The Northrop Loom was a automatic power loom marketed by George Draper and Sons, Massachusetts beginning in 1895. It was named after James Henry Northrop. James Henry Northrop, was born in Keighley, West Yorkshire in the United Kingdom, where he worked in the textile industry, he emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts in 1881. Northrop worked for George Draper and Sons. There he invented a spooler guide, he tried to be a chicken farmer, but was unsuccessful. It was at that time. Otis Draper saw a model of the device on March 5, 1889. Draper was developing the Rhoades shuttle-charger. Northrop was given a loom to test his idea. By May 20 he concluded that his first idea was not practical, thought of another idea, On July 5, the completed loom was running, as it seemed to have more advantages than the Rhoades loom; the Northrop device was given a mill trial in October 1889 at the Seaconnett Mills in Fall River, Massachusetts. More looms were constructed and tested at Seaconnett in 1889 and during 1890. Meanwhile, Northrop invented a self-threading shuttle and shuttle spring jaws to hold a bobbin by means of rings on the butt.
This paved the way to the basic feature of the Northrop loom. Northrop was responsible for several hundred weaving related patents. Other members of the Draper organization had developed a workable warp stop motion, included; the first Northrop looms were marketed in 1894. Northrop retired to California two years when he was 42; the principal advantage of the Northrop loom was that it was automatic. When the shuttle ran out of thread, Northrop's mechanism ejected the depleted pirn and loaded a new full one without stopping. A loom operative could work 16 or more looms whereas they could only operate eight. Thus, the labour cost was halved. Mill owners had to decide. By 1900, Draper had sold over 60,000 Northrop looms and were shipping 1,500 a month, were employing 2,500 men and enlarging their Hopedale works to increase that output. In all 700,000 looms were sold. By 1914, Northrop looms. However, in the United Kingdom labour costs were not as significant and Northrop had only 2% of the British market.
Northrops were suitable for coarse cottons, but it was said not suitable for fines, thus the financial advantage in their introduction into Lancashire was not as great as it had been in the United States. Henry Philip Greg imported some of the first Northrops into Britain in 1902, for his Albert Mill in Reddish, encouraged his brother Robert Alexander Greg to introduce Northrops into Quarry Bank Mill in 1909. Greg bought 94 looms and output increased from 2.31 lbs/man-hr in 1900, to 2.94 lbs/man-hr in 1914. Labour costs decreased from 0.9d per pound to 0.3d per pound. Draper's strategy was to standardise on a couple of models; the lighter E-model of 1909 was joined in the 1930 by the heavier X-model. Continuous fibre machines, say for rayon, more break-prone, needed a specialist loom; this was provided by the purchase of the Stafford Loom Co. in 1932, using their patents a third loom the XD, was added to the range. Because of their mass production techniques they were reluctant and slow to retool for new technologies such as shuttleless looms.
F Model: 30" to 120" for weaving cotton sheeting, worsteds, blankets D Model: 30" to 70" for dress goods, dobby medium weight cloths, rain coatings T Model: 28" to 60" the standard loom for calico, coloured shirtings, brocades Mass, William, "The Decline of a Technology Leader:Capability and shuttleless Weaving", Business and Economic History, ISSN 0894-6825. Rose, Mary B.. The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill: The Rise and Decline of a Family Firm, 1750-1914. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521323826. Retrieved 26 Jan 2009. Selected Cotton Chats- Draper Corporation 1901- 1923
Tyldesley is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan in Greater Manchester, England. It is north of Chat Moss near the foothills of the West Pennine Moors, 7.7 miles southeast of Wigan and 8.9 miles northwest of Manchester. At the United Kingdom Census 2001, the Tyldesley built-up area, excluding Shakerley, had a population of 16,142. In Lancashire, the remains of a Roman road passing through the township on its ancient course between Coccium and Mamucium were evident during the 19th century. Following the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, Tyldesley was part of the manor of Warrington, until the Norman conquest of England, when the settlement constituted a township called Tyldesley-with-Shakerley in the ancient parish of Leigh; the factory system, textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, triggered a process of population growth and urbanisation such that by the early-20th century it was said that the newly emerged mill town was "eminently characteristic of an industrial district whose natural features have been entirely swept away to give place to factories, iron foundries, collieries".
