Canada under British rule
Canada was under British rule beginning with the 1763 Treaty of Paris, when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire. Other territories and provinces that were part of British North America would be added to Canada, along with land through the use of treaties with First Peoples; the Royal Proclamation of 1763 enlarged the colony of Canada under the name of the Province of Quebec, which with the Constitutional Act 1791 became known as the Canadas. With the Act of Union 1840, Upper and Lower Canada were joined to become the United Province of Canada. With Confederation in 1867, the British maritime colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were joined with the Province of Canada to form Canada, subsequently divided into four provinces: Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. A number of other British colonies, such as Newfoundland and British Columbia, large territories such as Rupert's Land remained outside the newly formed federation.
Over time, the remaining colonies and territories of British North America were joined to Canada until the current geographic extent of the country was reached when Newfoundland and Labrador joined Canada in 1949. Although confederation in 1867 led to an enlarged Dominion with increased autonomy over domestic affairs, Canada still remained a colony within the British Empire and was thus subordinate to the British Parliament, until the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931; this statute recognized Canada as an independent peer coequal with the United Kingdom and thus provided the Parliament of Canada with legislative sovereignty over all federal matters except the power to change the constitutional laws of Canada, which remained under the purview of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada's final vestige of legislative dependence on the United Kingdom was terminated in 1982 with the enactment of the Canada Act, subsequently providing Canada with full legal legislative sovereignty independent of the United Kingdom.
In North America, the Seven Years' War had seen Great Britain conquer all of the French colony of Canada. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763; as part of the treaty, France formally renounced its claims to all its North American lands to Britain, except Louisiana, two islands off the shores of Newfoundland. With the addition of Canada to the British Empire, Britain gained control of a strip of territory along the St. Lawrence River with a population of at least 70,000 francophone Roman Catholics, expanded and renamed as the Province of Quebec under the Quebec Act. Although many British people hoped the French Canadians would be assimilated this was not the case as distinct rules of governance for Quebec were set out in the Quebec Act such as allowing the French Canadians to retain their Catholic religion and their French system of civil law; the Quebec Act became one of the Intolerable Acts that infuriated the thirteen British colonies in what would become the United States of America.
The island colony of Newfoundland had been dominated by the British for a long time before the French abandoned their legal claims to the area, thus an anglophone society had taken shape prior to the legal transfer of ownership. In Acadia, the British had expelled French-speaking populations in 1755 from Acadia to Louisiana, creating the Cajun population, but this would not be repeated in 1763. In the former French territory of Acadia, the British were confronted by a large and well-established Catholic Mi'kmaq and Wabanaki Confederacy; the British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710, much earlier than in what would become the rest of modern-day Canada. The Mi ` kmaq never ceded land to either England; the first immigration of Protestants happened in the province with the founding of Halifax. The establishment of Halifax sparked Father Le Loutre's War, which, in turn, led to the British expelling the Acadians from the region during the French and Indian War; as they captured Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island, the policy of expulsion was extended there as well.
The few Acadians who managed to return to the area have created the contemporary Acadian society. Once the land was emptied, other settlements were formed by New England Planters. In 1775, American revolutionaries attempted to push their insurrection into Quebec. Support for the Patriot cause was mixed; the habitants were divided. The Patriots laid siege to Fort Saint-Jean, capturing it and Montreal in November 1775, they marched on Quebec City, where an attempt to take the city on December 31, 1775, failed. Following an ineffectual siege, the arrival of British troops in May 1776 sent the Patriots into retreat back toward Montreal. An attempt against British troops at Trois-Rivières failed, the Patriots were driven from the province in June. Leaving with the rebel army were about 250 Québécois in two regiments: James Livingston's 1st Canadian Regiment, Moses Hazen's 2nd Canadian Regiment. Quebeckers living in the forts of the Great Lakes region massively sided with the Patriots and we
County Galway is a county in Ireland. It is located in the West of part of the province of Connacht. There are several Irish-speaking areas in the west of the county; the traditional county includes, is named for, the city of Galway, but the city and county now have separate local authorities: Galway City Council administers the urban area, while the rest of the county is administered by Galway County Council. The population of the county was 258,058 at the 2016 census; the first inhabitants in the Galway area arrived over 7000 years ago. Shell middens indicate the existence of people as early as 5000 BC; the county comprised several kingdoms and territories which predate the formation of the county. These kingdoms included Uí Maine, Maigh Seóla, Conmhaícne Mara, Soghain and Máenmaige. County Galway became an official entity around 1569 AD; the region known as Connemara retains a distinct identity within the county, though its boundaries are unclear, so it may account for as much as one third, or as little as 20%, of the county.
