Hōzōin-ryū is a traditional school of Japanese martial arts that specializes in the art of spearmanship. Hōzōin-ryū was founded by Hōzōin Kakuzenbō In'ei in c. 1560. In'ei was a Buddhist monk of Kōfuku-ji Temple in Nara, Japan, he trained in the art of swordsmanship. At the same time, he was mentored by Daizendayū Moritada, a master of the spear. Under this master's guidance, In'ei honed his spearmanship, it is said that one evening, on seeing the reflection of the crescent moon shining on Sarusawa pond, he was inspired to create a spear with a cross-shaped spearhead. He imagined. With this new type of spear, he founded the Hōzōin-ryū; the teachings Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu were passed down to Nakamura Naomasa and Takada Matabei Yoshitsugu. The three best disciples of Takada went to Edo, present day Tokyo, its reputation spread nationwide and the number of disciples increased. As martial art of Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu was passed down from generation to generation, various new techniques as well as new dojo were created.
At the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, there were many masters of Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu employed at the shogunate's martial arts training center. In 1976, Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu returned to Nara. In 1991 Kagita Chubei was appointed the 20th headmaster and has been leading the Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu school since then. An ancient Japanese poem expresses the spear of Hōzōin-ryū sōjutsu: "It can be a spear to thrust, it can be a naginata to cleave. It can be a Kama to slash. In any case, it never fails to hit the target." Koryu.com entry Hozoin-ryu Sojutsu
Armour or armor is a protective covering, used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles during combat, or from damage caused by a dangerous environment or activity. Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals. Vehicle armour is used on armoured fighting vehicles. A second use of the term armour describes armoured forces, armoured weapons, their role in combat. After the evolution of armoured warfare, mechanised infantry and their weapons came to be referred to collectively as "armour"; the word "armour" began to appear in the Middle Ages as a derivative of Old French. It is dated from 1297 as a "mail, defensive covering worn in combat"; the word originates from the Old French armure, itself derived from the Latin armatura meaning "arms and/or equipment", with the root armare meaning "arms or gear". Armour has been used throughout recorded history, it has been made from a variety of materials, beginning with the use of leathers or fabrics as protection and evolving through mail and metal plate into today's modern composites.
For much of military history the manufacture of metal personal armour has dominated the technology and employment of armour. Armour drove the development of many important technologies of the Ancient World, including wood lamination, metal refining, vehicle manufacture, leather processing, decorative metal working, its production was influential in the industrial revolution, furthered commercial development of metallurgy and engineering. Armour was the single most influential factor in the development of firearms, which in turn revolutionised warfare. Significant factors in the development of armour include the economic and technological necessities of its production. For instance, plate armour first appeared in Medieval Europe when water-powered trip hammers made the formation of plates faster and cheaper. Modern militaries do not equip their forces with the best armour available because it would be prohibitively expensive. At times the development of armour has paralleled the development of effective weaponry on the battlefield, with armourers seeking to create better protection without sacrificing mobility.
Well-known armour types in European history include the lorica hamata, lorica squamata, the lorica segmentata of the Roman legions, the mail hauberk of the early medieval age, the full steel plate harness worn by medieval and renaissance knights, breast and back plates worn by heavy cavalry in several European countries until the first year of World War I. The samurai warriors of feudal Japan utilised many types of armour for hundreds of years up to the 19th century. Cuirasses and helmets were manufactured in Japan as early as the 4th century. Tankō, worn by foot soldiers and keikō, worn by horsemen were both pre-samurai types of early Japanese armour constructed from iron plates connected together by leather thongs. Japanese lamellar armour reached Japan around the 5th century; these early Japanese lamellar armours took the form of leggings and a helmet. Armour did not always cover all of the body; the rest of the body was protected by means of a large shield. Examples of armies equipping their troops in this fashion were the Aztecs.