After industrial activity declined in the late-20th century, land reclamation and post-war residential developments have altered the landscape and encouraged economic activity along Elliott Street. Tyldesley meaning "Tilwald's clearing" is derived from the Old English personal name Tīlwald and leăh a "wood, clearing", suggesting what is now open land was once covered with forest; the name was recorded as Tildesleiha in 1210. Alternative spellings include Tildeslei, Tildeslege and Tildesley. Tyldesley is situated at the edge of the Lancashire Plain north of Chat Moss and the Banks is a sandstone ridge where the foothills of the Pennines begin and gave the town its early name of Tildsley Banks; the land rises from 100 feet at the foot of the banks to 250 feet at the highest point. Tyldesley is pronounced "Til-slee", locally known as "Bongs". In local pronunciation "Banks" was corrupted to "Bongs"; the old name for Mosley Common was the "Hurst" or "Tyldesleyhurst", the suffix "hyrst" means a wooded hill.
The remains of a Roman road serving camps at Coccium and Mamucium passed through the area. It ran from Keeper Delph in Boothstown crossing Mort Lane north west of Cleworth Hall and south of Shakerley Old Hall; the road continued towards the Valley at Atherton where coins have been found, on towards Gibfield and Wigan. In 1947, two urns containing about 550 Roman bronze coins, minted between AD 259 and AD 278, were found near the old Tyldesley–Worsley border; the coins are in the British Museum. After the end of Roman rule in Britain and into the history of Anglo-Saxon England, nothing was written about Tyldesley. Evidence for the presence of Saxons is provided by place names incorporating the Old English suffix leah, such as Tyldesley and Astley; the manor house was Astley Hall which, in 1212, was home to Hugh Tyldesley, Lord of the Manors of Astley and Tyldesley. It is just inside the Tyldesley boundary but has been associated with Astley since the death of Henry Tyldesley in 1301, when the manor was divided among three sons.
The Tyldesleys had a "reputation for lawlessness and who had frequent disputes with their neighbours". One exception was Hugh Tyldesley, Hugh the Pious, who endowed Cockersand Abbey with land in Shakerley before his death in 1226; the moated New Hall in the Park of Tyldesley, close to the old manor house was in existence before 1422 when it belonged to Thomas Tyldesley. The new manor, known as the Garrett, was owned by John Tyldesley in 1505; the timber-framed Garrett Hall remained with the Tyldesleys until 1652 when Lambert Tyldesley died leaving no heir. The new owners, the Stanleys, leased it to tenant farmers. In 1732 it was sold to Thomas Clowes who leased the property to tenants. In 1829 the estate was bought by the Bridgewater Trustees; the township had several other significant houses. Generations of the Shakerley family lived in Shakerley Old Hall, close to the Shakerley Brook and Roman road. In medieval times they paid rent to Cockersand Abbey and dues of "one pair of white gloves at the feast of Easter" to Adam Tyldesley.
Chaddock Hall was home to a family of yeomen farmers. Its name was variously recorded as Chaydok and Chaidok, the last syllable meaning "oak", it was surrounded by a hamlet in the east of the township. The Chaddocks, like the Shakerleys, had a reputation for lawlessness; the tenants of the Tyldesley and Chaddock lands were summoned for military service. Archers from Chaddock fought at Crécy in 1346 and at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In 1360, William Chaddock was described as an archer on foot, "potens de corpore et bonis". A muster roll described Hugh Tyldesley as an archer on horseback and Hugh Chaddock and Richard Tyldesley were foot-archers drawing daily pay for service from 22 July to 21 October 1391. Cleworth Hall, recorded as Cluworth in 1333, was part of the Tyldesley lands on higher ground north of the high road, it passed to Nicholas Starkie of Huntroyde by his marriage to Anne Parr in 1578 and in 1594 was associated with witchcraft. Two children and Anne Starkie became "possessed of evil spirits".
