Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we
Mlle. Modiste is an operetta in two acts composed by Victor Herbert with a libretto by Henry Blossom, it concerns hat shop girl Fifi, who longs to be an opera singer, but, such a good hat seller that her employer, Mme. Cecil, discourages her in her ambitions and exploits her commercial talents. Fifi loves Etienne de Bouvray, who returns her love, but his uncle, Count Henri, opposes their union; the operetta features the song "Kiss Me Again". After tryouts in Trenton, New Jersey and Washington, D. C. in October 1905, a two-month tour, the operetta premiered on Broadway on December 25, 1905, at the Knickerbocker Theatre, where it ran for 202 performances and was revived the next season, followed by extensive touring when it was replaced at the theatre by Herbert's next piece, The Red Mill. It was revived early in the 20th century. Viennese soprano Fritzi Scheff had built a following at the Metropolitan Opera when Victor Herbert engaged her to appear in his operettas for an astonishing $1,000 a week.
She starred beginning with Babette. Mlle. Modiste was the most successful of these. During the curtain calls of Babette, she pulled Herbert on stage and planted a big, sexy kiss on his cheek. "The Kiss" generated considerable comment, when Herbert wrote Mlle. Modiste, two years he wrote one of his most famous melodies for her, "Kiss Me Again". After Modiste closed, Scheff toured it for years. Henry Blossom and Herbert collaborated on several more operettas, including The Red Mill, The Princess Pat, Eileen. Modiste is typical of their proto-feminist plotlines involving an orphaned young woman, exploited by her employer, but whose feisty spirit leads her to success. After the original production, the piece returned to Broadway at the Knickerbocker in 1906, and, in between national tours, at both the original Academy of Music and the Knickerbocker in 1907, at the Globe Theatre in 1913 and at Jolson's 59th Street Theatre in 1929, among many other revivals and tours through the early 20th century. Revivals have included several revivals by the Light Opera of Manhattan in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
A 1926 silent film version starring Corinne Griffith was broadly adapted, but well received. A "talking" film version called Kiss Me Again was made in the late 1920s by First National. Act IFifi is a shop girl, selling hats in Mme. Cécile's shop in the Rue de la Paix in Paris, she is the shop's best saleswoman, so Mme. Cécile plots to keep her there for free by marrying her off to her artist son, Gaston, but Fifi dreams of a career on the stage. In addition and French army Captain Etienne de Bouvray, Viscount de St. Mar, are in love, but his uncle, the old aristocratic Count de St. Mar, is scandalized that Etienne would marry a shop girl, he threatens to disinherit him. Fifi hopes that a stage career would allow Etienne to marry her because no one need be ashamed of such an alliance. One day, when she is alone in the shop, a rich and eccentric American theatre promoter, Hiram Bent, bumbles in. Fifi tells him of her lifelong ambition, singing a wonderful number for him that serves as a kind of "audition" piece, because she shows him how she would play three different kinds of roles, if given the opportunity.
He loans her $1000 to help her achieve this goal and win over her sweetheart's crotchety uncle, Count Henri. She leaves for Vienna to develop her talent. Act IIA year Etienne is still pining for Fifi, who has not written him during that time, but who has, become a great success throughout Europe. Etienne and his sister, Marie Louise, are hosting a charity ball at the Chateau de St. Mar. Unknown to Etienne, Hiram Bent has arranged for Fifi to sing at the ball; the Count, learning of this, forbids Fifi to sing. However, Hiram arranges for Etienne to "discover" Fifi's presence; the two stage a "performance" for the Count in which Fifi defends the Count and Etienne calls him a "stupid old idiot". The Count, impressed by Fifi's sincerity and her new position, as well as by Etienne's behavior, allows Fifi to sing, to marry Etienne. Mme. Cecile, owner of a Parisian hat shop – Josephine Bartlett Fifi, clerk in the hat shop – Fritzi Scheff Count Henri de Bouvray – William Pruette Etienne de Bouvray, nephew of the Count – Walter Percival Hiram Bent, American entrepreneur – Claude Gillingwater Fanchette and Nanette, Mme.