The county includes a number such as the Oileáin Árann and Inis Bó Fine. With the arrival of Christianity many monasteries were built in the county. Monasteries kept written records of events of its people; these were followed by a number of law-tracts, genealogies and miscellaneous accounts. Extant manuscripts containing references to Galway include: Nearly 20% of the population of County Galway live in the Gaeltacht. County Galway is home to the largest Gaeltacht Irish-speaking region in Ireland. There are over 48,000 people living within this region, which extends from Galway city westwards through Connemara; the region consists of the following Irish-speaking areas. All schools within the Gaeltacht use the Irish language for classroom instruction. There is a third-level constituent college of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in Carraroe and Carna. Clifden is the largest town in the region. Galway City is home to Ireland's only Irish-language theatre, Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe. There is a strong Irish-language media presence in this area too, which boasts the radio station Raidió na Gaeltachta and Foinse newspaper in Carraroe and national TV station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann.
The Aran Islands are part of the Galway Gaeltacht. According to Census 2016, there were 84,249 people in County Galway. According to Census 2011, the Galway city and county Gaeltacht has a population of 48,907, of which 30,978 say they can speak Irish, 23,788 can be classed as native Irish speakers while 7,190 speak Irish daily only within the classroom. There are 3,006 attending three Gaelcholáiste outside the Galway Gaeltacht. According to the Irish Census 2016 there are 9,445 people in the county who identify themselves as being daily Irish speakers outside the education system. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001, the county was a unified whole for administrative purposes, despite the presence of two local authorities. Since that time, the administrative re-organisation has reduced the geographical extent of the county by the extent of the area under the jurisdiction of Galway City Council. Today, the geographic extent of the county is limited to the area under the jurisdiction of Galway County Council.
Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 West Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the remit of Galway County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the remit of Galway City Council. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Galway East, Galway West and Roscommon–Galway. Together they return 11 deputies to the Dáil. County Galway is home to Na Beanna Beola mountain range, Na Sléibhte Mhám Toirc, the low mountains of Sliabh Echtghe; the highest point in the county is one of Benbaun, at 729m. County Galway is home to a number of Ireland's largest lakes including Lough Corrib, Lough Derg and Lough Mask.
The county is home to a large number of smaller lakes, many of which are in the Connemara region. These include Lough Anaserd, Ardderry Lough, Aughrusbeg Lough, Ballycuirke Lough, Ballynahinch Lake, Lough Bofin, Lough Cutra, Derryclare Lough, Lough Fee, Glendollagh Lough, Lough Glenicmurrin, Lough Inagh, Kylemore Lough, Lettercraffroe Lough, Maumeen Lough, Lough Nafooey, Lough Rea, Ross Lake and Lough Shindilla; the location of County Galway, situated on the west coast of Ireland, allows it to be directly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Temperature extremes are rare and short lived, though inland areas east of the Corrib, can boast some of the highest recorded temperatures of the summer in the island of Ireland. Overall, Galway is influenced by Atlantic airstreams which bring ample rainfall in between the fleeting sunshine. Rainf
History of Canadian women
The history of Canadian women covers half the population, but until recent years only comprised a tiny fraction of the historiography. The history of women in Canada is influenced by many events, notably major events of the 20th century such as the Persons Case, brought by five women - The Famous Five - in 1927 and decided in 1929. In the 1660s the French government sent, they found husbands among the predominantly male settlers, as well as a new life for themselves. They came from poor families in the Paris area and the central-western regions of France. A handful were ex-prostitutes; as farm wives with good nutrition and high birth rates they played a major role in establishing family life and enabling rapid demographic growth. They had about 30 % more children than comparable women. Landry says, "Canadians had an exceptional diet for their time; this was due to the natural abundance of meat and pure water. They worked at home alongside their husbands or fathers as merchants and provisioners; some were widowed, took over their husbands' roles.
