Las Vegas the City of Las Vegas and known as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known for its gambling, fine dining and nightlife; the Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial and cultural center for Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for its mega casino–hotels and associated activities, it is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world. Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations; the city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, television programs, music videos.
Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated American city founded within that century. Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, according to a 2018 estimate, the population is 648,224 with a regional population of 2,227,053; as with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city is used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester; the earliest visitors to the Las Vegas area were nomadic Paleo-Indians, who traveled there 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago. A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.
Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829. The area was named Las Vegas, Spanish for "the meadows," as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers; the year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him. Eleven years members of the LDS Church chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies; the fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue. Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city. 1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas.
At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam; the influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935. In 1941, the Las Vegas Army Air Corps Gunnery School was established. Known as Nellis Air Force Base, it is home to the aerobatic team called the Thunderbirds. Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas. In the 1950s the Moulin Rouge opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas. In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. During this time the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds until 1963, when the limited Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.
The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, never located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis. During the 1960s, corporations and business powerhouses such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming"; the year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held on the top of each hour. Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown." Hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of projects made their debut at this time. They included The Smith Center for the Performing Arts and DISCOVERY Children's Museum, Mob Museum, Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building. Las Vegas is situated within Clark County in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides.
Much of the landscape is arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems; the peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of o
WEC 25: McCullough vs. Cope was the first mixed martial arts event held by the World Extreme Cagefighting under Zuffa management; the event was held on January 20, 2007. WEC 25's main event was a championship fight for the vacant WEC Lightweight Title, between rivals Rob McCullough and Kit Cope; the co-main event was a WEC Featherweight Title bout between champion, Urijah Faber and challenger Joe Pearson. A WEC Light Heavyweight Title bout was advertised between champion Doug Marshall and Jorge Oliveira, but the bout was pulled from the card. Marshall would instead make his first title defense against Justin McElfresh at WEC 27 in May 2007; the following is the reported payout to the fighters as reported to the Nevada State Athletic Commission. It does not include sponsor money or "locker room" bonuses given by the WEC. Rob McCullough: $20,000 def. Kit Cope: $5,000 Urijah Faber: $10,000 def. Joe Pearson: $4,000 John Alessio: $10,000 def. Brian Gassaway: $4,000 Logan Clark: $12,000 def. Blas Avena: $2,500 Brendan Seguin: $4,000 def. Fernando Gonzalez: $3,000 Alex Karalexis: $8,000 def. Olaf Alfanso: $4,000 Carlos Condit: $8,000 def.
Kyle Jensen: $3,000 Antonio Banuelos: $6,000 def. Mike French: $3,000 Rich Crunkilton: $10,000 def. Mike Joy: $2,000 First WEC show under Zuffa management; the WEC Lightweight Title was held by Hermes Franca, who had to vacate it in order to continue to compete in the UFC World Extreme Cagefighting List of WEC champions List of WEC events 2007 in WEC Event Results on Sherdog Official WEC website WEC Las Vegas debüt a Success
True Life is an American documentary television series that aired on MTV from March 31, 1998 to June 21, 2017. Each episode follows a particular topic, such as heroin addiction as in the first episode – "Fatal Dose"; the show is created by following a series of subjects by a camera crew through a certain part of their lives. A four-episode revival series titled True Life/Now aired in 2019. True Life has covered over 140 topics from drug use, money issues, sexual topics to simple social behavior like visiting the Jersey Shore; the show has aired 328 episodes so far. There is an occasional intersection between other shows. For example, the episode "I'm a Reality TV Star" featured people from The Real World and Survivor, while the episodes "I'm a Muay Thai Fighter" and "I'm a Mixed Martial Artist" both featured Kit Cope, who has signed a deal with the WFA and Frankie Edgar, the UFC Lightweight Champion. In the episode "I'm Bisexual," Sydney goes on a date with A. D. from From G's to Gents. In 2011, Sydney was featured in season 6 of Oxygen's Bad Girls Club.
Lazar, in the episode "I'm in A Love Triangle," was in a 2007 episode of Parental Control. Won 2009 Emmy Award for Best Special Class Series. Won 2000 Image Award for Outstanding News, Talk, or Information Special Won 2005 GLAAD ashleeMedia Award for Outstanding Documentary True Life: I'm on Crystal Meth Won 2007 Prism Award for TV Teen Series Episode or Special Nominated 2000 GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding TV Journalism Nominated 2003 GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Documentary Nominated 2016 GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding TV Journalism - Newsmagazine Official website True Life on IMDb
Robert Alexander McCullough IV is a retired American Muay Thai kickboxer and professional mixed martial artist. A professional from 2001-2011 in MMA, McCullough has competed for the WEC, Bellator, DREAM, the World Fighting Alliance, the Palace Fighting Championship, King of the Cage. In professional kickboxing, McCullough has competed for K-1. McCullough began his mixed martial arts career with a first-round TKO victory at the Palace Casino in Lemoore, California, in 2001. Between 2003 and 2007, "Razor Rob" went 10-1 with nine stoppage victories and only a split-decision loss to Harris Sarmiento, which he avenged. McCullough defeated Muay Thai fighter Kit Cope at WEC 25 to win the vacant WEC Lightweight Championship, he defended the title once by defeating Richard Crunkilton by first-round TKO. On February 13, 2008, he lost his title to Jamie Varner when Varner defeated him by TKO due to strikes in the third round. After losing his title, McCullough struggled over his next four fights in the now-defunct WEC.
