A justacorps or justaucorps is a long, knee-length coat worn by men in the latter half of the 17th century, throughout the 18th century. The garment is of French origin, was introduced in England as a component of a three-piece ensemble consisting of breeches and a long vest or waistcoat; this ensemble served as the prototype of the frock coat, which in turn evolved into the modern-day three-piece suit. The fabric selection and styling of the justacorps varied throughout time periods, as fashions altered. In 1666, Charles II of England declared to reset men’s fashion by introducing a new garment, referred to as a vest, or a waistcoat; the vest was knee-length, worn in conjunction with an overcoat of equal length. The coat became known as the justacorps, or cassock due to its similarity to the vestments worn by priests, this outfit is thought to be the prototype of the modern day men's three-piece suit. Similar coats known as Achkans and Sherwanis had been worn in India for centuries, could be either sleeved or sleeveless.
These were worn by wealthy travellers who visited the East during the early 1600s, some may have been brought back to England. Another garment that came into fashion in Poland and Hungary at the same time was the Zupan or dolman with its distinctive turn-back cuffs and decorative gold braid; the Zupan started out as a long and heavy winter gown before becoming shorter and more fitted during the 16th century. These Eastern European and Indian long coats influenced the design of the justacorps favored by Louis XIV of France and King Charles due to their exotic appearance and practicality. Despite the outfit introduced by Charles II in 1666, the justacorps did not establish itself as a popular component of men’s dress until around 1680, it replaced the doublet, a popular shorter style of coat. The justacorps was worn to the knee, it opened center front having many buttons and buttonholes lining the entire length of the opening. The sleeves were fitted, featured deep cuffs; some styles of the justacorps remained fitted throughout the bodice, though other versions feature a more accentuated, flared skirt through the addition of gores and pleats.
Justacorps featured decorative pockets placed too low for the wearer to take functional advantage. Worn by aristocratic, wealthy men, justacorps were ornate in design and made of luxurious fabrics. Colourful silk, brocade and wool were used textiles. Justacorps were accented with contrasting fabrics of different colours and patterns, displayed through turned back cuffs or a decorative sash worn across the shoulders. By the early 18th century, the silhouette of the justacorps had become wider, with a fuller skirt, laid the foundation for men’s fashion throughout the rest of the century. In the first half of the 18th century, the justacorps altered in appearance; the garment’s opening remained at center front, however the buttons only extended to the waist area, allowing extra room for the extension of a fuller skirt. The cuffs became tighter and no longer folded back, pockets were functional, located at a more accessible, hip-level region; the opening of the justacorps was rounded towards the mid chest, flared away from the body.
In the second half of the 18th century, the justacorps skirt decreased in fullness, becoming narrower. A straight edge, similar to 17th-century-style openings, replaced the rounded opening of the coat, sleeves reverted to a deep, turned back cuff. Textiles for the justacorps varied by use. Durable fabrics, like wool, were used in ordinary, everyday situations, had less ornamentation compared to ones worn in elegant, formal settings; these coats were made of ornate fabrics like silk and brocade, decorated with elaborate embroidery and lace. The justacorps should be distinguished as different from the frock coat, which were less ornate, differed in cut and silhouette, not worn popularly until the late 18th century. 1650–1700 in fashion 1700–1750 in fashion Condra, Jillian: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Throughout World History: 1501 - 1800, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 978-0-313-33664-5 Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century, Harper & Row, 1965.
