Fojnica is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located west of the capital Sarajevo, in the valley of the Fojnička River, tributary of the river Bosna. Fojnica is a small town in central Bosnia and is a balneological resort. Cultural sites in Fojnica include the Holy Spirit Franciscan Monastery which houses an important part of the nation's cultural heritage, maintained by the Franciscan Province of Bosna Srebrena; the Franciscan monastery in Fojnica has a library of philosophical and theological works printed from the 16th to the 19th centuries, with some dating back to 1481. The monastery is under renovation. Queen Catherine of Bosnia sought refuge from the Ottomans in Kozograd, royal summer-residence in the mountains near Fojnica at the time, before making her way to Rome. Fojnica has a spa. • Bakovići • Bakovićka Citonja • Banja • Bistrica • Botun • Božići • Carev Do • Čemernica • Djedov Do • Dragačići • Dusina • Fojnica • Gojevići • Grabovik • Gradina • Klisura • Kozica • Kujušići • Lopar • Lučice • Lužine • Majdan • Marinići • Merdžanići • Mujakovići • Nadbare • Obojak • Oglavak • Ormanov Potok • Ostruška Citonja • Otigošće • Paljike • Pločari • Pločari Polje • Podcitonja • Podgora • Polje Ostružnica • Polje Šćitovo • Ponjušina • Poraće • Ragale • Rajetići • Rizvići • Selakovići • Selište • Sitišće • Smajlovići • Šavnik • Tješilo • Tovarište • Turkovići • Vladići • Voljevac • Vukeljići • Živčići total: 12,829 Bosniaks - 6,473 Croats - 5,948 Serbs - 223 Yugoslavs - 85 others - 100 total: 15,045 Bosniaks - 7,637 Croats - 6,432 Serbs - 422 Yugoslavs - 392 others - 162 total: 16,296 Bosniaks - 8,024 Croats - 6,623 Serbs - 157 Yugoslavs - 407 others - 1,085 Page text.
Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. Census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991. Municipal website Tragovima bosanskog kraljevstva - Tourist route for medieval Bosnia Trail of the Bosnian Kingdom - Cultural Tourism in Tesanj
The river Bosna is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas. It is the namesake of Bosnia; the Bosna flows for 282 kilometers. The river is mentioned for the first time during the 1st century AD by Roman historian Marcus Velleius Paterculus under the name Bathinus flumen. Another basic source that are associated with the hydronym Bathinus is the Salonitan inscription of the governor of Dalmatia, Publius Cornelius Dolabella, where it's said that the Bathinum river divides the Breuci from the Osseriates, and by the name of Basante. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root *bhoĝ-, meaning "the running water"; the Bosna river makes up the Bosna River Valley, the country's industrial center and home to close to a million people, as well as the location of several major cities. The river's biggest tributaries are the Željeznica, Fojnička, Lašva, Gostović, Krivaja and Spreča rivers.
Its source is at the spring Vrelo Bosne, at the foothills of the Mount Igman, on the outskirts of Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The spring is one of Herzegovina's chief natural landmarks and tourist attractions. From there, the Bosna flows northwards, through the heart of Bosnia becoming a right tributary of the Sava River in Bosanski Šamac; the Bosna flows through a number of cantons. From its starting point in the Sarajevo Canton, it flows through Zenica-Doboj Canton, Doboj Region, Posavina Canton, in that order. On its way north the River Bosna passes through the cities of Visoko, Maglaj, Modriča and Bosanski Šamac
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Visoko is a city located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 41,352 inhabitants, it was an early centre of the Bosnian medieval state, the site where the first Bosnian king Tvrtko I was crowned. Located between Zenica and Sarajevo, Visoko lies on the Bosna river where the river Fojnica merges into it; the municipality is organized into 25 local communities. The Visoko municipality covers 232 square kilometres with several characteristic, morphologically distinctive valleys formed by the foothills of the Central Bosnian mountains including Ozren and Zvijezda; the altitude of the region ranges from 400 – 1,050 metres. Visoko's natural environment is defined by the river-valleys of the Fojnica rivers; the municipality borders the towns of Kiseljak, Busovača, Vareš, Ilijaš and Ilidža, is connected by rail to the Adriatic coast. It is on the Sarajevo–Zenica magistral road to the north; the Visoko region shows evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to 4000 BC.