Cecile's daughters – Edna Fassett and Blanche Morrison Gaston, an artist, Mme. Cecile's son – Leo Mars Marie Louise de Bouvray, Etienne's sister – Louise Le Baron Lieut. Rene La Motte, engaged to Marie Louise – Howard Chambers Mrs. Hiram Bent – Bertha Holly General Le Marquis de Villefranche – George Schraeder Francois, porter at Mme. Cecile's – R. W. Hunt Bebe, dancer at Folies Bergere – La Mora Fleurette – Ada Meade In the early years of the 20th century, the composer conducted an acoustic recording on wax cylinder of the ballet music from Mlle. Modiste. A recording of Mlle. Modiste starring Felix Knight and Doretta Morrow was released in 1953. An abridged recording of Mlle. Modiste was made by Reader's Digest as part of its 1960 album Treasury of Great Operettas, starring Anna Moffo and conducted by Lehman Engel; the first complete recording was issued on cassette in 1986 on the Demand Performance label. A complete set, recorded live with piano accompaniment, was made by the Comic Opera Guild of Ann Arbor, Michigan
Bernice Claire was an American singer and actress. She appeared in 13 films between 1930 and 1938, she was born as Clara Jahnigen in 1906 in Oakland, California. She had Earl, her birth name is sometimes found as Bernice Jahnigan. An article in the June 18, 1950, issue of the Oakland Tribune reported, "It was in 1918 that she first appeared as a juvenile, a pert little one with curled tresses who made an immediate impression on all who saw and heard her perform at Eastbay theaters and at lodges and veterans' gatherings." She attended Oakland High School, where she studied dramatics and was active in musical comedy productions. With a clear coloratura, Claire took to the stage performing light opera and had no difficulty singing demanding roles. In 1927, she appeared in her first vaudeville production, she met then-leading singer Alexander Gray. Gray and Claire became film's first operetta team, predating Nelson Eddy, her first screen appearance was in the original film version of No, Nanette in the title role.
The other two films she made with Gray were Song of the Flame. Operettas began losing popularity with audiences so Warners tried Claire in dramatic parts without much success. Claire made several more musical shorts up through the late thirties becoming a radio and orchestra singer. In 1934, she appeared on Broadway in The Chocolate Soldier. Claire had no children, her second marriage was to Dr. Douglas P. Morris. On January 17, 2003, ten days before her 97th birthday, Bernice Claire died from pneumonia in her adopted hometown of Portland, where she had lived for many years. No, No, Nanette Spring Is Here The Song of the Flame Numbered Men Top Speed Kiss Me Again The Red Shadow Moonlight and Pretzels The Flame Song Meet the Professor The Love Department Two Hearts in Harmony Between the Lines The Pretty Pretender Forget-Me-Knots Bernice Claire on IMDb Bernice Claire at AllMovie
Walter Davis Pidgeon was a Canadian-American actor. He earned two Academy Award for Best Actor nominations for his roles in Mrs. Miniver and Madame Curie. Pidgeon starred in many films such as How Green Was My Valley, The Bad and the Beautiful, Forbidden Planet, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Advise & Consent, Funny Girl, Harry in Your Pocket, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960 and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award in 1975. Born in Saint John, New Brunswick, Pidgeon was the son of Hannah, a housewife, Caleb Burpee Pidgeon, a haberdasher, his brother, was an editorial writer for the Santa Barbara News-Press. Pidgeon received his formal education in local schools and the University of New Brunswick, where he studied Law and Drama, his university education was interrupted by World War I when he volunteered with the 65th Battery, Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery. He never saw action, however, as he was injured in an accident when he was crushed between two gun carriages and spent seventeen months in a military hospital.
Following the war, he moved to Boston, where he worked as a bank runner, at the same time studying voice at the New England Conservatory of Music. Discontented with banking, Pidgeon moved to New York City, where he walked into the office of E. E. Clive, could prove it. After acting on stage for several years, he made his Broadway debut in 1925. Pidgeon made a number of silent films in the 1920s, he became a huge star with the arrival of talkies, thanks to his singing voice. He starred in extravagant early Technicolor musicals, including The Bride of the Regiment, Sweet Kitty Bellairs, Viennese Nights and Kiss Me Again, he became associated with musicals, when the public grew weary of them his career began to falter. In 1935 he took a break from Hollywood and did a stint on Broadway, appearing in the plays Something Gay, Night of January 16th, There's Wisdom in Women; when he returned to movies, he was relegated to playing secondary roles in films like Saratoga and The Girl of the Golden West. One of his better known roles was in The Dark Command, where he portrayed the villain opposite John Wayne, Claire Trevor, a young Roy Rogers.