ASIN B0006BMNFS Picken, Mary Brooks: The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls, 1957. Ribeiro, Aileen: Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England, Yale, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10999-7 Tortora, Phyllis G & Eubank, Keith: Survey of Historic Costume: 5th Edition, Fairchild Books, 2010, ISBN 978-1-56367-806-6
The Windsor uniform is a type of formal dress worn at Windsor Castle by male members of the British royal family. The uniform was introduced by King George III in 1777; the full dress version, which had a good deal of gold braid about it, did not survive beyond 1936, but the undress version is still worn today: a dark blue jacket with red facings. It is now worn only at Windsor Castle, since the reign of King Edward VII, it has been worn only as evening dress; the uniform takes the form of an evening tail coat of dark blue cloth, with scarlet collar and cuffs. There are three buttons on each front, two at the back of the waist, two at the end of each tail, two on each cuff; the gilt buttons bear a design of a Garter star within a garter, surmounted by the imperial crown. It is worn with a white single-breasted waistcoat with three small gilt buttons of the same pattern, with plain black evening-dress trousers; when the court is in mourning, a black waistcoat and black armband are worn. As well as the tail coat version, the Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales wear a dinner jacket version of the coat.
Media related to Windsor uniform at Wikimedia Commons Windsor uniform – Dress and insignia worn at His Majesty's court
A basque is an item of women's clothing. The term, of French origin referred to types of bodice or jacket with long tails, in usage a long corset, characterized by a close, contoured fit and extending past the waistline over the hips, it is so called because the original French fashion for long women's jackets was adopted from Basque traditional dress. In contemporary usage it refers only to a long item of lingerie, in effect a brassiere that continues down, stopping around the waist or the top of the hips, the lower part decorative rather than providing support or indeed warmth. In Victorian fashion, basque refers to a fitted bodice or jacket extending past the waistline over the hips. A basque bodice could be referred to as a "corset waist", because of its close fit; the modern French-language usage is different, much closer to the historic original, used in the plural. In 20th century and contemporary attire, the term is used to refer to certain articles of lingerie a type of corset known as a torsolette, or alternately a torso-hugging camisole that resembles a corset, but of more delicate construction and offering little or no figure-moulding compression.
Instead the modern basque emphasizes allure, with details such as frilly lace and cutout, "peekaboo" designs, sometimes garters to join to stockings. The undergarment is similar with less compression of the ribs; the modern-day torsolette features lace-up or hook-and-eye fastening, as well as boning or vertical seams for structure and support. It though not always, has brassiere cups and is distinguished from the bustier by its length. In American English, it is sometimes known as a "merry widow". A soft torsolette is like an elongated bandeau A long torsolette is a corselette Media related to Torsolette at Wikimedia Commons
History of clothing and textiles
The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the development and availability of clothing and textiles over human history. Clothing and textiles reflect the materials and technologies available in different civilizations at different times; the variety and distribution of clothing and textiles within a society reveal social customs and culture. The wearing of clothing is a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies, though it is not known when various peoples began wearing clothes. Anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold and rain as humans migrated to new climates. Textiles can be felt or spun fibers made into yarn and subsequently netted, knit or woven to make fabrics, which appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. From the ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, decorated their surroundings.
Sources available for the study of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology. Scholarship of textile history its earlier stages, is part of material culture studies; the development of textile and clothing manufacture in prehistory has been the subject of a number of scholarly studies since the late 20th century. These sources have helped to provide a coherent history of these prehistoric developments. Evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Genetic analysis suggests that the human body louse, which lives in clothing, may only have diverged from the head louse some 170,000 years ago, which supports evidence that humans began wearing clothing at around this time; these estimates predate the first known human exodus from Africa, although other hominid species who may have worn clothes – and shared these louse infestations – appear to have migrated earlier. Sewing needles have been dated to at least 50,000 years ago – and uniquely associated with a human species other than modern humans, i.e. H. Denisova/H.
Altai. The oldest possible example is 60,000 years ago, a needlepoint found in South Africa. Other early examples of needles dating from 41,000-15,000 years ago are found in multiple locations, e.g. Slovenia, China and France; the earliest dyed flax fibres have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Georgia and date back to 36,000. The 25,000-year-old Venus Figurine "Venus of Lespugue", found in southern France in the Pyrenees, depicts a cloth or twisted fiber skirt. Other figurines from western Europe were adorned with basket hats or caps, belts were worn at the waist, a strap of cloth that wrapped around the body right above the breast. Eastern European figurines wore belts, sometimes string skirts. Archaeologists have discovered artifacts from the same period that appear to have been used in the textile arts: net gauges, spindle needles, weaving sticks; the first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was felt. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, date from 6500 BC.