A handful were active entrepreneurs in their own right. In the early 19th century down to the 1950s upper-class Anglos dominated high society in Montreal, their women constructed and managed their identity and social position through central events in the social life, such as the coming out of debutantes; the elite young women were trained in intelligent philanthropy and civic responsibility through the Junior Leagues. They connected with the reform impulses of the middle class women, for and were paternalistic in their views of the needs of working-class women. Outside the home, Canadian women had few domains. An important exception came with Roman Catholic nuns in Quebec. Stimulated by the influence in France of the popular religiosity of the Counter Reformation, new orders for women began appearing in the seventeenth century. In the next three centuries women opened dozens of independent religious orders, funded in part by dowries provided by the parents of young nuns; the orders specialized in charitable works, including hospitals, homes for unwed mothers, schools.
In the first half of the twentieth century, about 2-3% of Quebec's young women became nuns. In Quebec in 1917, 32 different teaching orders operated 586 boarding schools for girls. At that time there was no public education for girls in Quebec beyond elementary school. Hospitals were another specially, the first of, founded in 1701. In 1936, the nuns of Quebec operated 150 institutions, with 30,000 beds to care for the long-term sick, the homeless, orphans. On a smaller scale, Catholic orders of nuns operated similar institutions in other provinces; the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s combined declericalization with the dramatic reforms of Vatican II. There was a dramatic change in the role of nuns. Many left the convent while few young women entered; the provincial government took over the nuns' traditional role as provider of many of Quebec's educational and social services. Ex-nuns continued the same roles in civilian dress, but men for the first time started entering the teaching profession; the history of women in Quebec was neglected before 1980.
The advent of the feminist movement, combined with the "New social history" that featured the study of ordinary people, created a new demand for a historiography of women. The first studies, emerged from a feminist perspective, stressed their role as the terms, reduced to inferiority in a world controlled by men. Feminists sought the family itself as the centrepiece of the patriarchal system where fathers and husbands oppressed and alienated women; the second stage came when historians presented a more balanced view. Research has been interdisciplinary, using insights from feminist theory, literature and sociology to study gender relations, reproduction and unpaid work. Labour and family history have proved open to these themes. In Quebec, women's rights within marriage and family law have advanced slower than in the rest of Canada. Quebec has been slow on giving civil rights to married women: until 1954, a married woman was listed as "incapable of contracting", together with minors, "interdicted persons", "persons insane or suffering a temporary derangement of intellect... or who by reason of weakeness of understanding are unable to give a valid consent", "persons who are affected by civil degradation."