In East Asia many types of armour were used at different times by various cultures, including scale armour, lamellar armour, laminar armour, plated mail, plate armour and brigandine. Around the dynastic Tang and early Ming Period and plates were used, with more elaborate versions for officers in war; the Chinese, during that time used partial plates for "important" body parts instead of covering their whole body since too much plate armour hinders their martial arts movement. The other body parts were covered in cloth, lamellar, or Mountain pattern. In pre-Qin dynasty times, leather armour was made out of various animals, with more exotic ones such as the rhinoceros. Mail, sometimes called "chainmail", made of interlocking iron rings is believed to have first appeared some time after 300 BC, its invention is credited to the Celts. Small additional plates or discs of iron were added to the mail to protect vulnerable areas. Hardened leather and splinted construction were used for leg pieces; the coat of plates was developed, an armour made of large plates sewn inside a textile or leather coat.
Early plate in Italy, elsewhere in the 13th–15th century, were made of iron. Iron armour could be case hardened to give a surface of harder steel. Plate armour became cheaper than mail by the 15th century as it required much less labour and labour had become much more expensive after the Black Death, though it did require larger furnaces to produce larger blooms. Mail continued to be used to protect those joints which could not be adequately protected by plate, such as the armpit, crook of the elbow and groin. Another advantage of plate was; the small skull cap evolved into a bigger true helmet, the bascinet, as it was lengthened downward to protect the back of the neck and the sides of the head. Additionally, several new forms of enclosed helmets were introduced in the late 14th century; the most recognised style of armour in the world became the plate armour associated with the knights of the European Late Middle Ages, but continuing to the early 17th
Isshin-ryū is a traditional school of the Japanese martial art of kusarigamajutsu, the art of using the chain and scythe. Its exact origin is disputed, may have been founded as early as the 14th century by the samurai Nen Ami Jion 念阿弥慈恩, but the modern-day techniques were compiled and incorporated no than the 17th century, by the unification of Harayuki Uemon Ujisada, hence the name, it is preserved in Shintō Musō-ryū as a "heiden". The methods that were taught in this ryuha included bōjutsu, torite and shuriken; some scholars date the origin to Harayuki Uemon Ujisada. Yet, his lineage harkens back to a priest who lived in the early 15th century, named Nen Ami Jion, as the ryuso. In any case the ryuha fragmented as the bōjutsu tradition was discovered to be practiced in Kyoto; the Kusarigama is the best known fragment of the ryuha. The original inspiration for the kusarigama is the ordinary scythe, used by peasants to harvest crops and by infantrymen to clear out vegetation when on campaign; the Isshin-ryu tradition dictates that the claimed founder of Isshin-ryu, Nen Ami Jion, created the IR-kusarigama after receiving a vision of a divine being holding a scythe in one hand and a metal weight in the other.
Among the various kusarigama-designs of other traditions the kusarigama found in Isshin-ryu is of a rather uncommon design. IS-kusarigama traits are the longer chain and straight, double-edged blade, with several other traditions preferring a curved single-edged blade and a much shorter chain. Early documents describing the weapon state that the blade is around 30 cm, with a chain length of 3.6 meters. The "kama" or blade is straight for the most part, has a double edge with an attached metal handguard; the handle is made of hardwood and is 36 cm in length. The kusarigama's role as a battlefield weapon was limited, as it required an open area in which to swing the chain and weight; the ability to use the chain was slim on a crowded battlefield and tall grass and tree-branches could prevent the chain from being swung properly. The kusarigama found its main usage in peace-time for law-enforcement or duels in less hindering environments; as a practical weapon, the scythe-part of the IR-kusarigama is used to strike, slash or thrust at various parts of an opponent's body, including neck, hands and solar plexus.
The scythe is used to catch an opponent's sword between the blade and the handguard. A strength of the IR-kusarigama is that it can be wielded in the normal manner, with the scythe up, or it can be used upside down; the handle itself, being made of hardwood, is used to strike, thrust and parry. The chain can be swung as a flail and used to ensnare the opponent's sword, limbs or the body itself making it difficult for the swordsman to maneuver or using his weapon effectively. In some forms the weight is deployed to strike the opponent's body, including the head and hands; the kusarigama is for the most part taught only to advanced students who have achieved a high level of proficiency in the Shinto Muso-ryu Jodo forms, though the level required is not standardized and different Jodo-organizations have different requirements. Modern Isshin-ryu exponents use a wooden version of the kusarigama for safety-reasons; the handguard is still made of metal but the chain and weight replaced by rope and a leather bag.
