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Kit-cat portrait

For other items called Kit Kat or Kit Cat see Kit Kat. A kit-cat portrait or kit-kat portrait is a particular size of portrait, less than half-length, but including the hands; the name originates from a famous series of portraits which were commissioned from Godfrey Kneller for members of the Kit-Cat Club, a Whig dining club, to be hung in their meeting place at Barn Elms. They are now in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, with a selection of about twelve displayed in London and others at their satellite locations, including twenty on display at Beningbrough Hall in North Yorkshire; each canvas is thirty-six inches long, twenty-eight wide. The special Kit-cat portrait size is said to have been determined because the dining-room ceiling of the Kit-cat Club was too low for half-length portraits of the members. Larger than the traditional head and shoulders format, it allows enough space to include one or both hands. So, while the poses in the Kit-cat portraits may look similar, none is repeated.

When hung together, the overall effect is of a unified club of equals, though each man retains his individuality through distinct gestures and costumes. The Kit Kat portraits, as a whole, can be broken down into three separate types; the first group may be represented by the portrait of John Vanbrugh. Vanbrugh's portrait is the most famous and the style of the painting is the most common. Subjects wear formal clothing; the men painted in this style look down and off to the left of the view, if to be day-dreaming or thinking of some grand political scheme. These men are painted with a ring or pendant, depicting their family crest. William Cavendish represents the second most popular pose in the series, he is painted with the same stately wig and fine clothing but he holds his staff of office as Lord Steward. His face is more ruddy than Vanbrugh's, suggesting that he may be younger. Thomas Hopkins represents the third most popular style. Instead of a wig, Hopkins is bald and sports a red cap but his clothes are the same as his fellow Kit Kats


Mulhern is an Irish Catholic family name. It is anglicized form of Gaelic Ó Maoilchiaráin, ‘descendant of Maoilchiaráin’, a personal name meaning ‘devotee of Ciarán’; the Mulhern family is based in Gaeltacht communities across County Donegal, Ireland with distant relatives scattered around the United Kingdom and North America. History: The Irish surname Mulhern is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Ó Maoilchiaráin, which signifies “ the devotee of St. Kieran”, the latter being an Irish bishop said to predate St. Patrick and to have been a hermit at Saighar and founder of the famous abbey of Clonmacnois; the personal name itself means “my little dark one”. The Ó Maoilchiaráin were a Roscommon family who served as erenaghs of Ardcane in that county and produced many notable ecclesiastics - erenaghs were hereditary lay lords who held church lands in trust from generation to generation. Records of the name in Roscommon date as far back as 1012, when the Annals of the four Masters refer to the slaying of an Ó Maoilchiaráin, erenagh of Eaglis Beg.

Other ecclesiastics of note from the Medieval period were Denis O’Mulkerrin, Bishop of Elphin, Maelisa O’Mulkerrin, Bishop of Clogher. At a later period Father John Mulcheran, hanged in December, 1589, was one of many Ulster martyrs. In Roscommon itself, the name has Anglicised as Mulkerrill, while amongst those branches which became established elsewhere it has become Mulkerrin in Galway, with the Mulhern/Mulhearne variant being associated with the northern province of Ulster, where it was first recorded in the Hearth Money Rolls of Armagh and Donegal in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as Mulkieran. By 1890 however, of the twenty one Mulhern births registered throughout Ireland, two-thirds took place in Ulster with nine out of ten Mulkerrin births occurring in Galway *** Beazon of Arms: Per fesse argent and azure, three chaplets counterchanged. Translation: Argent is the colour of Peace and Sincerity, whilst azure denotes Loyalty and Truth; the chaplet is an emblem of “the crown of joy”.

Crest: On a mount vert, a horse at full speed and bridled proper. Origin: Ireland John Mulhern, IRA member Michael Mulhern, IRA member Francis Mulhern, British critical theorist Francis J. Mulhern, Associate Dean of Research at the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University John Mulhern, American ice hockey player Lee Mulhern known as Lee Matthews and Lee. M, Irish singer-songwriter Mary Mulhern, American councilwoman of the City Council in Tampa, Florida Matt Mulhern, American actor Quinn Mulhern, American mixed martial artist Richard Mulhern, Canadian ice hockey defenceman Ryan Mulhern, American ice hockey player Stephen Mulhern, British broadcaster and entertainer Mulhern Belting, supplier of conveyor belts to the United States and the world. Mulhern House, historic home located at Wappingers Falls in Dutchess County, New York


Jermikko is an American fashion designer and businessperson based in Chicago. She was the first African-American woman to own a store in Chicago's upscale Magnificent Mile. Jermikko was born as Jermikko Shoshanna Johnson in Chicago in 1946, she began making clothes as a teenager and redesigning family members' outfits. In 1972, after graduating with a BFA from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, she apprenticed under designer Stanley Korshak in Chicago. In 1979, she opened her own fashion business, she has designed pieces for Spike Lee's 2015 film Empire. In 2016, her hoodie design appeared in Beyonce's "Pray You Catch Me" video. Jermikko is the Executive Director of CEO of the Jermikko and JJ Hobeau labels. 1997 Designer of the Year Award from the Apparel Industry Board 1999 Manufacturer of the Millennium Award Jermikko interview on The History Makers oral history project WBEZ interview with Jermikko