A well-known "conjurer" or wise man, Edmund Hartley, was asked to cure them, which he did before demanding money, refused. Hartley threatened trouble and Starkie denounced him and Hartley was taken for trial to Lancaster Castle in 1597 where he was tried and found guilty of witchcraft, he was hanged, twice. In the early 18th century Tyldesley was a collection of cottages and farms around the halls scattered across the township with no church or inn. Thomas Johnson, a Bol
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Preston is a city and the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble. The City of Preston local government district obtained city status in 2002, becoming England's 50th city in the 50th year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. Preston has a population of 114,300, the City of Preston district 132,000 and the Preston Built-up Area 313,322; the Preston Travel To Work Area, in 2011, had a population of 420,661 compared to 354,000 in the previous census. Preston and its surrounding area have provided evidence of ancient Roman activity in the form of a Roman road which led to a camp at Walton-le-Dale; the Angles established Preston. In the Middle Ages, Preston was a parish and township in the hundred of Amounderness and was granted a Guild Merchant charter in 1179, giving it the status of a market town. Textiles have been produced since the mid-13th century when locally produced wool was woven in people's houses. Flemish weavers who settled in the area in the 14th century helped develop the industry.
In the early-18th century, Edmund Calamy described Preston as "a pretty town with an abundance of gentry in it called Proud Preston". Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning frame, was born in the town; the most rapid period of growth and development coincided with the industrialisation and expansion of textile manufacturing. Preston was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, becoming a densely populated engineering centre, with large industrial plants; the town's textile sector fell into terminal decline from the mid-20th century and Preston has subsequently faced similar challenges to other post-industrial northern towns, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. Preston is the seat of Lancashire County Council, houses the main campus of the University of Central Lancashire and is home to Preston North End F. C. a founder member of the Football League and the first English football champions. Preston is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Prestune" in 1086.
Various other spellings occur in early documents: "Prestonam", "Prestone", "Prestona", "Presteton", "Prestun". The modern spelling occurs in 1094, 1176, 1196, 1212 and 1332; the town's name is derived from the Tun of the Presta. During the Roman period, Roman roads passed close to. For example, the road from Luguvalium to Mamucium crossed the River Ribble at Walton-le-Dale, 3⁄4 mile southeast of the centre of Preston, a Roman camp or station may have been here. At Withy Trees, 1 1⁄2 miles north of Preston, the road crossed another Roman road from Bremetennacum to the coast. An explanation of the origin of the name is that the Priest's Town refers to a priory set up by St Wilfrid near the Ribble's lowest ford; this idea is supported by the similarity of the Paschal lamb on Preston's crest with that on St Wilfrid's. When first mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book, Preston was the most important town in Amounderness; when assessed for tax purposes in 1218 – 19 it was the wealthiest town in the whole county.
The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred by King Henry II upon the burgesses of Preston in a charter of 1179. It is the only guild still celebrated in the UK. Before 1328, celebrations were held at irregular intervals, but at the guild of that year it was decreed that subsequent guilds should be held every 20 years. After this, there were breaks in the pattern for various reasons, but an unbroken series were held from 1542 to 1922. A full 400-year sequence was frustrated by the cancellation of the 1942 guild due to World War II, but the cycle resumed in 1952; the expression' every Preston Guild', meaning'very infrequently', has passed into common use in Lancashire. Guild week is always started by the opening of the Guild Court, which since the 16th century has traditionally been on the first Monday after the feast of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist celebrated on 29 August; as well as concerts and other exhibitions, the main events are a series of processions through the city. Numerous street parties are held in the locality.