It was not until he starred in the Academy Award-winning Best Picture How Green Was My Valley that his popularity returned. He starred opposite Greer Garson in Blossoms in the Dust, Mrs. Miniver and its sequel, The Miniver Story in 1950, he was nominated in 1944 for Madame Curie, again opposite Garson. His partnership with her continued throughout the 1940s and into the 1950s with Mrs. Parkington, Julia Misbehaves, That Forsyte Woman, Scandal at Scourie, he starred as Chip Collyer in the comedy Week-End at the Waldorf and as Colonel Michael S.'Hooky' Nicobar, given the difficult task of repatriating Russians in post-World War II Vienna in the drama film The Red Danube. Although he continued to make films, including The Bad and the Beautiful and Forbidden Planet, Pidgeon returned to work on Broadway in the mid-1950s after a 20-year absence, he was featured in Take Me Along with Jackie Gleason and received a Tony Award nomination for the musical play. In 1962, he portrayed General Augustus Perry in the episode "The Reunion" on CBS's Rawhide.
He continued making films, playing Admiral Harriman Nelson in 1961's Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, James Haggin in Walt Disney's Big Red, the Senate Majority Leader in Otto Preminger's Advise & Consent. His role as Florenz Ziegfeld in Funny Girl was well received, he played Casey, James Coburn's sidekick, in Harry in Your Pocket. Pidgeon guest-starred in the episode "King of the Valley" of CBS's Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theater. Pidgeon played a prosperous rancher who quarrels with his banker over a $10,000 loan; when the banker dies of a heart attack on the job after a confrontation with King, it is discovered that the bank is missing $50,000. Leora Dana plays the banker's widow and the rancher's former paramour; the banker lost the funds with a bad investment, but the irate and uninformed townspeople are blaming King. His other television credits included Breaking Point, The F. B. I. Marcus Welby, M. D. and Gibbsville. In 1963 he guest-starred as corporate attorney Sherman Hatfield in the fourth of four special episodes of Perry Mason while Raymond Burr was recovering from surgery.
In 1965, he played the king in Rodgers and Hammerstein's CBS TV movie production of Cinderella, starring Lesley Ann Warren. Pidgeon was active in the Screen Actors Guild, served as president from 1952-57, he tried to stop the production of Salt of the Earth, made by a team, blacklisted during the Red Scare. Pidgeon retired from acting in 1977. Pidgeon became a United States citizen on December 24, 1943. Pidgeon died on September 25, 1984 in Santa Monica, two days after his 87th birthday following a series of strokes, he bequeathed his body to the University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine for the furtherance of medical science. He died eight days after his TV counterpart in Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea. Walter Pidgeon has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6414 Hollywood Blvd. Pidgeon married twice. In 1919, he wed the former Edna Muriel Pickles of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, who died in 1921 during the birth of their daughter named Edna. In 1931, Pi
The Teaser was a 1925 American silent romantic comedy/drama film written by Lewis Milestone, Edward T. Lowe Jr. and Jack Wagner based upon the play of the same name by Adelaide Matthews and Martha M. Stanley; the film was directed by William A. Seiter for Universal Pictures, stars Laura La Plante, Pat O'Malley, Hedda Hopper, Walter McGrail, it is unknown whether any copies of this film exist, it is considered a lost film. Ann Barton, a girl from a once-wealthy family, must make a living by clerking in a cigar store. There she falls in love with James McDonald, a cigar salesman, she is adopted by Margaret Wyndham, her rich and aristocratic aunt, who disapproves of James due to his crude manners. Wishing to break up the two, Aunt Margaret sends Ann away to finishing school. In response, Ann embarrasses her aunt. In the meantime, James learns how to be a proper gentleman and wins her back through having learned good manners and a more dignified bearing. Laura La Plante as Ann Barton Pat O'Malley as James McDonald Hedda Hopper as Margaret Wyndham Walter McGrail as Roderick Caswell Byron Munson as Perry Grayle Vivien Oakland as Lois Caswell Wyndham Standing as Jeffry Loring Margaret Quimby as Janet Comstock Frank Finch Smiles as Jenkins Janet Gaynor The New York Times felt there was no need to be overly enthusiastic about the films's plot or character portrayals, when they wrote "it contains a silly, soulless lot of characters and a weird idea of drama."