Clay County Fair

The Clay County Fair is held every September in Spencer, United States. It is the largest county fair in the state of Iowa, it has the largest agricultural exposition in North America. Bringing in over 310,000 visitors a year, the Clay County Fair is one of the largest county fairs in the United States. 2011 set attendance records of 328,000. Beginning in 1918, the fair has grown over the past century. In its first year the Clay County Fair brought in 30,000 guests. In 1936 the fair completed the construction of its second grandstand, able to seat over 7,500 people, which it still uses today. During the 1930s the fair continued construction of agricultural buildings for livestock; the Clay County Fair has planted itself as the largest Midwest county fair. The fair hosts a carnival of over 80 rides and attractions. There are many businesses that have booths all over the fair, it consists of over 35 square city blocks of space, continues to fill up the space tighter and tighter every year. Some familiar people/groups who have visited and/or performed at the Clay County Fair are: Former President George W. Bush, Sen. John Kerry, former Vice President Al Gore, Bob Hope, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Johnny Cash, Tim McGraw, Kenny Rogers, Lee Ann Womack, Martina McBride, REO Speedwagon, The Righteous Brothers, Plus One, Clay Aiken, ZZ Top, LeAnn Rimes, Brad Paisley, Lee Greenwood, Bill Cosby, Red Skelton, Jim Nabors, Grand Funk Railroad, Garth Brooks, Trisha Yearwood and Foreigner.

On September 15, 2007 Aly and AJ played there for the first time in Iowa. With the completion of the Clay County Regional Events Center inside the fairground walls, new opportunities have opened; some of these are indoor concerts. With seating up to 3,400 people, the events center has hosted The Barnum and Bailey Circus, the Lipizzan Stallions, it has a large ballroom/dining room capable of seating up to 400 people, just creating more opportunities to flourish and grow. The Fair completed another project in 2007; the Race Track was modified into a 3/8 track. The previous track was a large, half-mile oval, used for horse racing. In order to host high-quality auto racing events, the fair deemed it necessary to construct a new racetrack, it was converted to a 3/8 mile clay track, with increased corner banking to adjust for the higher speeds of auto racing. Additionally, a state-of-the-art lighting system was installed to make the races more visible for both drivers and fans. In 2008, the racing schedule featured the International Motor Contest Association hosting two classes of racing.

Those races included Hobby Stocks and 360 Modifieds. July 4, the WorldDirt Racing League hosted a Late Model Series and 360 Sprints on the track; the season rounded out with an appearance by the World of Outlaws during the 2008 Clay County Fair and another race with IMCA Modifieds and Stock Cars, with Hobby Stocks and 360 Modifieds. In 2013 the Clay County Fair Association partnered with Iowa Lakes Community College to break the Guinness World Record for Largest Science Experiment. To achieve the record, Iowa Lakes Community College and the Clay County Fair had to get at least 750 people in the Grandstand and participating in a half-hour science lesson and experiment; the previous record was set in Oslo, Norway with 749 students in a junior high in November 2012. As part of the experiment, those in attendance participated in two experiments; the first experiment, according to Mark Zabawa, associate professor of chemistry and biology at ILLC's Emmetsburg campus, included mixing potassium iodide and hydrogen peroxide with detergent to create a foam resembling "elephant toothpaste."

The second included using leaf blowers to demonstrate kinetic energy. Http://

Lava cave

A lava cave is any cave formed in volcanic rock, though it means caves formed by volcanic processes, which are more properly termed volcanic caves. Sea caves, other sorts of erosional and crevice caves, may be formed in volcanic rocks, but through non-volcanic processes and long after the volcanic rock was emplaced. There are many types of lava caves, with these being the most notable: Lava tubes are the most common and extensive type of lava cave. Lava tubes form in pahoehoe lava flows, though exceptions exist; as the lava is emitted from the vent area, it spreads in the path of least resistance. The outer layers of the lava harden, while the interior forms horizontal conduits that channel the advance of the flow; these conduits are the beginning stages of lava tubes that serve to insulate the heat from the lava which provides a way for the lava flow to advance longer distances. Dependent upon the slope and lava viscosity, different kinds of lava tubes can form. Multilateral tubes are those that form paralleling branching and anastomosing tubes.

Multilevel tubes are those that sit directly on top or underneath another tube, sometimes above or below several tubes. Some lava flows hold a mixture of multilateral tubes. One other form a lava tube is the tube-in-tube which can form inside lava tubes if the linings of the walls are weak enough to lean inward, forming a new floor above the old. Tube-in-tubes are noted to form during the last lava draining through the main lava tube. Ice caves Some lava tubes are referred to as ice caves. Surface tubes are small drained rivulets, or runners of the same fluid lava that flows in lava channels, they form on an existing hardened surface, most are too small to enter. They are created by flowing lava. Sometimes referred to as "toes," they are thought to be instrumental in the growth of lava tubes, they form when vents, channels, or reservoirs of lava overflow. They are shallow and reside within the first few feet under the surface; some surface tubes can connect to lava tubes deeper below the surface.

