Webster Groves High School
Webster Groves High School is a public secondary school in Webster Groves, United States. It is located at 100 Selma Ave, Webster Groves, MO; the school is part of the Webster Groves School District and its current principal is Matt Irvin. Webster Groves High School was first established in 1889 as a ninth grade course; the original high school building was located on Gray Avenue, repurposed as Bristol Elementary School. In 1906, a new building for the school was built at 100 Selma Avenue. James Hixson served as principal from 1907 to 1943. At first the high school was a two-story brick building with an auditorium. In 1913 two wings were added to the school, which contained a gymnasium. In 1917 an Armory was erected, but it was converted to the gymnasium/lunch room after World War I. In 1946 that building was replaced by Roberts Gym, named after Charles A. Roberts, who coached and taught at the school for 39 years. In the 1920s a three-story section and public library were added. In 1935 an addition was completed that added the drama, home economics, science department classrooms.
Howard Latta's was principal from 1943 to 1968. WGHS was racially integrated in 1956, in 1966 a three-story wing was added onto the back of the building and the Herbert Schooling Library was donated. Jerry Knight was principal from 1969 to 1986. Patricia Voss was principal 1994–2003. Since 1977, Voss had been an assistant principal at the high school. In October 2002 a white powdery substance found in a tissue box provoked a two-hour lockdown. Investigators determined the substance was not Anthrax; the Webster Groves School Board appointed Jon Clark as principal in 2003. Clark had been an assistant principal at the high school for seven years. In 2011, construction began on a 106,000-square-foot addition to the school. Completed in 2012, this addition included new classrooms, state-of-the-art science labs, vocational labs, a main band room, private band practice rooms and art studios; the roof of the building features a vegetation area surrounded by a glass curtain wall. In addition, three 20,000 gallon water harvesting tanks are located at the base of the building for rain collection and irrigation for the field behind the building.
The expansion was built to resemble the look of the existing building, including the use of terrazzo floors and steps, limestone accents. The Webster Groves High School building has 84 classrooms along with an auditorium, a media center, a theater, it has a baseball and softball field to the east. Moss Field, the football stadium, is located at Hixon Middle School at 630 South Elm Avenue, a short drive from the high school; the field has been renovated several times. It now has locker rooms, lights and an all-weather track. 24 credits are required to graduate from Webster Groves High School. The class of 2010 and every class thereafter need four credits of Communication Skills. Students are required to take a half credit of Personal Finance, considered either a practical art or a social studies credit. Students may organize their own clubs as long as they are accompanied by a faculty sponsor and chartered by the student council Webster Groves High School sponsors a number of different sports, including football, field hockey, basketball, softball, golf and field, lacrosse.
Ice hockey and men's lacrosse are non-affiliate sports at the high school. The Turkey Day football game is an annual game held on Thanksgiving Day between Webster Groves High School and its longtime rival, Kirkwood High School; the rivalry between the two schools is the oldest current Thanksgiving Day rivalry west of the Mississippi River. The location of the game alternates each year between Webster’s Moss Field and Kirkwood’s Lyon’s Memorial field. A number of festivities surround the game, including a shared dance and a separate bonfire and pep rally at each school. 2007 was the 100th year of this storied series between the two schools, the game had attendance exceeding 12,000 fans. In 1966 CBS produced an award winning documentary called 16 In Webster Groves, about the lives of students in Webster Groves. In 1996 then-President Bill Clinton came to the school to recognize the Webster Groves School District’s work towards preventing drugs and violence among its students. In 1999 Time magazine devoted a cover story to a week at Webster Groves High School.