A kusarigama with a metal blade is sometimes used for demonstrations. In the Isshin-ryu system of modern times there a total of 30 training-forms divided into three series, Omote and Okuden; the forms of the Omote and Ura-series are different in application. Omote and Ura series Ishiki Soemi Hagaeshi Mugan Jûmonji Furikomi Furikomi Isô no nami Tatsumi no maki Midokorozume Ukibune SodegaramiOkuden series Mae Ushiro Hidari Migi Yariai Yariai IR= Isshin-ryu SMR= Shintō Musō-ryū
Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū
Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū is one of the oldest extant Japanese martial arts, an exemplar of bujutsu. The Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū was founded by Iizasa Ienao, born 1387 in Iizasa village, living near Katori Shrine at the time; the ryū itself gives 1447 as the year it was founded, but some scholars claim circa 1480 is more accurate. Iizasa Ienao was a respected spearman and swordsman whose daimyō was deposed, encouraging him to relinquish control of his household to conduct purification rituals and study martial arts in isolation. Iizasa was born in the village of Iizasa in Shimōsa Province; when he was young, he moved to the vicinity of the famous Katori Shrine, a venerable Shinto institution northeast of Tokyo in modern-day Chiba Prefecture. The Katori Shrine enjoys a considerable martial reputation. After studying swordsmanship he went to Kyoto, according to most authorities, he was employed in his youth by the eighth Muromachi shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, a devotee of the martial arts.
Iizasa was known as Yamashiro no Kami in accordance with a practice of Muromachi times, whereby noted warriors took old court titles. On in his life, Iizasa became a Buddhist lay monk and was known as Chōi-sai, sai being a character that many noted swordsmen chose for their sword name; when Chōi-sai returned home, he offered prayers to the deities of both Katori Shrine and Kashima Shrine, the latter being a famous local shrine in nearby Ibaraki Prefecture, where shrine officials themselves reputedly practised a form of swordsmanship, called'Hitotsu no Tachi'. Today the Kashima Shrine training hall attracts Kendo practitioners from around the world, the chief object of interest for visitors is the shrine's sacred sword. Supplementing his considerable skills with assorted weaponry, Chōi-sai was an expert in Musō Jikiden ryū yawaragi, holding the position of seventh Headmaster in the history of that ryū. Legend says at the age of 60 Chōi-sai spent 1000 days in Katori Shrine practising martial techniques day and night, until the kami of the shrine, appeared to him in a dream and handed down the secrets of martial strategy in a scroll named Mokuroku Heiho no Shinsho.
He called his swordsmanship style derived from this miraculous dream the Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, the "Heavenly True, Correctly Transmitted Style of the Way of the God of Katori". This legend is typical of martial arts Ryūha and other cultural forms as well. Ryūha founders attributed their mastery to magical teachings transmitted by Shinto or Buddhist deities, by long-dead historical figures like Minamoto no Yoshitsune, or by legendary supernatural creatures such as the tengu, Japanese goblins depicted with a long red nose. Iizasa's Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, thus linked to the sacred tradition of both Katori and Kashima Shrines, was transmitted through his own family. Iizasa Yamashiro-no-Kami Ienao Choisai, died April 15, 1488 Iizasa Wakasa-no-Kami Morichika Iizasa Wakasa-no-Kami Morinobu Iizasa Yamashiro-no-Kami Moritsuna Iizasa Saemon-no-Jo Morihide Iizasa Oi-no-Kami Morishige Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morinobu Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morinaga Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morihisa Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morisada Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morishige Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Moritsugu Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morikiyo Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Nagateru Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Moriteru Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morishige, died July 11, 1853, at 78 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morifusa, died January 4, 1854, at 51 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morisada, participated in the Mito Rebellion against the shogunate, died June 2, 1896, at 56 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Kinjiro, died in 1943 Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Yasusada In 1896, the 18th soke died without a male heir.