In 1952 the emphasis was on the bright new world emerging after the war. The major event, held in the city's Avenham Park, had every school participating, hundreds of children, from toddlers to teenagers, demonstrated different aspects of physical education in the natural amphitheatre of the park. In 1972 participants at the Avenham Park celebrations were treated to a low level, low speed, flypast by Concorde; the 2012 guild formally opened on 2 September with a mayoral proclamation and the return of "friendship scrolls" that had travelled the world. Highlights in the programme for the 2012 celebration included two concerts in Avenham Park - one by Human League and another, a "Proms In The Park", featuring José Carreras, Katherine Jenkins and the Manchester Camerata. In the mid-12th century, Preston was in the hundred of Amounderness, in the deanery of Amounderness and the archdeaconry of Richmond; the name "Amounderness" is more ancient than the name of any other "Wapentake" or hundred in the County of Lancashire, the fort at Tulketh, strengthened by William the Conqueror, shows that the strategic importance of the area was appreci
The persimmon is the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. The most cultivated of these is the Asian or Japanese persimmon, Diospyros kaki. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae, a number of non-persimmon species of the genus are grown for ebony timber; the word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "dios" and "pyron". A popular etymology construed this as "divine fruit", or as meaning "wheat of Zeus" or "God's pear" and "Jove's fire"; the dio-, as shown by the short vowel'i' has nothing to do with'divine', dio- being an affix attached to plant names, in classical Greek the compound referred to'the fruit of the nettle tree'. The word persimmon itself is derived from putchamin, pasiminan, or pessamin, from Powhatan, an Algonquian language of the eastern United States, meaning "a dry fruit"; the tree Diospyros kaki is the most cultivated species of persimmon. The tree reaches 4.5 to 18 metres in height and is round-topped. It stands erect, but sometimes can be crooked or have a willowy appearance.
The leaves alternate, are oblong with brown-hairy petioles. They are leathery and glossy on the upper surface and silky underneath; the leaves are bluish-green in color. In the fall, they turn to orange, or red. Persimmon trees are dioecious, meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate trees; some trees have both male and female flowers and in rare cases bear the'perfect' flower. Male flowers are pink and appear in groups of 3, they have a 4-parted calyx, a corolla, 24 stamens in 2 rows. Female flowers appear singly, they have a large calyx, a 4-parted, yellow corolla, 8 undeveloped stamens, a rounded ovary bearing the style and stigma.'Perfect' flowers are a cross between the two and contain both male and female reproductive organs. Persimmon fruit can stay on the tree until winter. In color, the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from glossy light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety, they vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm in diameter, in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped.
The flesh is astringent until ripe and is yellow, orange, or dark-brown in color. The calyx remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe; the ripe fruit is sweet in taste. Like the tomato, persimmons are not considered to be berries, but morphologically the fruit is in fact a berry. While many species of Diospyros bear fruit inedible to humans or only gathered, the following are grown for their edible fruit: Asian or Japanese persimmon is the commercially most important persimmon, is native to Japan, Korea and Nepal, it is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves, is known as the shizi, as the Japanese Persimmon or kaki in Japanese. Its fruits are sweet and tangy with a soft to fibrous texture. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia and Nepal, it was introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s and to Brazil in the 1890s. Numerous cultivars have been selected; some varieties are edible in the crisp, firm state but it has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften after harvest.
The Japanese cultivar'Hachiya' is grown. The fruit has a high tannin content, which makes the unripe fruit bitter; the tannin levels are reduced. Persimmons like'Hachiya' must be ripened before consumption; when ripe, this fruit comprises pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin-skinned shell. "Sharon fruit" is the marketing name for the Israeli-bred cultivar'Triumph'. As with most commercial pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide; the "sharon fruit" has no core, is seedless and sweet, can be eaten whole. In the Valencia region of Spain, there is a variegated form of kaki called the "Ribera del Xuquer", "Spanish persimon" or "Rojo Brillante". Date-plum known as lotus persimmon, is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe, it was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the gods" and referred to as "nature's candy". Its English name derives from Persian Khormaloo خرمالو "date-plum", referring to the taste of this fruit, reminiscent of both plums and dates.