Our knowledge of ancient textiles and clothing has expanded in the recent past thanks to modern technological developments. Our knowledge of cultures varies with the climatic conditions to which archeological deposits are exposed. In northern Eurasia, peat bogs can preserve textiles well; the first known textile of South America was discovered in Guitarrero Cave in Peru, it was woven out of vegetable fibers and dates back to 8,000 B. C. E. From pre-history through the early Middle Ages, for most of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, two main types of loom dominate textile production; these are the two-beam loom. The length of the cloth beam determined the width of the cloth woven upon it, could be as wide as 2–3 meters; the second loom type is the two-beam loom. Early woven clothing was made of full loom widths draped, tied, or pinned in place. Throughout the Neolithic and Bronze ages, the fertile grounds of the Eurasian Steppe provided a venue for a network of nomadic communities to develop and interact.
The Steppe Route has always connected regions of the Asian continent with trade and transmission of culture, including clothing. Around 114 BC, the Han Dynasty, initiated the Silk Road Trade Route. Geographically, the Silk Road or Silk Route is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes between Chang'an in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean extending over 8,000 km on land and sea. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, Rome, helped to lay the foundations for the modern world; the exchange of luxury textiles was predominant on the Silk Road, which linked traders, pilgrims, soldiers and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. The earliest known woven textiles of the Near East may be fabrics used to wrap the dead, excavated at a Neolithic site at Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, carbonized in a fire and radiocarbon dated to c. 6000 BC. Evidence exists o
A peplos is a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC. It was a long, tubular cloth with the top edge folded down about halfway, so that what was the top of the tube was now draped below the waist, the bottom of the tube was at the ankle; the garment was gathered about the waist and the folded top edge pinned over the shoulders. The folded-down top of the tube provided the appearance of a second piece of clothing; the peplos was draped and open like the Doric chiton. It should not be confused with the Ionic chiton, a piece of fabric folded over and sewn together along the longer side to form a tube; the Classical garment is represented in Greek vase painting from the 5th century BC and in the metopes of temples in Doric order. Spartan women continued to wear the peplos much in history than other Greek cultures, it was shorter and with slits on the side causing other Greeks to call them phainomērídes the "thigh-showers". On the last day of the month Pyanepsion, the priestess of Athena Polias and the Arrephoroi, a group of girls chosen to help in the making of the sacred peplos, set up the loom on which the enormous peplos was to be woven by the Ergastinai, another group of girls chosen to spend about nine months making the sacred peplos.
They had to weave a theme of the Olympian's defeat of the Giants. The peplos of the statue was changed each year during the Plynteria; the peplos played a role in the Athenian festival of the Great Panathenaea. Nine months before the festival, at the arts and crafts festival titled Chalkeia, a special peplos would begin to be woven by young women; this peplos was placed on the statue of Athena during the festival procession. The peplos had myths and stories woven into its material and consisted of purple and saffron yellow cloth; the peplum dress has been revived several times in the modern era due to longstanding admiration for Greek culture. Regency era women wore translucent shift dresses in keeping with the neoclassical architecture and interior design which favoured white marble and pale pastel colors. From the 1950s until the 1970s, classical inspired dresses became part of mainstream British and American fashion due to the emerging popularity of Italian peplum films and package holidays to the Mediterranean.
These were revived again during the 1990s and 2010s due to nostalgia for the disco era and Old Hollywood glamour. Chiton Clothing in ancient Greece Clothing in the ancient world Delphos gown Peplos Greek Dress Peplum dresses
1300–1400 in European fashion
Fashion in fourteenth-century Europe was marked by the beginning of a period of experimentation with different forms of clothing. Costume historian James Laver suggests that the mid-14th century marks the emergence of recognizable "fashion" in clothing, in which Fernand Braudel concurs; the draped garments and straight seams of previous centuries were replaced by curved seams and the beginnings of tailoring, which allowed clothing to more fit the human form. The use of lacing and buttons allowed a more snug fit to clothing. In the course of the century the length of female hem-lines progressively reduced, by the end of the century it was fashionable for men to omit the long loose over-garment of previous centuries altogether, putting the emphasis on a tailored top that fell a little below the waist—a silhouette, still reflected in men's costume today. Wool was the most important material for clothing, due to its numerous favorable qualities, such as the ability to take dye and its being a good insulator.