Surface tubes have a uniform wall thickness and semi-circular cross section, flat side down against the surface where they formed. Branching is broadly dendritic networks are not unusual. Widths range from about four inches to several yards. Length depends on an uninterrupted supply of lava and ranges widely. Surface tubes are far more numerous than is realized because most are subsequently buried. Inflationary caves tend to be small chambers that form when lava is pressurized and pushes exterior rock; the lava may later drain leaving an inflationary cave. In some cases, volcanic gases may exert pressure on solid or semi-solid lava and form what is a bubble of thin rock called a blister; these blisters are at times big enough to qualify as a cave. Inflated caves can be mistaken for lava tubes because they share many of the same characteristics. An example of inflationary caves can be found in pressure ridges. Pressure ridges are fractured lobes of hardened lava and may be hollow. Liftup caves are related to the inflationary process.

Liftup caves can form on the edges of pressure ridges or pressure plateaus where the convex edge of a ridge or plateau begins to expand outward it leaves a void below. Liftup caves are no more than 5–10 feet though longer ones have been discovered up to 30 ft long. Open vertical conduits are vertical passages through which lava rose to the surface receded, they have oval-shaped passage. Depths range from a few feet to at least 165 feet, diameters range from less than a foot to 25 feet, their interior consists of remelted lining adorned with short stalactites. OVCs though not form at the top of a vent structure like a spatter cone, spatter ridge, or hornito. Hornitos are open vertical conduits. One of the deepest and most spectacular OVCs known is Thrihnukagigur in Iceland, it drops 120 meters from the surface to the upper floor of the magma chamber. Pit craters form when magma that doesn’t quite reach the surface drains to form a void, the ground above it slumps; these huge open-air pits, with their sheer walls, are analogous to some of the large shafts that formed by solution, require a roped descent for exploration.

While most have no extension beyond the visible floor, others may have entrances into adjacent magma chambers, such as was seen when the crater of Mauna Ulu in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park was explored by a team of Swiss cavers. In Na One, a pit crater on Hualālai Volcano in Hawaii, a narrow opening at the bottom of an 430 feet -deep pit crater leads into an open vertical volcanic conduit, with a total depth of 880 feet. Rift or fissure caves, which form along volcanic rift zones and eruptive fissures, or in fractures associated with volcanic activity; these are tectonic in formation, caused by stress in lava after solidification. They may be the site of fissure eruptions, the walls covered with spatter. Notable rift caves include Crystal Ice Cave, formed in Idaho’s Great Rift. Caves in the Great Rift are known up to 800 feet deep. Lava mold caves or sometimes erroneously called "lava casts", form when lava flows around trees or large dead animals; the engulfed material burns or decays away, but ends up leaving a hollow space with the original shape.

These are not large but can get somewhat complex where groups of f

GalĂ­cia Esporte Clube

Galícia Esporte Clube is a Brazilian football club from Salvador, capital of the state of Bahia, in Brazil's northeast region. Galícia was founded on January 1933 by immigrants from the autonomous region of Galicia, Spain, its founder and first president was Mr. Eduardo Castro de la Iglesias. Galícia was the first club to win the Bahia League Championship three times in a row becoming one of the strongest teams in the state. In its first decade, the club won the League in 1937, 1941, 1942 and 1943, being runner-up another five times. However, after this superb beginning, the club only managed to return to the top in 1968, with its fifth and last Bahia League title. Besides, it was runner-up in 1967, 1980, 1982 and 1995. Galícia’s best regional performance was in 1969, when it was runner-up of the Northeast Zone of the North-Northeast Cup; the club only played twice in the Brazilian League First Division: 1981 and 1983. In 1999, the team was relegated to Bahia League’s Second Division. In 2001, Galícia occupied 54th place in the Brazilian Football Clubs Ranking of the prestigious "Placar" magazine.

In 2013, Galícia won the Bahia League’s Second Division, returning to the Bahia League Championship after 14 years of absence. In its early years, Galícia played in the old "Campo da Graça" stadium. After its demolition, its home matches moved to Salvador's biggest stadium, Fonte Nova, sometimes to Pituaçu Stadium. Nowadays, the club has the Parque Santiago, with a seating capacity of 8,000 fans. Galícia’s nicknames are "Demolidor de Campeões", "Azulino" and "Granadeiro". Galícia's logo is white, with a blue diagonal strip featuring the letters "G", "E" and "C", a Saint James Cross in the center, remembering its galicean heritage; the players wear white shorts and socks. The club anthem was composed by Francisco Icó da Silva. Bahia League Championship Champion 1937 1941 1942 1943 1968Runner-up 1935 1936 1938 1939 1940 1967 1980 1982 1995Bahia League Championship Second Level Champion 1985 1988 2013Runner-up 2007Northeast Zone of the North-Northeast Cup Runner-up 1969 Galícia Esporte – Official Site