Because there are two rivers that go through Visoko, the Bosna and Fojnica, the area of Visoko was always inhabited. In the Neolithic period, the area of Central Bosnia played an important role as a mediator between the settlements of Adriatic Coast and the central Balkans; these metropolitan areas were connected by Bosna rivers. Since Visoko was situated on the Bosna River, it has gained a lot of economic traffic between the two larger cities. Neolithic emplacements were founded on the shores of the rivers in places known today as Arnautovići, Donje Moštre, Okolište, Zbilje and Dvor. In these settlements, many tools, other objects have been found from this period. Since 2002, smaller excavations and geophysical prospectus ions in the big settlement hill Okolište were carried out; as the first, the result of these activities showed a geomagnetic plan of a 5 house settlement with house lines and connection systems. During the first excavations, 6 5 x 5 m surfaces were uncovered; the findings of excellently preserved settlements as well as typological, radiometric and botanical analyses of the present excavations show a large scientific potential of the place regarding the late Neolithic period.
In September 2007 the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina continued archaeological excavations of Okolište, where it is estimated that around 3,000 people lived in the settlement during the Neolithic Age. The age of settlement is estimated by Radiocarbon dating to be around 4700 to 4500 years B. C. E; this is one of the largest settlements found in Bosnia, confirmed by materials found and the number of houses that were located using the geomagnetic method. The Visoko area was inhabited by the Illyirian tribe of Daesitiates; the Roman empire established its rule in 9 AD and built roads and fortresses in places like Kralupi, Seoča and Mokronozi. Area of Visoko was part of Roman province Illyricum. Visoko is named after the Visoki Castle and the town of Visoki, which occupied Visočica hill, Mile, Biskupići and Moštre — together known as Visoko valley. Visoki and other historical places in the Visoko valley were the early center of the once powerful medieval Bosnian kingdom. Many historical charters were made and written in Visoko valley, including the charter of first Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanić in 1355, in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum, the first direct mention of the town of Visoki.
Visoki was a place where many important documents and legislation of medieval Bosnia were signed and written. The town of Visoki had a defensive role in protecting trade center Podvisoki, located just below the town and was one of earliest examples of the medieval urban environments in Bosnia. Podvisoki was long time main trade center in medieval Bosnia; the Rusag met at Mile, where Tvrtko I was crowned in 1377 and buried alongside his uncle, Stjepan II Kotromanić, the Ban of Bosnia who preceded him. The Medieval Bosnian State Archive was located there. Mile is today known for its many ornamented tombs of kings and other former rulers. By 1340, Mile was the centre of the church province of Saint Kuzme an Damjan, the remains of the church can still be seen at the site. Ban Kulin's Plate was discovered at Biskupići, along with the remains of another medieval church, grave sites and the foundations of several other contemporary structures. Moštre's university, founded in 1175 was one of the first in Europe, was known for its scholarship in medicine, theology and ethics, although because of its connection to the Bosnian Church, nothing remains of its archives.
Its existence is documented only by a handful of references in the Vatican archives of its enemy, the Catholic Church. Other notable medieval settlements in the vicinity included Sebinje town, Čajan town in Gračanica — which protected the roads between Visoko and Bobovac — and the town of Bedem i Goduša; the area of Visoko was conquered by Ottoman Empire around 1463, it is from this time period that modern Visoko was formed. The founder of the town of Visoko was Ajas-beg, from Visoko but converted to Islam from Bogomilism. Visoko was a municipality at that time. From 1483, a voivod served at the head of the Visoko municipality, who together with the serdar was the representative of the military and administration; the main imam, who existed in Visoko, fulfilled religious duties to society. The court administration was carried out by the naib, who received help for bringing decisions b
Kreševo is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Kreševo is a mountainous town, located in a narrow valley of the Kreševica river on the slope of Mount Bitovnje; the area of Kreševo was inhabited since the Neolithic. Various material remains are indicating that a life in Kreševo was intensified during the Roman Empire, when the municipality was part of the Roman province of Illyrcicum, as well as during the Migration Period. Reason for this are the subsoil assets of the Kreševo Municipality area, where gold, copper and mercury where exploited. A number of the Roman aqueducts can be found on the area of the Kreševo Municipality, as well as remains of the Roman settlement near the village of Zid. During the destruction of the old Kreševan church in 1964, a number of the romanesque capitals were found in its walls from the period of 11th and 12th century. A Roman epigraphic monument was found, in which an anonymous Roman municipium is mentioned.