The removal of the married woman from this list however, did little to improve her legal situation, due to marriage laws which restricted her rights and gave the husband legal authority over her: legal incapacity was still the general rule. A major change followed in 1964: Bill 16 removed the obligation of the wife to obey her husband, gave the married woman full legal capacity subject to restrictions that may result from the matrimonial regime. However, discriminatory provisions resulting from matrimonial regimes and from other legal regulations still remained. In July 1970, Bill 10 came into force, reforming matrimonial regimes, improving the situation of married women. In 1977 another important change took place: the wife obtained equal rights with the husband with regard to legal author
Ráth Fearnáin. It is south of Terenure, east of Templeogue, is in the postal districts of Dublin 14 and 16, it is within the administrative areas of both Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin County Councils. Beyond Rathfarnham village itself, the broad area of Rathfarnham includes Whitechurch, Nutgrove and Ballyroan. Historical sites in the Rathfarnham townlands include: Scholarstown, Mount Venus and Taylors Grange. Rathfarnham is home to several notable historic buildings, including Rathfarnham Castle and Loreto Abbey, four parks: Marlay Park, Dodder Park, St Enda's and Bushy Park, several pubs including The Eden, Buglers and the landmark Yellow House. Padraig Pearse established St Enda's School for Boys, now a museum in his honour situated in Saint Enda's Park; the name Rathfarnham suggests an earlier habitation but no remains of prehistoric fortifications, burial places, early churches or old records have been found. The written history of Rathfarnham begins after the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Terenurr and Kimmage, both described as being in Rathfranham parish Dublin, are mentioned in an 1175 grant by Henry II to Walter the goldsmith held at Canterbury Cathedral Archives. In 1199 these lands were granted to Milo le Bret. In 1199 he adapted an existing ridge to build a motte and bailey fort at what is now the start of the Braemor Road, it was still in evidence up to the early 20th century. In the following century no events of great importance are recorded as Rathfarnham as it was protected on its south side by the Royal Forest of Glencree. Rathfarnham became more exposed to attack when this deer park was overrun by the Clan O'Toole from the Wicklow Mountains in the 14th century. Rathfarnham Castle was erected in part to protect the area from such attacks. In addition, part of the Pale's defences ran through the townland of Rathfarnham; some traces of this are still extant. The castle and much of the land around Rathfarnham belonged to the Eustace family of Baltinglass. However, their property was confiscated for their part in the Second Desmond Rebellion of 1579-83.
The castle and its lands were granted to the Loftus family. In the 1640s, the Loftus family was at the centre of the Irish Confederate Wars arising out of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. In 1649, the castle was seized by the Earl of Ormonde's Catholic and Royalist forces before the battle of Rathmines; however they were granted it back by the English parliamentarians after their victory in that battle. Reputedly, Oliver Cromwell stayed in Rathfarnham Castle on his way south to the Siege of Wexford. Economic activity in Rathfarnham was stepped up in the 17th century and in the early 18th century many gentlemen's residences were erected. Two key examples were Ashfield. Rathfarnham Castle itself was re-modelled from a defensive stronghold into a stately home. Lower Dodder Road is still marked by a triumphal arch, from this era, which led to the castle; the erection of this gateway is attributed to Henry Loftus, Earl of Ely from 1769 to 1783, responsible for the classical work on the castle itself. The arch is named the new gate on Frizell's map of 1779.
After the division of the estate in 1913 the arch became the entrance to the Castle Golf Club but was abandoned in favour of the more direct Woodside Drive entrance. The area around the arch is a haven for wildlife, with the nearby River Dodder home to brown trout and many water-birds including kingfisher and grey heron. Woodside Estate is home to red fox and grey squirrels. Ashfield, the next house on the same side, was occupied during the 18th century by Protestant clergy. In the early part of the 19th century it became the home of Sir William Cusac Smith, Baron of the Exchequer and from 1841 of the Tottenham family who continued in residence until 1913. After this the Brooks of Brooks Thomas Ltd. occupied it until about twenty years ago when the estate was divided up and houses built along the main road. A new road was built along the side of the house and named Brookvale after the last occupants. An industrial revolution in the production of paper, began on the Owendoher and Dodder rivers and many mills were erected.