Yamaguchi Eikan shihan governed the ryu until his death March 14, 1917. Until Iizasa Kinjiro married into the Iizasa household, the following eight shihan headed the ryu: Tamai Kisaburo Shiina Ichizo Ito Tanekichi Kuboki Sazaemon Isobe Kohei Motomiya Toranosuke Hayashi Yazaemon Kamagata Minosuke Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū is the source tradition of many Japanese martial arts. Several famous swordsmen who learned directly from Chōi-sai or his immediate followers became founders of their own schools, with either the same name or different names: Kashima Shintō-ryū, Kashima-ryū, Kashima shin-ryū, Arima-ryū, Ichiu-ryū, Shigen-ryū, others; as such in 1960 the school received the first "Intangible Cultural Asset" designation given to a martial art. It claims to have never aligned itself with any estate or faction, no matter what stipend was offered; this allowed the ryū to maintain its integrity. Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū was popularised in the west by the extensive research and writings of late Donn F. Draeger.
The current, twentieth generation headmaster, is Yasusada Iizasa. He does not teach his family's system and has instead appointed as his current, main representative instructor Risuke Otake who has a personal dojo close to. Iizasa devised a unique method to ensure warriors could train without serious injury and yet maintain a resemblance to'riai' and combative reality; the weapon training of the r
Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū
Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū is a Japanese sword art school and one of the most practiced schools of iai in the world. Referred to as "Eishin-ryū," it claims an unbroken lineage dating back from the sixteenth century to the early 20th century. 17th undisputed headmaster, Oe Masamichi, awarded at least 16 licenses of full transmission, resulting in the school fracturing into multiple legitimate branches. The school takes its name from its seventh headmaster, Hasegawa Chikaranosuke Hidenobu, who had founded Hasegawa Eishin-ryū. ‘Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū’ means ‘peerless, directly transmitted school of Eishin.’ ‘Eishin’ is an alternative pronunciation of ‘Hidenobu.’ The founder of the earlier school Eishin-ryū was Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu. Hayashizaki was born in Dewa Province, Ōshū, he lived c. 1546–1621 in what is present-day Kanagawa Prefecture. Many of the historical details of Hayashizaki's life are suspect, like most famous martial artists in Japan, his story has been fictionalized.
It seems that he grew up during a time of constant warfare in Japan and was exposed to sword-fighting methods from an early age. According to legend, Hayashizaki's father was killed and to take revenge he began training in earnest, he went to the Hayashizaki Meijin shrine to pray for guidance and received divine inspiration for a new technique of drawing the sword and attacking in one movement. Legend says that he defeated his father's killer. Following this, Hayashizaki continued on his martial arts pilgrimage, training with renowned swordsmen and attracting students of his own. Hayashizaki established his own style of swordsmanship, calling it Shinmei Musō-ryū. Hayashizaki's art has had many names since it was established, such as Hayashizaki-ryū or Jūshin ryu, it is considered the foundation for many of the major styles of iai practised today, in particular Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū and Musō Shinden-ryū. The seventh generation sōke of Hayashizaki's school, Hasegawa Chikaranosuke Hidenobu, was one of its most important headmasters.
He had a major influence on the school. In particular, he adapted techniques developed for the tachi to use the contemporary katana, he devised many new techniques. Hasegawa's influence and adaptation led to the style being named Hasegawa Eishin-ryū, it was referred to as Hasegawa-ryū or Eishin-ryū. Some regard Hasegawa as the primary founder of Eishin-ryū, which would make him the first generation sōke rather than the seventh, make Shinmei Musō-ryū a parent school of Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū; the ninth generation sōke was Hayashi Rokudayū Morimasa. Hayashi introduced a set of techniques executed from the formal seated position seiza; these techniques are thought to have been developed by Hayashi's kenjutsu teacher, the Shinkage-ryū swordsman Ōmori Rokurōzaemon, are said to be influenced by Ogasawara-ryū etiquette, hence starting from seiza. They were taught alongside Eishin-ryū as Ōmori-ryū. Hayashi was responsible for introducing the school to the Tosa Domain at the behest of the ruling Yamauchi family.