During the Roman period, there were two connection roads to the Via Argentaria, one of them led to an area near Sarajevo, the other led towards the Visoko area. The largest development of the Kreševo area occurred during the period of the Bosnian Kingdom; the first written mention of Kreševan silver and lead mines dates to 1381. When the Saxons arrived in Bosnia, the technology of extracting and ore processing was developed, they brought. However, the biggest rise of the Kreševo area occurred when it become one of the seats of the Bosnian kings; the first mentioning of the town of Kreševo was in a charter of King Stephen Thomas from 12 August 1434. The King mentioned Kreševo as a "royal town of Kreševo". During that time, the Kingdom of Bosnia had an intensive cooperation with the Republic of Ragusa. On 3 September 1444, King Stephen Thomas approved trade privileges to the Ragusans in Kreševo; the remains of the royal town are preserved until today. The royal town is surrounded by ramparts, so the area was named Bedem after them.
In honor of Queen Catherine of Bosnia, a chapel was built in the Bedem in 1996. The royal town had suburbs in which craft and mining boroguhs developed; the ramparts remained functional after the Ottoman conquest, as they were mentioned in 1469 as a Turkish fortress. Ragusans, who had their colony in Kreševo, held there a customs office and led the entire mining trade. Along with Kreševo, Deževice had great significance in this period. Today, Deževice are one of the Kreševan villages. Deževice were mentioned for the first time in 1403 as one of the seat of the Bosnian king. During the medieval period, Deževice were had important lead and iron mines, as well as a market town and a Ragusan colony. Customs in Deževice were mentioned for the first time in 1408. Knyaz of the market town named Pavle, was mentioned for the first time in 1412, other knyazes were mentioned among them Knyaz Milutin Drašković in 1422 and Knyaz Milivoj in 1425. Deževice was a seat of a Franciscan Order; the Ottomans conquered Kreševo in 1463, but Ragusans remained tenants of the customs office for some time.
During the Ottoman Empire, Kreševo was a centre of a nahiyah, mentioned for the first time in 1469. At first, the Kreševo Nahiyah was a part of the kadiluk of Bobovac. In that year, the Kreševan fortress and silver mines were mentioned, along with assisting miners in Deževice and Dusina. Kreševo fortress was mentioned for another time in 1509, but by that time, it was abandoned even in 1489, when Dubrovnik was fortified. For some time, the Kreševo Nahiya belonged to the kadiluk of Sarajevo. In 1468, Kreševo was the second largest city in Bosnia, after Fojnica. In that year, there were 299 taxpayer households, in 1485, there was 290 Christian and 9 Muslim households; this was the first appearance of Muslims in Kreševo. In 1489, there were 11 Muslims individuals. In Deževice in 1468 there was 48 Christian households and 12 individuals, in 1485 there was 49 Christian households and 11 individuals and one Muslim household; the Kreševo Nahiyah was mentioned in 1485 and 1489, but it was left out in censuses from 1516 and 1530.
Those censuses do not mention Fojnica and Lepenica as well, as all of them, like Kreševo, were integrated to the Visoko Nahiyah. In 18th century, Kreševo become a part of the Sarajevo Kadiluk, in 19th century it was a part of the Fojnica Mudiriyah in Sarajevan Kaymakamluk. Though the Ottoman period was harsh for the Kreševo area, as well as for the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, the status of Kreševo was area was favorable due to mines and other craftsmen and merchants; the Ottoman adopted entire legal regulative of the area, as well as the technology of craft and ore processing. Those law regulations remained in power until the Austro-Hungarian rule in Herzegovina; those qanuns provided autonomy for metallurgists, regulated the property rights between copartners and established executive bodies. As only Catholics were in the iron business, there were some favourable conditions for their existence as well as religious and cultural autonomy; the main product of the Kreševo area until 17th century was silver, when it was replaced by iron whose exploitation and processing found a wide range of usage.
The main products of Kreševan smiths were, among other things and nails. The horseshoes were known for their quality on the entire Balkans. Along with horseshoes, Kreše
Fojnička River is a left tributary of the Bosna in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It flows for 46 kilometres with a basin area of 727 km²; the Željeznica and the Lepenica are tributaries of the Fojnička River. It is among last remaining sanctuaries for huchen in the Bosna river basin, others being the Krivaja, the Lašva and the Željeznica
Kiseljak is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies in the valley of the Fojnica River, the Lepenica and the Kreševka River, which are a tributary of the Bosna, it is on the intersection of roads from Visoko, Kreševo and Rakovica. 18,335 total Croats - 10,389 Bosniaks - 6,822 Serbs - 924 Yugoslavs - 55 Others - 145 In 1991 the population of the Kiseljak municipality was 24,426, of which 51.61% were Croats, 40.92% Bosniaks, 3.11% Serbs, 2.48% Yugoslavs and 1.88% others. The town itself had a population of 6,598, of which 60% Croats, 29% Bosniaks, 3% Serbs, 5% Yugoslavs and 4% others. Official site