In the beginning of the 19th century most of them switched to cotton and wool and were converted to flour mills. The introduction of steam engines replaced the need for mills. Many of the old buildings fell into disrepair and were demolished, their millraces filled in. A millpond and extensive mill buildings occupied the low-lying fields on the west side of the main Rathfarnham road, just beside the bridge. On a map by Frizell dated 1779 it is called the Widow Clifford's mill and mill holding and in 1843 it is named the Ely Cloth Factory. A Mr. Murray owned it but in 1850, it passed into the hands of Mr. Nickson who converted it into a flour mill, his family continued in occupation until 1875. In 1880 this mill closed down, the buildings were demolished and not a trace now remains. See main article: R115 road Rathfarnham is the start of the Military Road; this road through the Wicklow Mountains was built at the beginning of the 19th century to open up the Wicklow Mountains to the British Army to assist them in putting down the insurgents who were hiding there following the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Rathfarnham itself was the scene of some skirmishes in the early days of the Rising which extended to the final battle in "Raheen" in County Wexford. Construction commenced on 12
History of monarchy in Canada
The history of monarchy in Canada stretches from pre-colonial times through to the present day. Canada's monarchical status began with the establishment of the French colony of New France in the name of King Francis I in 1534. Through both these lineages, the present Canadian monarchy can trace itself back to the Anglo-Saxon period and to the kings of the Angles and the early Scottish kings. Kings and queens reigning over Canada have included the monarchs of France, those of the United Kingdom, those of Canada. Canadian historian Father Jacques Monet said of Canada's Crown: " one of an approximate half-dozen that have survived through uninterrupted inheritance from beginnings that are older than our Canadian institution itself."Canada's first European monarchs instigated and supported the exploration and settlement of the country, while authorizing the subjugation of the various aboriginal peoples encountered. Throughout the 18th century, via war and treaties, the Canadian colonies of France were ceded to King George III.
The colonies were confederated by Queen Victoria in 1867 to form the Dominion of Canada. Canada became a independent country through the Constitution Act of 1982 proclaimed by Elizabeth II, the Queen of Canada. While no indigenous North Americans in what is now Canada had what would be seen today as an official monarchy, some aboriginal peoples, before their first encounters with French and British colonisers, were governmentally organised in a fashion similar to the occidental idea of monarchy. Europeans considered vast territories belonging to different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms, along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River between the Trinity River and the Isle-aux-Coudres, the neighbouring kingdom of Canada, which stretched west to the Island of Montreal—and the leaders of these communities were referred to as kings those chosen through heredity. Many had chieftains. In the latter cases, considering that many First Nations societies were governed by unwritten customs and codes of conduct, wherein the chieftain was bound to follow the advice of a council of elders, the form of government would have resembled a modern constitutional monarchy.
The first French colonies in North America were established in the name of King Henry IV at Acadia three years into the 17th century—the second being named Port Royal in his honour—and, by 1610, the first British settlements were established on Newfoundland, which had earlier been claimed in 1583 for Queen Elizabeth I. The following year, Henry Hudson embarked on the first trading voyage that led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company by Royal Charter from King Charles II; the French monarch moved and it was in 1602 that Aymar de Chaste was appointed as Viceroy of Canada to represent King Henry IV. In 1615, Quebec City was, on the recommendation of Samuel de Champlain, made a royal capital of the French empire in the Americas, with Champlain—who had been representative of, or lieutenant governor to, most Viceroys of Canada—installed as the first viceregal representative of the King in New France; some 60 years New France was designated as a royal province of France itself, ruled by the King through his appointed Conseil souverain, which included the governor general as the monarch's stand-in.
One of the king's decrees, intended to augment, as well as level the gender imbalance of, the population of New France in the 1660s, was to send between seven and nine hundred women, known as the filles du roi, to the province, each with dowry, new clothing, paid passage to the New World. As the population increased, infrastructure was built, such as the Chemin du Roi between Montreal and Quebec City, the Cathedral-Basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, in the welfare of which the King took great interest; this type of French royal patronage extended through the 18th century. As Europeans moved inland, they encountered the aboriginal peoples. While the aboriginal chiefs did aid the monarchs with their North American conflicts, affairs in Europe would affect the dealings of the New World and almost all of the French king's possessions in what was known as Canada were transferred from him to the British Crown, providing Canada with one singular monarchy. But, this placement of French people under a British sovereign did not come without friction.