As the school took root in Tosa, it came to be referred to as Tosa Eishin-ryū. Eishin-ryū and Ōmori-ryū were taught with a few peculiarities. After the death of the 11th headmaster, Ōguro Motozaemon, the school split into two branches, they became known as the Tanimura-ha and Shimomura-ha. One of the most important sōke was Ōe Masaji. Born in Asahi Tosa in 1852, in his youth Ōe studied Kokuri-ryū and Oishi Shinkage-ryū kenjutsu, along with Shimomura-ha Eishin-ryū. At the age of 15 he took part in the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, following which he studied Tanimura-ha Eishin-ryū under Gotō Magobei, he studied Eishin-ryū bōjutsu under Itagaki Taisuke. Ōe inherited leadership of the Tanimura-ha. He restructured its curriculum. Ōe reduced the number of waza from around 160, reorganized them into the Seiza, Tachihiza and kumitachi waza sets practised today. Although he retained the original techniques, he changed the names of some waza to aid understanding. Ōe named the reorganised school Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū, during the Taishō era.
In 1900 he began teaching kendo and Eishin-ryū at the Kōchi branch of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai and at local schools. In 1924 he became the second person to be awarded hanshi in iaidō by the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Ōe died at Enokuchi on April 18, 1926. His many students went on to spread Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū iai throughout Japan. 60 years after his death a memorial stone was raised to honour him on Mt Godaisan. Eishin-ryū uses a system of indiscriminate transmission, allowing anyone in possession of full-transmission to award licenses to any number of his students. Therefore, it is possible that there were multiple, unlisted holders of menkyo kaiden, known in Eishin-ryū as Kongen no Maki, in any generation. Due in part to Ōe Masaji's more open and inclusive approach to teaching Eishin-ryū, the lineages of groups practicing the art are diverse and complex. Hayashizaki Jinsuke Shigenobu, founder of Hayashizaki Shin Musō-ryū Tamiya Heibei Shigemasa, 2nd generation Nagano Muraku Nyūdō Kinrosai, 3rd generation Todo Gunbei Mitsushige, 4th generation Arikawa Seizaemon M
Ikkaku-ryū juttejutsu is a school of juttejutsu that, as the equivalent to its sister variant Chūwa-ryū tankenjutsu, is taught alongside traditional school of Japanese martial arts, Shintō Musō-ryū. It is composed of 24 forms divided into two series, it was created by the third Shintō Musō-ryū Headmaster, Matsuzaki Kinu'emon Tsunekatsu in the late 17th century. Ikkaku-ryū juttejutsu utilizes the jutte as a way of self-defense for use against an attacker armed with a sword; the original tradition of Ikkaku-ryū did not specialize in the jutte, but was a system of seizing/capturing arts with the jutte being one of several weapons and skills used. These weapons and arts included the war-fan, short-stick and short-sword; the complete Ikkaku-ryū was taught in the New Just Musō-ryū branch and the Ten'ami-ryū as an arresting/seizing-system for the local security force of the Kuroda domain. After the Meiji-restoration the two largest surviving branches of the Kuroda-no-jo tradition and Haruyoshi -branches of New Just Musō-ryū, was merged and streamlined into what would become the modern day Way of the Gods Musō-ryū system led by Shiraishi Hanjiro.
Of the original seizing-arts of the Ikkaku-ryū only the jutte and tessen arts was incorporated into the new system. The is a baton made of iron with a small prong fitted just above the handle; the gripspace of the handle is wrapped with a cord that hangs down from underneath the handle with a tassle at the end. The jutte was used by police-forces of the Edo-period of Japan and is known to have had over 200 variations. Ikkaku-ryū fields a truncheon about 45 cm in length with a weight of about 550 grams, it has a smooth shaft ending in a handle wrapped in a coloured cord ending with a hanging tassel. A small tine is attached just above the grip; the colour of the wrapping-cord indicated the social level of the wielder. The original design of the Ikkaku-ryū jutte had a hexagonal shaft cross-section with the tine attached to one of the corners instead of the flat surface; the inside of the tine was sharpened which enabled the wielder to use it for cutting if applicable. The fan used in Ikkaku-ryū is about 30 cm in length.