Average professional experience: 15.3 years Percentage of teachers with advanced degrees: 79.4% Grades: 9-12 Enrollment: 1,378 Senior class of 2018: 339 Student/teacher Ratio: 19:1 Rate of Attendance: 93.6% Graduation Rate: 97.9% 2008 Composite ACT Score: 23.4 2014 National Merit Semifinalist Students: 4 2014 National Merit Commended Students: 4 Courses offering College Credit: 23Webster Groves High School is a closed campus for grades 9-11. Seniors are given the privilege to leave campus during their lunch hour. Citations Sources Official website
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Richardsonian Romanesque is a style of Romanesque Revival architecture named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Church, designated a National Historic Landmark. Richardson first used elements of the style in his Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane in Buffalo, New York, designed in 1870; this free revival style incorporates 11th and 12th century southern French and Italian Romanesque characteristics. It emphasizes clear, strong picturesque massing, round-headed "Romanesque" arches springing from clusters of short squat columns, recessed entrances, richly varied rustication, blank stretches of walling contrasting with bands of windows, cylindrical towers with conical caps embedded in the walling; the style includes work by the generation of architects practicing in the 1880s before the influence of the Beaux-Arts styles. It is epitomised by the American Museum of Natural History's original 77th Street building by J. Cleaveland Cady of Cady and See in New York City.
It was seen in smaller communities in this time period such as in St. Thomas, Ontario's city hall and Menomonie, Wisconsin's Mabel Tainter Memorial Building, 1890; some of the practitioners who most faithfully followed Richardson's proportion and detailing had worked in his office. These include: Alexander Wadsworth Frank Alden. Other architects who employed Richardson Romanesque elements in their designs include: Spier and Rohns and George D. Mason, both firms from Detroit. Fenimore C. Bate designed the Grays Armory in this style in Ohio; the style influenced the Chicago school of architecture and architects Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. In Finland, Eliel Saarinen was influenced by Richardson. Overseas, Folke Zettervall was influenced by the Richardson style when he designed several railway stations in Sweden during this period. Research is underway to try to document the westward movement of the artisans and craftsmen, many of whom were immigrant Italians and Irish, who built in the Richardsonian Romanesque tradition.
The style began in the East, in and around Boston, where Richardson built the influential Trinity Church on Copley Square. As the style was losing favor in the East, it was gaining popularity further west. Stone carvers and masons trained in the Richardsonian manner appear to have taken the style west, until it died out in the early years of the 20th century; as an example, four small bank buildings were built in Richardsonian Romanesque style in Osage County, during 1904–1911. For pictures of H. H. Richardson’s own designs and some of the details, see Henry Hobson Richardson. With the exception of the Richardson Olmsted Complex, none of the following structures were designed by Richardson, they illustrate the strength of his architectural personality on progressive North American architecture from 1885 to 1905. They are divided into categories denoting the various different uses of the buildings. Civic buildings Educational Institutions and Libraries Service-related buildings Churches and chapels Residences Henry Hobson Richardson H. H. Richardson Historic District of North Easton Romanesque Revival architecture Notes Bibliography Kelsey, Mavis P. and Donald H. Dyal, The Courthouses of Texas: A Guide, Texas A&M University Press, College Station Texas 1993 ISBN 0-89096-547-1 Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Architectural Sculpture in America unpublished manuscript Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Starkweather Memorial Chapel, Highland Cemetery, Michigan, Unpublished paper 1983 Larson, Paul C.
Editor, with Susan Brown, The Spirit of H. H. Richardson on the Midwest Prairies, University Art Museum, University of Minnesota and Iowa State University Press, Ames 1988 Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, H. H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works, MIT Press, Cambridge MA 1984 ISBN 0-262-15023-9 Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, Andersen, Dennis Alan, Distant Corner: Seattle Architects and the Legacy of H. H. Richardson, University of Washington Press, Seattle WA 2003 ISBN 0-295-98238-1 Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold, Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works, Dover Publications, Inc. NY 1959 ISBN 0-486-22320-5 Digital archive of American architecture: Richardsonian Romanesque Richardsonian Romanesque described and illustrated by buildings in Buffalo, New York Starkweather Chapel, Michigan Pueblo Union Depot
In the United States, a plat is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. United States General Land Office surveyors drafted township plats of Public Lands Surveys to show the distance and bearing between section corners, sometimes including topographic or vegetation information. City, town or village plats show subdivisions into blocks with alleys. Further refinement splits blocks into individual lots for the purpose of selling the described lots. After the filing of a plat, legal descriptions can refer to block and lot-numbers rather than portions of sections. In order for plats to become valid, a local governing body, such as a public works department, urban planning commission, or zoning board must review and approve them. A plat of consolidation or plan of consolidation originates when a landowner takes over several adjacent parcels of land and consolidates them into a single parcel. In order to do this, the landowner will need to make a survey of the parcels and submit the survey to the governing body that would have to approve the consolidation.