He defeated Kenneth Alexander by split decision but lost to Donald Cerrone. He defeated Marcus Hicks by majority decision, but he fractured his right hand and received minor damage to his ankle and subsequently underwent surgery to repair his hand. McCullough was expected to return to the cage against Anthony Pettis on November 18, 2009, at WEC 44. McCullough instead faced WEC newcomer Karen Darabedyan. McCullough lost to Darabedyan via split decision. With three losses in his last five fights, McCullough released by the WEC and would join Tachi Palace Fights, returning to the venue where his career began, had somewhat of a resurgence. McCullough defeated Isaac de Jesus by first-round TKO on July 9, 2010, at Tachi Palace Fight 5, he defeated UFC veteran Corey Hill by unanimous decision on September 9, 2010, at Tachi Palace Fight 6. On October 14, 2010, McCullough signed with Bellator to compete in the promotion's upcoming Season Four Lightweight Tournament, he was knocked out by a counter right by Patricky "The Pitbull" Freire.
McCullough next faced Shinya Aoki at DREAM 17. He lost the fight via submission in the first round. McCullough is married to pornographic actress Lexxi Tyler; the couple had their first child, a son, in March 2010. He is of Mexican descent. McCullough owns MMA apparel company Razor Clothing. World Extreme Cagefighting WEC Lightweight Championship One successful title defense List of Bellator MMA alumni Professional MMA record for Rob McCullough from Sherdog Rob McCullough on Myspace
Rear naked choke
The rear naked choke is a chokehold in martial arts applied from an opponent's back. The word "naked" in this context suggests that, unlike other strangulation techniques found in Jujutsu/Judo, this hold does not require the use of a keikogi or training uniform; the choke has two variations: in one version, the attacker's arm encircles the opponent's neck and grabs his own biceps on the other arm. This variant is considered to be a "blood choke" because it restricts blood flow to the brain via the carotid arteries; when applied it can cause temporary unconsciousness in a few seconds. The following is a description of this technique using the right arm; the attacker's right arm encircles the opponent's neck, with the opponent's trachea at the crook of the elbow. The attacker's right hand grasps his own upper left arm; the left hand is placed behind the opponent's head. A more effective form of the choke can be applied by placing the palm of the left hand against the attacker's own shoulder rather than behind the opponent's head.
This reduces the escape possibilities. The elbows are brought together such that lateral pressure, from the biceps and radius bone, is applied to the neck on both sides; when applied properly, unconsciousness occurs in less than 10 seconds and recovery from the choke is just as quick. The placement of the legs falls into two categories; the first is a body lock. The attacker places one of his legs across lower chest of the victim, he places his other leg over his own shin, creating a figure-four with his legs. This allows him to stay close to the back of his victim; this technique was used by Anderson Silva against Dan Henderson and by Jim Miller against Melvin Guillard. The other common technique is known as using "hooks". In this version the attacker places his legs inside of the victim's legs, he moves his legs out, placing his shin behind the victim's knees using his shins and feet as hooks to control the victim's legs. This variation has the supporting hand clasp the hand of the choking arm, allowing more pressure to be applied to the neck, but losing some of the control of the head.
This alters the choke somewhat so that it is more to be applied as an airway-restricting choke or mixed blood and air choke, which results in more pain but a slower choke-out. As such, this technique is less used at advanced levels in Judo. Nonetheless, it has seen some successful applications in mixed martial arts competition: for instance, it was used by Fedor Emelianenko, a heavyweight champion in PRIDE, to defeat Kazuyuki Fujita at the PRIDE 26 event in 2003. Fujita tapped out about five seconds, he used it again to defeat former UFC Heavyweight Champion Tim Sylvia in 36 seconds. Sylvia tapped out once the choke was sunk in and after the fight described it as being painful, it was used by Ultimate Fighting Championship fighter Matt Hughes to defeat Frank Trigg in their second fight, adapted from a hand-on-biceps version of the rear naked choke. Anderson Silva used the clasping hands variation when he defeated Dan Henderson in the UFC. Joe Lauzon used this choke in his fight against Melvin Guillard using the standard version switching to a palm to palm.
In Judo, the rear naked choke is known as Hadaka-jime: "naked choke", one of the 36 constriction techniques of Kodokan Judo in the Shime-waza list. The main characteristic of Hadaka-Jime when compared to other Judo chokes is that it does not require the use of the opponent's clothing, namely his gi lapel, to create the choking tourniquet, it digs the blade of the wrist into the carotid sinus similar to the hand clasp method and uses a lever motion helped by the underhand. It is faster to apply requiring less strength than the figure four/mixed-martial arts version but is more difficult to learn, it is not an air choke but a carotid choke created by the attacker's arms. Hadaka Jime is recognized as Hadaka-Jime-San in Danzan Ryu jujitsu's twenty-five techniques in the Shimete list. Danzan Ryu recognizes the Guillotine choke as Hadaka-Jime-Ichi, but the principle is the same as Jiu-Jitsu's ground version. Systems: Kodokan Judo, Judo Lists Danzan Ryu jujitsu, Danza Ryu ListsLists: The Canon Of Judo Judo technique Kyuzo Mifune demonstrates Hasami-Jime in The Essence of Judo and is described in The Canon Of Judo.* Danzan Ryu enumerates three versions of Hadaka-Jime: 1.