The fan was designed to look like a regular folding-fan carried by samurai and other nobles in the samurai-era when they did not have access to their swords. These special tessens were in some cases either made of iron or had iron-edges thus enabling it to be a small self-defence weapon if required. Ikkaku-ryū applies the jutte, either alone or in tandem with the tessen, in response of an attack made by a swordsman armed with a katana; the jutte is made of iron and it can block and parry swordattacks either on its own or in tandem with the tessen. The jutte can be used to catch a sword between the main shaft and the tine thus controlling the sword or snapping it in two if applicable. After deflecting or avoiding the sword, the wielder gets within arms-length of the opponent in order to strike at any part of the opponents body such as hands and head; the jutte is for the most part taught only to advanced students who have achieved a high level of proficiency in the Shinto Muso-ryu Jodo forms, though the level required is not standardized and different Jodo-organisations have different requirements.
Modern exponents of Ikkaku-ryū use all-wooden weapons in order to reduce risk of injuries during training, though this is dependent on which Jodo-organisation he/she belongs to. In some groups, when a student has attained the necessary level of skill, the wooden-jutte is replaced by a real one made of metal, the attackers wooden-sword is replaced by a metal non-sharpened sword; the tessen is made of wood for safety-reasons in advanced levels as the tessen is discarded in some of the forms and can present a risk when thrown. The modern Ikkaku-ryū system fields 24 training-forms divided between 2 series called Ura; some of the kata uses a war fan in tandem with the jutte. The forms of the Omote and Ura-series are different in application. Omote series Uken Saken Zanken Keageken Ichiranken Irimiken Ippuken Meateken Utoken Gorinken Isseiken KasumikenUra series Edo period Jittejutsu Tokugawa shogunate – The military dictatorship of the Tokugawa family that dominated Japan for the duration of the Edo period
Shinkage-ryū meaning "new shadow school", is a traditional school of Japanese martial arts, founded by Kamiizumi Ise-no-Kami Nobutsuna in the mid-sixteenth century. Shinkage-ryū is a school of swordsmanship, is a synthesis of Nobutsuna's studies in the school of Kage-ryū. Shinkage-ryu can refer to Kashima derived schools such as Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage Ryu and Kashima Shin Ryu; until the 16th century in Japan, martial techniques were concerned with effectiveness in real battle. At the time of the founder of Shinkage-ryū, Kamiizumi Nobutsuna, the superiority of a school was determined through duels. Basic postures were distinct; the idea of winning at any price was ingrained in the teachings of the schools that existed at this time. Primary philosophical and strategic concepts included the "sword that kills only once" and the "sword of only one cut". However, with the arrival of firearms and other elements of modern warfare, these traditionally invincible techniques were no longer sufficient.
As a result of the use of this new technology, Kamiizumi was spurred to make a number of changes. He changed the basic postures a bit by raising them he changed the manner of holding the sword, he shortened the length of the blade of the sword. Most he invented a new method of teaching to make the study and practice of the sword easier; until Kamiizumi, swordsmen practiced their art with either a hard wooden sword or one with a dulled steel blade. Because of this, swordsmen had to stop their blows during training if they did not want to hurt themselves or their students or partners. Kamiizumi created a practice sword made of a length of bamboo, split two to 16 times on one end, covered in a lacquered leather sleeve, he called this invention a hikihada shinai. Kamiizumi, sensing the changes in the ways of war at the time, re-thought his methods of martial arts and began to advocate the utilization of light armour during training; the face of war was being transformed, as it was necessary to move faster than before, Nobutsuna perfected a style of sword "freer" in its movements, more sparse, more restrained, more adapted to brawls and to duels than the fields of large-scale battles.
Kamiizumi did not have children and left all his property and his school to his student Yagyū Sekishūsai Muneyoshi. Muneyoshi thus became the second headmaster of Shinkage-ryū in 1566, subsequently founded his own school, the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū, he was renowned as a remarkable swordsman, was the fencing instructor of the 15th and last Ashikaga shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki. After Muneyoshi gave a demonstration to the 2nd Tokugawa shōgun, Tokugawa Hidetada, of the empty-handed "sword-catching" techniques he had developed, the Yagyū family became the official fencing instructors to the Tokugawa shogunate. Oishi Shinkage-ryū Kenjutsu De Lange, William. Famous Samurai: Kamiizumi Nobutsuna. Floating World Editions. ISBN 978-1-891640-66-7. Sugawara, Makoto. Lives of Master Swordsmen; the East Publication. ISBN 4-915645-17-7