A plat of subdivision or plan of subdivision appears when a landowner or municipality divides land into smaller parcels. If a landowner owns an acre of land, for instance, wants to divide it into three pieces, a surveyor would have to take precise measurements of the land and submit the survey to the governing body, which would have to approve it. A plat of subdivision applies when a landowner/building owner divides a multi-family building into multiple units; this can apply for the intention of selling off the individual units as condominiums to individual owners. A short plat is the plat of a so-called "short subdivision" of land into no more than four parcels in the State of Washington, which provides for a more summary process for approval of such subdivisions. A correction plat or amending plat records minor corrections to an existing plat, such as correcting a surveying mistake or a scrivener's error; such plats can sometimes serve to relocate lot-lines or other features, but laws tightly restrict such use.
A vacating plat functions to void a prior plat or portion of a plat. The rules allow such plats only when all the platted lots remain unsold and no construction of buildings or public improvements has taken place. Other names associated with parcel maps are: land maps, tax maps, real estate maps, landowner maps and block survey system and land survey maps. Parcel maps, unlike any other public real estate record, have no federal, state or municipal oversight with their development. Designation of roads or other rights of way. Ensuring that all property has access to a public right of way. Without such access, a property owner may be unable to utilize his or her property without having to trespass to reach it; the platting process restricts the fraudulent practice of knowingly selling lots with no access to public right of way without revealing that such access does not exist. Creation or vacation of easements. Dedication of land for other public uses, such as parks or areas needed for flood protection.
Ensuring compliance with zoning. Zoning regulations contain restrictions that govern lot sizes and lot geometry; the platting process allows the governing authorities to ensure that all lots comply with these regulations. Ensuring compliance with a land use plan established to control the development of a city. Ensuring that all property has access to public utilities. Plats contain a number of informational elements: The property boundaries are indicated by bearing and distance; the bearing is in the format of degrees, seconds with compass point letters before and afterward to indicate the compass quadrant. For example, N 38 00 00 E is 38 degrees into the northeast quadrant or 38 degrees east of north. S 22 00 00 W is 22 degrees west of south. Note that north here is true north, so magnetic orientation must be corrected for magnetic declination; the certification note provides information on the surveyor and is the location where recent US plats place the flood survey code in accordance with the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968.
The north arrow is familiar to most map readers The title block and lot numbers provide information specific to a development or land use plan An easement is indicated by a dashed line, although it is common to have to look them up in supplementary documents Streets are indicated by a graphical outline of the right of way, sometimes depicts the paved area. The creation of a plat map marks an important step in the process of incorporating a town or city according to United States law; because the process of incorporation sometimes occurred at a courthouse, the incorporation papers for many American cities may be stored hundreds of miles away in another state. For example, to view the original General Land Office plat for the city of San Francisco, filed in 1849, one must visit the Museum of the Oregon Territory in Oregon City, Oregon, as at that time Oregon City was the site of the closest federal land office to San Francisco. Lot and block survey system Plat of Zion The dictionary definition of plat at Wiktionary Media related to Survey drawings at Wikimedia Commons The U.
S. National Archives and Records Administration
Forest Park (St. Louis)
Forest Park is a public park in western St. Louis, Missouri, it covers 1,371 acres. Opened in 1876, more than a decade after its proposal, the park has hosted several significant events, including the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904 and the 1904 Summer Olympics. Bounded by Skinker Boulevard, Lindell Boulevard, Kingshighway Boulevard, Oakland Avenue, it is known as the "Heart of St. Louis" and features a variety of attractions, including the St. Louis Zoo, the Saint Louis Art Museum, the Missouri History Museum, the St. Louis Science Center. Since the early 2000s, it has carried out a $100 million restoration of its facilities through a public-private partnership aided by its Master Plan. Changes have extended to improving habitat as well; the park's acreage includes meadows and trees and a variety of ponds, manmade lakes, freshwater streams. For several years, the park has been restoring wetlands areas of the park, it has reduced flooding and attracted a much greater variety of birds and wildlife, which have settled in the new natural habitats.