This century saw the beginnings of the Little Ice Age, glazing was rare for the rich. Trade in textiles continued to grow throughout the century, formed an important part of the economy for many areas from England to Italy. Clothes were expensive, employees high-ranking officials, were supplied with one outfit per year, as part of their remuneration. Woodblock printing of cloth was known throughout the century, was fairly common by the end. Embroidery in wool, silk or gold thread for the rich, was used for decoration. Edward III established an embroidery workshop in the Tower of London, which produced the robes he and his Queen wore in 1351 of red velvet "embroidered with clouds of silver and eagles of pearl and gold, under each alternate cloud an eagle of pearl, under each of the other clouds a golden eagle, every eagle having in its beak a Garter with the motto hony soyt qui mal y pense embroidered thereon."Silk was the finest fabric of all. In Northern Europe, silk was an imported and expensive luxury.
The well-off could afford woven brocades from Italy or further afield. Fashionable Italian silks of this period featured repeating patterns of roundels and animals, deriving from Ottoman silk-weaving centres in Bursa, from Yuan Dynasty China via the Silk Road. A fashion for mi-parti or parti-coloured garments made of two contrasting fabrics, one on each side, arose for men in mid-century, was popular at the English court. Sometimes just the hose would be different colours on each leg. Checkered and plaid fabrics were seen. Fur was worn as an inner lining for warmth. Vair, the fur of the squirrel, white on the belly and grey on the back, was popular through most of the century and can be seen in many illuminated manuscript illustrations, where it is shown as a white and blue-grey striped or checkered pattern lining cloaks and other outer garments. A fashion in men's clothing for the dark furs sable and marten arose around 1380, squirrel fur was thereafter relegated to formal ceremonial wear. Ermine, with their dense white winter coats, was worn by royalty, with the black tipped tails left on to contrast with the white for decorative effect, as in the Wilton Diptych above.
The innermost layer of clothing were the braies or breeches, a loose undergarment made of linen, held up by a belt. Next came the shirt, also made of linen, and, considered an undergarment, like the breeches. Hose or chausses made out of wool were used to cover the legs, were brightly colored, had leather soles, so that they did not have to be worn with shoes; the shorter clothes of the second half of the century required these to be a single garment like modern tights, whereas otherwise they were two separate pieces covering the full length of each leg. Hose were tied to the breech belt, or to the breeches themselves, or to a doublet. A doublet was a buttoned jacket, of hip length. Similar garments were called cotehardie, jaqueta or jubón; these garments were worn over the hose. A robe, tunic, or kirtle was worn over the shirt or doublet; as with other outer garments, it was made of wool. Over this, a man might wear an over-kirtle, cloak, or a hood. Servants and working men wore their kirtles at various lengths, including as low as the knee or calf.
However, the trend during the century was for hem-lengths to shorten for all classes. However, in the second half of the century, courtiers are shown, if they have the figure for it, wearing nothing over their tailored cotehardie. A French chronicle records: "Around that year, men, in particular and their squires, took to wearing tunics so short and tight that they revealed what modesty bids us hide; this was a most astonishing thing for the people". This fashion may well have derived from military clothing, where long loose robes were not worn in action. At this period, the most dignified figures, like King Charles in the ill
Court uniform and dress in the Empire of Japan
The official court dress of the Empire of Japan, used from the Meiji period until the end of the Second World War, consisted of European-inspired clothing in the Empire style. It was first introduced at the beginning of the Meiji period and maintained through the institution of the constitutional monarchy by the Meiji Constitution, represented the highest uniforms in use at the time. Uniforms for members of the kazoku peerage and civil officials were set; when the Meiji Restoration began, those working to build the new government were wearing a diverse array of different clothing based on their social status during the previous Edo period. Nobles had their ikan court wear and informal kariginu, samurai had the distinct hitatare and kamishimo dress, members of Westernized military forces had their Western-style uniforms. For example, during the Emperor's visit to Tokyo in 1868, opinions were divided between the high officials Nakayama Tadayasu and Date Munenari. Nakayama argued that ikan should be worn only when departing and when entering the castle, while kariginu would be worn en route.
