some versions of this design allowed the bell to rotate forward, projecting the sound to the front of the band; this bell configuration is the standard today. The instrument proved practical for marching, by 1908 the United States Marine Band adopted it.
Versions with the characteristic extra 90° bend making a forward-facing bell were developed in the early 1900s. Early sousaphones had 22-inch-diameter bells, with 24-inch bells popular in the 1920s. From the mid-1930s onward, sousaphone bells have been standardized at a diameter of 26 inches; some larger sousaphones were produced in limited quantities. The sousaphone is a valved brass instrument with the same tube length and musical range as other tubas; the sousaphone's shape is such. The valves are situated directly in front of the musician above the waist and all of the weight rests on the left shoulder; the bell is detachable from the instrument body to facilitate transportation and storage. Except for the instrument's general shape and appearance, the sousaphone is technically similar to a tuba. For simplicity and light weight, modern sousaphones always use three non-compensating piston valves in their construction, in direct contrast to their concert counterparts' large variation in number and orientation.
Both the tuba and sousaphone are semi-conical brass instruments. No valved brass instrument can be conical, since the middle section containing the valves must be cylindrical. While the degree of bore conicity does affect the timbre of the instrument, much as in a cornet and trumpet, or a euphonium and a trombone, the bore profile of a sousaphone is similar to that of most tubas. To facilitate making the mouthpiece accessible to players of different height or body shapes, most sousaphones contain a detachable tubing gooseneck which arises from the lead pipe on the upwind side of the valves. One or two slightly-angled bit are inserted into the gooseneck, the mouthpiece is inserted into the terminal bit; this arrangement may be adjusted in height and yaw angle to place the mouthpiece comfortably at the player's lips. Most sousaphones are manufactured from sheet brass yellow or silver, with silver and gold plating options, much like many brass instruments. However, the sousaphone is commonly seen manufactured from fiberglass, due to its lower cost, greater durability, lighter weight.
The weight of a sousaphone can be between 50 pounds. Most modern sousaphones are made in the key of BB♭ and like tubas the instrument's part is written in "concert pitch", not transposed by key for a specific instrument. Although sousaphones may have a more restricted range than their concert tuba counterpart they can all play the same music and have parts written in the bass clef and the indicated octave is played Many older sousaphones were pitched in the key of E♭, but current production of sousaphones in that key is limited. Although most major instrument manufacturers have made, many continue to make, sousaphones and King instruments are agreed among players to be the standards against which other sousaphones are judged for tone quality and playability; the most regarded sousaphone built is the 0.734-inch-bore (1