An 1864 plan for a large park in the city limits was rejected by St. Louis voters. In 1872, St. Louis developer Hiram Leffingwell proposed a 1,000-acre park about three miles outside the city limits near land which he owned. After a period of intense lobbying by Leffingwell, the Missouri General Assembly authorized the city to purchase the land; the next year another developer, Andrew McKinley, prepared another proposal that met legal challenges. The tract selected that became Forest Park included a forested 1,375-acre area west of Kingshighway along Olive Street. Using McKinley's proposal as a guide, in 1874 the General Assembly passed the Forest Park Act, which established the park and created a county-wide property tax to fund it. In November 1874, the Missouri Supreme Court upheld the new law and referred all questions of land ownership and value to the circuit court; the largest parcels of land needed for the park belonged to Thomas Skinker, Charles P. Chouteau, Julia Maffitt, William Forsyth, who in 1874 and 1875 sold their land to the city.
The city purchased the land for $849,058, with another million dollars dedicated to maintenance and improvement. The state of the parkland in 1876 was rural: on the eastern and western edges of the park were unpaved roads. Flowing through the northern lowlands and turning southeast in the park was the River des Peres, which at times was low while in some seasons could flood large areas; the southwestern part of the park was forested land, the east-west Clayton Road ran through the southern part of the park. A railroad right-of-way cut through the northeast corner of the park. Maximillian G. Kern and Julius Pitzman, the Prussian-born St. Louis Surveyor, designed the Park's original plan; the park was dedicated June 1876 with a crowd of about 50,000 in attendance. Officials and a band occupied a music stand and podium, dedicated a statue of Edward Bates, the Attorney General under President Abraham Lincoln. By the early 1890s, streetcar lines reached the park. A zoological gardens had been established around 1876 in Fairgrounds Park, on the north side of the city.
In 1901, Forest Park was selected as the location of the 1904 World's Fair, known as the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The fair opened April 30, 1904 and closed December 1, 1904, it left the park vastly different. In addition to the fair, the park hosted the diving and water polo events for the 1904 Summer Olympics. Fifteen sports offered Olympic competition events; the 1904 Games were the first time. George Kessler, the fair's landscape architect changed the park: the wetlands areas in the western part of the park were drained and converted into water features and five connected lakes. Sewer and water lines installed during the fair remained for public use in the park. After the fair, thousands of trees were planted and vistas were created. In 1909, the fair's directors gave the balance of the remaining profits from the fair toward the construction of a monument to Thomas Jefferson, on the former site of the Fair's entry gates. Other structures left from the fair include the Saint Louis Art Museum, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, the 1904 Bird Cage, the Grand Basin, located at the foot of Art Hill, the location of the Festival Hall and cascades at the Fair.
Though mistakenly counted among relics of the Fair, the World's Fair Pavilion in Forest Park is a structure, constructed in 1909 with proceeds from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The Palace of the Arts, a building now known as The Saint Louis Art Museum in Forest Park, was divided into six classifications: painting and engravings, architecture, loan collection, industrial art. In addition to art displays, many novelties were showcased for the first time at the Fair. Electricity, still considered young at the time, was showcased in a number of ways. Attendees at the Fair were awestruck by the electric lighting, both inside and out, of all of the important buildings and roads; the electrical plug and the wall outlet were displayed. Two of the more notable technological achievements demonstrated were the x-ray machine and the b
Arbor Day is a holiday in which individuals and groups are encouraged to plant trees. Today, many countries observe such a holiday. Though observed in the spring, the date varies, depending on climate and suitable planting season; the Spanish village of Mondoñedo held the first documented arbor plantation festival in the world organized by its mayor in 1594. The place remains as Alameda de los Remedios and it is still planted with lime and horse-chestnut trees. A humble granite marker and a bronze plate recall the event. Additionally, the small Spanish village of Villanueva de la Sierra held the first modern Arbor Day, an initiative launched in 1805 by the local priest with the enthusiastic support of the entire population. While Napoleon was ravaging Europe with his ambition in this village in the Sierra de Gata lived a priest, don Juan Abern Samtrés, according to the chronicles, "convinced of the importance of trees for health, decoration, nature and customs, decides to plant trees and give a festive air.