When they expanded on Pat O'Malley's character of the cigar salesman, they granted that while it would be reasonable for a salesman to be willing to push his wares, they questioned the script having his character be so naive as to press the issue when he is at the home of his girlfriend's benefactors attempting to impress them and win her heart, by writing "one does not expect James MacDonald to be such an utter fool as to stick cigars under the noses of guests in a pretentious mansion at a time he hoped to wage war on the heart of the pretty Ann Barton." And in speaking toward Laura La Plante's character, scripted as being "a sly little minx, who believes in uttering untruths when they help her out of a difficulty if they do reflect on other persons,", they offerered that "Miss La Plante is not effective in this picture." They concluded "The story is a pathetic little thing, not apt to interest many persons." Time Magazine offered that "The extraordinarily blonde Laura La Plante occupies herself genially enough in the title part."
The Teaser on IMDb The Teaser at AllMovie
Boy Crazy (film)
Boy Crazy is a 1922 American comedy film directed by William A. Seiter and written by Beatrice Van; the film stars Doris May, Fred Gamble, Jean Hathaway, Frank Kingsley, Harry Myers, Otto Hoffman. The film was released on March 1922, by the Robertson-Cole Distributing Corporation. With no copies listed as being held in any film archive, it is to be a lost film; as described in a film magazine, vivacious Jackie Cameron plays her Juliet to a half dozen Romeos. When the general store operated by her father is threatened with bankruptcy, she borrows $2,000 from Mr. Skinner, the town millionaire, builds up a fine business by turning it into an up-to-date haberdashery. Across the street is a rival concern, a ladies' millin ery shop conducted by J. Smythe from Paris. Kidnappers plan to capture old Skinner's daughter Evelina, overhear her say that she is planning on buying a dress on display by Smythe; when Jackie buys the dress, they take her by mistake and she is locked in a deserted house and held for ransom.
Smythe, who has fallen in love with Jackie, comes to her rescue, she saves him from a severe beating by dropping jugs on the heads of the criminals. Doris May as Jackie Cameron Fred Gamble as Mr. Cameron Jean Hathaway as Mrs. Cameron Frank Kingsley as Tom Winton Harry Myers as J. Smythe Otto Hoffman as Mr. Skinner Gertrude Short as Evelina Skinner Eugenia Tuttle as Mrs. Winton Ed Brady as Kidnapper James Farley as Kidnapper Boy Crazy on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie
Skinner's Dress Suit
Skinner's Dress Suit is a 1926 American silent comedy film produced and distributed by Universal Pictures and starring Reginald Denny. William Seiter was the director of the film, based on the 1916 novel of the name by Henry Irving Dodge. Laura La Plante and Hedda Hopper co-star in this comedy which has seen video and DVD releases. A previous silent film based on this story had been made in 1917 directed by Harry Beaumont for the Essanay Company. Reginald Denny as Skinner Laura La Plante as Mrs. Honey Skinner Ben Hendricks Jr. as Perkins E. J. Ratcliffe as McLaughlin Arthur Lake as Tommy Hedda Hopper as Mrs. Colby Lionel Braham as Jackson Frona Hale as Mrs. McLaughlin William H. Strauss as Tailor Betty Morrissey as Miss Smith Lucille De Nevers as Mrs. Crawford Lucille Ward as Mrs. Jackson Lila Leslie as Mrs. Wilkins Broderick O'Farrell as Mr. Wilkins Skinner's Dress Suit on IMDb Skinner's Dress Suit.