Ichi Standing neck-break. Two versions:Neck twist Guillotine A version of the guillotine, Mae-Hadaka-Jime, is described in The Canon Of Judo, an authoritative work that covers the history of judo and its predecessor jujutsu.2. Ni Choke with forearm; this is an air choke with the forearm pressing on the throat. 3. San Figure-4 choke with forearm; this is a blood choke with the sides of the neck. The Sleeper Hold was originated in professional wrestling by Evan Lewis in the 1880s when pro wrestling was still a legitimate contest. Lewis earned the nickname "Strangler" for his use of the hold and was an accomplished catch wrestler using the hold defeating Ernst Roeber for the world championship before losing the title to Martin Burns. In the southeastern United States this move was known as the Charleston Choke. Modern pro wrestling's first "sleeper hold", technically different from a choke, a compression of the throat and/or adam's apple, is thought to have been performed by Jim Londos on June 29, 1931.
Suspicion abounded as to the nature of Londos' move (which
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Anabolic steroids known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids, are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. They are anabolic and increase protein within cells in skeletal muscles, have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as the growth of facial and body hair; the word anabolic, referring to anabolism, comes from the Greek ἀναβολή anabole, "that, thrown up, mound". Androgens or AAS are one of three types of sex hormone agonists, the others being estrogens like estradiol and progestogens like progesterone. AAS were synthesized in the 1930s, are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate muscle growth and appetite, induce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS; the American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.
Health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of AAS. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, liver damage, dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart; these risks are only increased when, as they do, athletes take steroids alongside other drugs, causing more damage to their bodies. The effect of anabolic steroids on the heart can cause Myocardial infarction, strokes as well. Conditions pertaining to hormonal imbalances such as gynecomastia and testicular size reduction may be caused by AAS. In women and children, AAS can cause irreversible masculinization. Ergogenic uses for AAS in sports and bodybuilding as performance-enhancing drugs are controversial because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain unfair advantage in physical competitions, their use is referred to as doping and banned by most major sporting bodies. Athletes have been looking for drugs to enhance their athletic abilities since the Olympics started in Ancient Greece.
For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC-accredited laboratories. In countries where AAS are controlled substances, there is a black market in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured or counterfeit drugs are sold to users. Since the discovery and synthesis of testosterone in the 1930s, AAS have been used by physicians for many purposes, with varying degrees of success; these can broadly be grouped into anabolic and other uses. Bone marrow stimulation: For decades, AAS were the mainstay of therapy for hypoplastic anemias due to leukemia, kidney failure or aplastic anemia. Growth stimulation: AAS can be used by pediatric endocrinologists to treat children with growth failure. However, the availability of synthetic growth hormone, which has fewer side effects, makes this a secondary treatment. Stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass: AAS have been given to people with chronic wasting conditions such as cancer and AIDS. Stimulation of lean body mass and prevention of bone loss in elderly men, as some studies indicate.
However, a 2006 placebo-controlled trial of low-dose testosterone supplementation in elderly men with low levels of testosterone found no benefit on body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, or quality of life. Prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Nandrolone decanoate is approved for this use. Although they have been indicated for this indication, AAS saw little use for this purpose due to their virilizing side effects. Aiding weight gain following surgery or physical trauma, during chronic infection, or in the context of unexplained weight loss. Counteracting the catabolic effect of long-term corticosteroid therapy. Oxandrolone improves both short-term and long-term outcomes in people recovering from severe burns and is well-established as a safe treatment for this indication. Treatment of idiopathic short stature, hereditary angioedema, alcoholic hepatitis, hypogonadism. Methyltestosterone is used in the treatment of delayed puberty, hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction in males, in low doses to treat menopausal symptoms, postpartum breast pain and engorgement, breast cancer in women.
Androgen replacement therapy for men with low levels of testosterone. Induction of male puberty: Androgens are given to many boys distressed about extreme delay of puberty. Testosterone is now nearly the only androgen used for this purpose and has been shown to increase height and fat-free mass in boys with delayed puberty. Masculinizing hormone therapy for transgender men, other transmasculine people, intersex people, by producing masculine secondary sexual characteristics such as a voice deepening, increased bone and muscle mass, masculine fat distribution and body hair, clitoral enlargement, as well as mental changes such as alleviation of gender dysphoria and increased sex drive. Treatment of breast cancer in women, although they are now rarely used for this purpose due to their marked virilizing side effects. In low doses as a component of hormone therapy for postmenopausal and transgender women, for instance to increase energy, well-being, and