As a result, it was decided that both kariginu and hitatare would be allowed en route, with ikan permitted when entering the castle. Furthermore, the colors and designs on the ikan and hitatare were all unique to each individual, destroying the visual unity of the procession. Meanwhile, the soldiers guarding it were dressed in Western-style uniforms, but were not at all accustomed to the clothing. Ernest Satow commented; this lack of uniformity was once again evident on the Emperor's repeat visit the next year. The situation was untenable, so after the election of officials to the new government in summer 1869, the Minister of Justice Saga Saneharu was put in charge of the problem. In a meeting of the legislature that winter, Iwakura Tomomi proposed deliberation over the court dress for governmental officials that Saga and his helpers had come up with. However, as this design was based on the former dress of court nobles, it met with opposition from those of samurai descent. In order to resolve this disorder, the Internal Imperial Command on Clothing Reform was released on October 17, 1871.
In order to quiet the kazoku still attached to traditional styles of dress, the order claimed that ikan and similar kinds of clothing were weak, Japan should go back to the styles of the time of Emperor Jimmu and Empress Jingū. The "styles of that time" meant tight sleeves and narrow hakama, so the order implied that Western-style dress, complying to these standards, had much in common with the essential garb of the Japanese themselves. Calling back to the spirit of Jimmu's legendary founding of the country, it appealed for the creation of a new uniform. Internal Imperial Command on Clothing Reform It is Our view that those who form social mores are transient, subject to the whims of opportunity; those who form the kokutai control their strength through indomitability. The modern ikan dress has been based on the old dress of the Tang, is a weak style. We lament this greatly, it is distant from Our roots, ruling by the strength of Japan's warriors. We of the Imperial Line have Ourselves become marshals, by the people We revere that style.
There is nothing of Emperor Jimmu's founding of the country or Empress Jingū's subjugation of Korea in the style of today. We ought not to show such weakness to the world for one day. I now resolve to revise our uniform and reform our mores, wish to construct a warrior's kokutai not seen since our ancestors' time. My vassals, give shape to these my wishes. On December 12, 1872, the Dajō-kan released an edict implementing regulations for the uniforms of civil officials and nobles, on December 29 of that year another edict determined regulations for their wearing; the new official uniforms were indeed designed based on the court uniforms used in Europe at the time. The first of these edicts designated white tie dress as the court dress of choice for those not entitled to any particular court uniform, such as private citizens; the uniforms for members of the Imperial Family were first decided by an edict of the Dajō-kan on February 22, 1873, updated in 1876 and 1911. After the Peerage Act of July 7, 1884, divided the existing kazoku into five ranks, the Ministry of the Imperial Household further established the uniforms for these new subcategories.
On October 29 of the same year, another edict of the Dajō-kan created gown-type court uniforms for senior officials within palace agencies like the Board of Chamberlains and Board of Ceremonies. From 1888 to 1889, various other personnel were outfitted with assigned court uniforms; the Imperial Household Agency's uniforms underwent major changes in 1911 and 1928. On June 23, 1886, provisions were set to determine formal Western wear for women. In order from most to least formal, these were the manteau de cour, robe décolletée, robe mi-décolletée, robe montante. On December 4 of the same year, the designs of the court uniforms for civil officials were modified, but the designs for junior officials were not updated; because the officials were responsible for providing their own court uniforms, the cost had been too much for junior officials. From this point on, junior civil officials wore standard white tie court dress; the difference in price was extreme: when t