The festival began on Carnival Tuesday with the ringing of two bells of the church, the Middle and the Big. After the Mass, coated with church ornaments, don Juan, accompanied by clergies, teachers and a large number of neighbours, planted the first tree, a poplar, in the place known as Valley of the Ejido. Tree plantations continued by Fuente de la Mora. Afterwards, there was a feast, did not miss the dance; the party and plantations lasted three days. He drafted a manifesto in defence of the trees, sent to surrounding towns to spread the love and respect for nature, he advised to make tree plantations in their localities; the first American Arbor Day was originated in Nebraska by J. Sterling Morton. On April 10, 1872, an estimated one million trees were planted in Nebraska. Birdsey Northrop of Connecticut was responsible for globalizing the idea when he visited Japan in 1883 and delivered his Arbor Day and Village Improvement message. In that same year, the American Forestry Association made Northrop the Chairman of the committee to campaign for Arbor Day nationwide.
He brought his enthusiasm for Arbor Day to Australia and Europe. Beginning in 1906, Pennsylvania conservationist Major Israel McCreight of DuBois, argued that President Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation speeches were limited to businessmen in the lumber industry and recommended a campaign of youth education and a national policy on conservation education. McCreight urged Roosevelt to make a public statement to school children about trees and the destruction of American forests. Conservationist Gifford Pinchot, Chief of the United States Forest Service, embraced McCreight’s recommendations and asked the President to speak to the public school children of the United States about conservation. On April 15, 1907, Roosevelt issued an "Arbor Day Proclamation to the School Children of the United States" about the importance of trees and that forestry deserves to be taught in U. S. schools. Pinchot wrote McCreight, "we shall all be indebted to you for having made the suggestion." Arbor Day has been observed in Australia since 20 June 1889.
National Schools Tree Day is held on the last Friday of July for schools and National Tree Day the last Sunday in July throughout Australia. Many states have Arbor Day, although Victoria has an Arbor Week, suggested by Premier Rupert Hamer in the 1980s. International Day of Treeplanting is celebrated in Flanders on or around 21 March as a theme-day/educational-day/observance, not as a public holiday. Tree planting is sometimes combined with awareness campaigns of the fight against cancer: Kom Op Tegen Kanker; the Arbor Day is celebrated on September 21. It is not a national holiday. However, schools nationwide celebrate this day with environment-related activities, namely tree planting. Arbour Day is celebrated on November 22, it is sponsored by the National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands. Activities include an annual national Arbour Day Poetry Competition and tree planting ceremonies throughout the territory. Cambodia celebrates Arbor Day on July 9 with a tree planting ceremony attended by the king.
The day was founded by Sir George W. Ross the Premier of Ontario, when he was Minister of Education in Ontario. According to the Ontario Teachers' Manuals "History of Education", Ross established both Arbour Day and Empire Day - "the former to give the school children an interest in making and keeping the school grounds attractive, the latter to inspire the children with a spirit of patriotism"; this predates the claimed founding of the day by Don Clark of Schomberg, Ontario for his wife Margret Clark in 1906. In Canada, National Forest Week is the last full week of September, National Tree Day falls on the Wednesday of that week. Ontario celebrates Arbour Week from the last Friday in April to the first Sunday in May. Prince Edward Island celebrates Arbour Day on the third Friday in May during Arbour Week. Arbour Day is the longest running civic greening project in Calgary and is celebrated on the first Thursday in May. On this day, each grade 1 student in Calgary's schools receives a tree seedling to be taken home to be planted on private property.
National Tree Planting Day is on July 20. The Arbor Day in China was founded by the famous forestry scientist Ling Dao-yang in 1915. From 1916 to 1928, Arbor Day was celebrated on the Chinese Qingming Festival, on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. In 1929, the date for Arbor Day was changed to March 12 to commemorate Sun Yat-sen. In 1979, the fourth session of the Fifth Nation