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
History of Canada (1945–1960)
Prosperity returned to Canada during the Second World War. With continued Liberal governments, national policies turned to social welfare, including universal health care, old-age pensions, veterans' pensions; the financial crisis of the Great Depression after WW1, scoured by rampant corruption, had led Newfoundlanders to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. Prosperity returned when the U. S. military arrived in 1941 with over huge investments in air and naval bases. Popular sentiment grew favourable toward the United States, alarming the Canadian government, which now wanted Newfoundland to enter into confederation instead of joining with the U. S. In 1948, the British government gave voters three Referendum choices: remaining a crown colony, returning to Dominion status, or joining Canada. Joining the U. S. was not made an option. After bitter debate Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province; the Second World War brought many changes to Canada.
The federal government began to adopt social welfare policies borrowed from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, which had introduced such policies in the western provinces before the war. Federally, these included hospital insurance, old-age pensions, veterans' pensions. Once the war ended, divisions in the Armed Forces were disbanded, women would not be recruited again until the Korean War in 1951. Free child-care and tax concessions were rescinded to encourage women to leave the workforce, an act providing a family allowance or "baby bonus" was passed to help families recover from the cost of war and the wartime wage freeze. Parents of children under 16 years old were given monthly payments between $5 and $8, depending on the age of the children; the economy had prospered because of the war, in Alberta, there was an economic boom due to the discovery of new oil fields in 1947. Spending on consumer goods increased during the post-war period while car ownership rose, with two-thirds of households owning a car by 1960.
Mackenzie King won the election of 1945, but was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent. St. Laurent succeeded in extending the welfare state, helped bring Newfoundland into Confederation as Canada's 10th province in 1949. Following the Second World War, in 1946, an election was held for the Newfoundland National Convention to decide the future of the independent Dominion of Newfoundland; the Convention voted to hold a referendum to decide between continuing the direct rule of the Commission of Government or restoring responsible government. Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved that a third option of confederation with Canada should be included. Although his motion was defeated by the convention, Smallwood did not give up, but instead gathered more than 5000 petitions from the people within a fortnight which he sent to London through the Governor; the United Kingdom, insisting that it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, added a third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot.
After much debate, an initial referendum was held on June 3, 1948 to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, reverting to dominion status, or joining Canadian Confederation. The referendum was fought by three parties, Smallwood's Confederate Association campaigned for the Confederation option while the anti-Confederation campaign was split amongst Peter Cashin's Responsible Government League and Chesley Crosbie's Party for Economic Union with the United States, both of which called for a vote for responsible government. No party advocated continuing the Commission of Government; the result was inconclusive, with 44.6% supporting the restoration of dominion status, 41.1% for confederation with Canada, 14.3% for continuing the Commission of Government. Between the first and second referendums, rumours had it that Catholic bishops were using their religious influence to alter the outcome of the votes; the Orange Order was incensed and called on all its members to vote for confederation, as the Catholics voted for responsible government.
The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics at a ratio of 2:1. This was believed to have influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and dominion status, was decided by a vote of 52% to 48% for confederation with Canada. Newfoundland joined Canada on March 31, 1949. Not everyone was satisfied with the results, however. Peter Cashin, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes, he claimed that it was the unholy union between Ottawa that brought about confederation. Meanwhile, Canadian foreign relations were beginning to focus on the United States, which had eclipsed Britain as a world power. During World War II, Canada was a minor partner in the alliance between the United States and Britain, the US had pledged to help defend Canada if necessary. Canada was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945, of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949, but was overshadowed in world affairs by the United States.
Canada remained a close ally of the United States throughout the Cold War. When Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, defected in 1945, fears of Soviet espionage led to a red scare and the arrest and conviction of 18 people, including Labor-Progressive Party Member of Parliament Fred Rose. Canada participated, under the United Nations, in the Korean