American persimmon is native to the eastern United States. Harvested in the fall or after the first frost, its fruit is eaten fresh, in baked goods, or in steamed puddings in the Midwest, sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony. Black sapote is native to Mexico, its fruit has green skin and white flesh. The Mabolo or Velvet-apple is native to East Asia, ranging from China down into the Philippines, it is bright red when ripe. In China, it is referred to as shizi, it is known as Korean mango. Indian persimmon is a slow-growing tree, native to coastal West Bengal; the fruit turns yellow when ripe. It is small with an unremarkable flavor and is better known for uses in folk medicine rather than culinary applications. Texas persimmon is native to central and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, eastern Chihuahua, Coahuil
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names boxwood; the boxes are native to western and southern Europe, southwest and eastern Asia, Madagascar, northernmost South America, Central America and the Caribbean, with the majority of species being tropical or subtropical. Centres of diversity occur in Cuba and Madagascar, they are slow-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees, growing to 2–12 m tall. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, leathery; the flowers are yellow-green, monoecious with both sexes present on a plant. The fruit is a small capsule 0.5 -- 1.5 cm long. The genus splits into three genetically distinct sections, each section in a different region, with the Eurasian species in one section, the African and Madagascan species in the second, the American species in the third; the African and American sections are genetically closer to each other than to the Eurasian section. Buxus'Green Velvet' Buxus microphylla var. koreana'Winter Gem' Box plants are grown as hedges and for topiary.
In Britain and mainland Europe, box is subject to damage from caterpillars of Cydalima perspectalis which can devastate a box hedge within a short time. This is a introduced species first noticed in Europe in 2007 and in the UK in 2008 but spreading. There were 3 UK reports of infestation in 2011, 20 in 2014 and 150 in the first half of 2015. Owing to its fine grain it is a good wood for fine wood carving, although this is limited by the small sizes available, it is resistant to splitting and chipping, thus useful for decorative or storage boxes. It was used for wooden combs; as a timber or wood for carving it is "boxwood" in all varieties of English. Owing to the high density of the wood, boxwood is used for chess pieces, unstained boxwood for the white pieces and stained boxwood for the black pieces, in lieu of ebony; the fine endgrain of box makes it suitable for woodblock printing and woodcut blocks, for which it was the usual material in Europe. In the 16th century, boxwood was used to create intricate decorative carvings.
High quality wooden spoons have been carved from box, with beech being the usual cheaper substitute. Boxwood was once called dudgeon, was used for the handles of dirks, daggers, with the result that such a knife was known as a dudgeon. Although one "in high dudgeon" is indignant and enraged, while the image of a dagger held high, ready to plunge into an enemy, has a certain appeal, lexicographers have no real evidence as to the origin of the phrase. Due to its high density and resistance to chipping, boxwood is a economical material, has been used to make parts for various stringed instruments since antiquity, it is used to make tailpieces, chin rests and tuning pegs, but may be used for a variety of other parts as well. Other woods used for this purpose are ebony. Boxwood was a common material for the manufacture of recorders in the eighteenth century, a large number of mid- to high-end instruments made today are produced from one or other species of boxwood. Boxwood was once a popular wood for other woodwind instruments, was among the traditional woods for Great Highland bagpipes before tastes turned to imported dense tropical woods such as cocuswood and African blackwood.
General Thomas F. Meagher decorated the hats of the men of the Irish Brigade with boxwood during the American Civil War, as he could find no shamrock. Boxwood blight Cydalima perspectalis – box tree moth Box / Royal Horticultural Society American Boxwood Society Revision of the genus Buxus in Madagascar
Bacup is a town in Lancashire, England, in the South Pennines close to Lancashire's boundary with West Yorkshire. The town is in the Rossendale Valley and the upper Irwell Valley, 3.5 miles east of Rawtenstall, 6.4 miles north of Rochdale, 7 miles south of Burnley. At the 2011 Census, Bacup had a population of 13,323. Bacup emerged as a settlement following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the Early Middle Ages. For centuries, it was a small and obscure centre of domestic flannel and woollen cloth production, many of the original weavers' cottages survive today as listed buildings. Following the Industrial Revolution, Bacup became a mill town, growing up around the now covered over bridge crossing the River Irwell and the North-South / East-West crossroad at its centre. During that time its landscape became dominated by distinctive and large rectangular woollen and cotton mills. Bacup received a charter of incorporation in 1882, giving it municipal borough status and its own elected town government, consisting of a mayor and councillors to oversee local affairs.
In the late 20th century, Bacup became part of the borough of Rossendale. Bacup's historic character and festivities have encouraged the town's suburbanisation and redevelopment as a more cosmopolitan commuter town for Manchester and other North West towns and cities, whilst English Heritage has proclaimed Bacup as the best preserved cotton town in England, its town centre is designated as a protected area for its special architectural qualities; the name Bacup is derived from the Old English fūlbæchop. The Oxford Dictionary of British Place Names translates this as "muddy valley by a ridge"; the prefix ful- was dropped from the toponym. The -bæchop element is less clear meaning "ridge valley", or else "back valley" referring to the locale's position at the back part of the Irwell Valley. Bacup and its hinterland has provided archeological evidence of human activity in the area during the Neolithic. Anglo-Saxons settled in the Early Middle Ages, it has been claimed that in the 10th century the Anglo-Saxons battled against Gaels and Norsemen at Broadclough, a village to the north of Bacup.
From the medieval period in this area, the River Irwell separated the ancient parishes of Whalley and Rochdale. The settlement developed in the Whalley township of Newchurch but extending into Rochdale's Spotland; the geology and topography of the village lent itself to domestic industries. The adoption of the factory system, which developed into the Industrial Revolution, enabled the transformation of Bacup from a small rural village into a mill town, populated by an influx of families attracted by Bacup's cotton mills, civic amenities and regional railway network. Locally sourced coal provided the fuel for industrial scale quarrying, cotton spinning and shoe making operations, stimulating the local economy. Bacup received a charter of incorporation in 1882, giving it honorific borough status and its own elected town government, consisting of a mayor and councillors to oversee local affairs. Bacup's boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution resulted in the town developing into a prosperous and thickly populated industrial area by early-20th century.
But the Great Depression and the ensuing deindustrialisation of the United Kingdom eliminated Bacup's textile processing sector and economic prosperity. Bacup followed the regional and national trend of deindustrialisation during the early and mid-20th century. Bacup experienced population decline. Much of Bacup's infrastructure became derelict owing to urban decay, despite regeneration schemes and government funding. Shops became empty and some deteriorated; the houses along the main roads endured as the original terraces from Bacup's industrial age, but behind these, on the hillsides, are several council estates. In 2013 it was announced that Rossendale Borough Council was successful in securing £2m funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund for a 5-year regeneration project, to be delivered by the Bacup Townscape Heritage Initiative; the project focuses on the redevelopment and restoration of Bacup’s unique built and cultural heritage whilst providing training in traditional building skills and to facilitate activities and events for local people.
The injection of funds has contributed to growing property prices in the area with the investments in the area being cited as one of the major reasons why the area is becoming attractive to people commuting to larger conurbations such as Greater Manchester. Records in 2005 show Bacup to have some of the lowest crime levels in the county, the relative small change to Bacup's infrastructure and appearance has given the town a "historic character and distinctive sense of place". In 2007, the murder of Sophie Lancaster attracted media attention to the town and highlighted its urban blight and lack of amenities and regeneration. Lying within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire since the High Middle Ages, Bacup was a chapelry linked with the parishes of Whalley and Rochdale, divided between the townships of Newchurch and Spotland in the hundred of Blackburn. Bacup's first local authority was a Loc