A homunculus is a representation of a small human being. Popularized in sixteenth-century alchemy and nineteenth-century fiction, it has referred to the creation of a miniature formed human; the concept has roots in preformationism as well as earlier folklore and alchemic traditions. The homunculus first appears by name in alchemical writings attributed to Paracelsus. De natura rerum outlines his method for creating homunculi: That the sperm of a man be putrefied by itself in a sealed cucurbit for forty days with the highest degree of putrefaction in a horse's womb, or at least so long that it comes to life and moves itself, stirs, observed. After this time, it will look somewhat like a man, but transparent, without a body. If, after this, it be fed wisely with the Arcanum of human blood, be nourished for up to forty weeks, be kept in the heat of the horse's womb, a living human child grows therefrom, with all its members like another child, born of a woman, but much smaller. Comparisons have been made with several similar concepts in the writings of earlier alchemists.
Although the actual word "homunculus" was never used, Carl Jung believed that the concept first appeared in the Visions of Zosimos, written in the third century AD. In the visions, Zosimos encounters a priest who changes into "the opposite of himself, into a mutilated anthroparion"; the Greek word "anthroparion" is similar to "homunculus" – a diminutive form of "person". Zosimos subsequently encounters other anthroparion in his dream but there is no mention of the creation of artificial life. In his commentary, Jung equates the homunculus with the Philosopher's Stone, the "inner person" in parallel with Christ. In Islamic alchemy, Takwin was a goal of certain Muslim alchemists, a notable one being Jābir ibn Hayyān. In the alchemical context, Takwin refers to the artificial creation of life in the laboratory, up to and including human life; the homunculus continued to appear in alchemical writings after Paracelsus' time. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz for example, concludes with the creation of a male and female form identified as Homunculi duo.
The allegorical text suggests to the reader that the ultimate goal of alchemy is not chrysopoeia, but it is instead the artificial generation of humans. Here, the creation of homunculi symbolically represents spiritual regeneration and Christian soteriology. In 1775, Count Johann Ferdinand von Kufstein, together with Abbé Geloni, an Italian cleric, are reputed to have created ten homunculi with the ability to foresee the future, which von Kufstein kept in glass containers at his Masonic lodge in Vienna. Dr. Emil Besetzny's Masonic handbook, Die Sphinx, devoted an entire chapter to the wahrsagenden Geister; these are reputed to have been seen by several people, including local dignitaries. References to the homunculus do not appear prior to sixteenth-century alchemical writings; the mandragora, known in German as Alreona, Alraun or Alraune is one example. In Liber de imaginibus, Paracelsus however denies, he attacks dishonest people who carve roots to sell them as Alraun. He clarifies that the homunculus’ origins are in sperm, that it is falsely confused with these ideas from necromancy and natural philosophy.
The homunculus has been compared to the golem of Jewish folklore. Though the specifics outlining the creation of the golem and homunculus are different, the concepts both metaphorically relate man to the divine, in his construction of life in his own image. Preformationism is the popular theory that animals developed from miniature versions of themselves. Sperm were believed to contain complete preformed individuals called "animalcules". Development was therefore a matter of enlarging this into a formed being; the term homunculus was used in the discussion of conception and birth. Nicolas Hartsoeker postulated the existence of animalcules in the semen of other animals; this was the beginning of spermists' theory, who held the belief that the sperm was in fact a "little man", placed inside a woman for growth into a child. This seemed to them to neatly explain many of the mysteries of conception, it was pointed out that if the sperm was a homunculus, identical in all but size to an adult the homunculus may have sperm of its own.
This led to a reductio ad absurdum with a chain of homunculi "all the way down". This was not considered by spermists a fatal objection however, as it neatly explained how it was that "in Adam" all had sinned: the whole of humanity was contained in his loins; the spermists' theory failed to explain why children tend to resemble their mothers as well as their fathers, though some spermists believed that the growing homunculus assimilated maternal characteristics from the womb environment in which they grew. The homunculus is used today in scientific disciplines such as psychology as a teaching or memory tool to describe the distorted scale model of a human drawn or sculpted to reflect the relative space human body parts occupy on the somatosensory cortex and the motor cortex. Both the motor and sensory homunculi appear as small men superimposed over the top of precentral or postcentral gyri for motor and sensory cortices, respectively; the homunculus is oriented with feet medial and shoulders lateral on top of both the precentral and the postcentral gyrus.
The man's head is depicted upside down in relation to the rest of the body such that
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Avicenna was a Persian polymath, regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. He has been described as the father of early modern medicine. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine, his most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy and geology, Islamic theology, mathematics and works of poetry. Avicenna is a Latin corruption of the Arabic patronym ibn Sīnā, meaning "Son of Sina". However, Avicenna was not the son but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina, his formal Arabic name was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdillāh ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Sīnā.
Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman and Indian texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman texts translated by the Kindi school were commented and developed by Islamic intellectuals, who built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, algebra and medicine; the Samanid dynasty in the eastern part of Persia, Greater Khorasan and Central Asia as well as the Buyid dynasty in the western part of Persia and Iraq provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivaled Baghdad as a cultural capital of the Islamic world; the study of the Quran and the Hadith thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy and theology were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. Al-Razi and Al-Farabi had provided knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of Balkh, Gorgan, Rey and Hamadan. Various texts show.
Aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna left Khwarezm he had met Al-Biruni, Abu Nasr Iraqi, Abu Sahl Masihi and Abu al-Khayr Khammar. Avicenna was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near Bukhara, the capital of the Samanids, a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and Greater Khorasan. His mother, named Sitāra, was from Bukhara, his father worked in the government of Samanid in a Sunni regional power. After five years, his younger brother, was born. Avicenna first began to learn the Quran and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had learned all of them. According to his autobiography, Avicenna had memorised the entire Quran by the age of 10, he learned Indian arithmetic from an Indian greengrocer, Mahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young. He studied Fiqh under the Sunni Hanafi scholar Ismail al-Zahid. Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as Introduction's Porphyry, Euclid's Elements, Ptolemy's Almagest by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing.
As a teenager, he was troubled by the Metaphysics of Aristotle, which he could not understand until he read al-Farabi's commentary on the work. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy. In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions go to the mosque, continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory. So great was his joy at the discovery, made with the help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, bestowed alms upon the poor, he turned to medicine at 16, not only learned medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance of the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a qualified physician at age 18, found that "Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress.
The youthful physician's fame spread and he treated many patients without asking for payment. A number of theories have been proposed regarding Avicenna's madhab. Medieval historian Ẓahīr al-dīn al-Bayhaqī considered Avicenna to be a follower of the Brethren of Purity. On the other hand, Dimitri Gutas along with Aisha Khan and Jules J. Janssens demonstrated that Avicenna was a Sunni
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari, popularly known as Al-Zahrawi, Latinised as Abulcasis, was an Arab Muslim physician and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus. He is considered as the greatest surgeon of the Middle Ages, has been described as the father of surgery. Al-Zahrawi's principal work is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices; the surgery chapter of this work was translated into Latin where it received popularity and became the standard text book in Europe for the next 500 years. Al-Zahrawi's pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact in the East and West well into the modern period, where some of his discoveries are still applied in medicine to this day, he was the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia, as well as the first physician to describe an abdominal pregnancy. Al-Zahrawi was born in the city of Azahara, 8 kilometers northwest of Andalusia, his birth date is not known for sure, scholars agree that it was after 936, the year his birthplace city of Azahara was founded.
The nisba, Al-Ansari, in his name, suggests origin from the Medinian tribe of Al-Ansar, tracing his ancestry back to Medina in the Arabian peninsula. He lived most of his life in Cordova, it is where he studied and practiced medicine and surgery until shortly before his death in about 1013, two years after the sacking of Azahara. Few details remain regarding his life, aside from his published work, due to the destruction of El-Zahra during Castillian-Andalusian conflicts, his name first appears in the writings of Abu Muhammad bin Hazm, who listed him among the greatest physicians of Moorish Spain. But we have the first detailed biography of al-Zahrawī from al-Ḥumaydī's Jadhwat al-Muqtabis, completed six decades after al-Zahrawi's death. Al-Zahrawi was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II, he was a contemporary of Andalusian chemists such as Ibn al-Majriti and Artephius. He devoted his entire life and genius to the advancement of medicine as a whole and surgery in particular. Al-Zahrawi specialized in curing disease by cauterization.
He invented several devices used during surgery, for purposes such as inspection of the interior of the urethra and inspection and removing foreign bodies from the throat, the ear and other body organs. He was the first to illustrate the various cannulae and the first to treat a wart with an iron tube and caustic metal as a boring instrument. While al-Zahrawi never performed the surgical procedure of tracheotomy, he did treat a slave girl who had cut her own throat in a suicide attempt. Al-Zahrawi sewed up the wound and the girl recovered, thereby proving that an incision in the larynx could heal. In describing this important case-history he wrote: A slave-girl seized a knife and buried it in her throat and cut part of the trachea. I found her bellowing like a sacrifice. So I found that only a little haemorrhage had come from it. So I treated it until healed. No harm was done to the slave-girl except for a hoarseness in the voice, not extreme, after some days she was restored to the best of health.
Hence we may say. Al-Zahrawi pionered neurosurgery and neurological diagnosis, he is known to have performed surgical treatments of head injuries, skull fractures, spinal injuries, subdural effusions and headache. The first clinical description of an operative procedure for hydrocephalus was given by Al-Zahrawi who describes the evacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children. Al-Zahrawi's thirty-volume medical encyclopedia, Kitab al-Tasrif, completed in the year 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including on surgery, orthopaedics, pharmacology, dentistry and pathology; the first volume in the encyclopedia is concerned with general principles of medicine, the second with pathology, while much of the rest discuss topics regarding pharmacology and drugs. The last tretise and the most celebrated one is about surgery. Al-Zahrawi stated that he chose to discuss surgery in the last volume because surgery is the highest form of medicine, one must not practice it until he becomes well-acquainted with all other branches of medicine.
The work contained data that had accumulated during a career that spanned 50 years of training and practice. In it he wrote of the importance of a positive doctor-patient relationship and wrote affectionately of his students, whom he referred to as "my children", he emphasized the importance of treating patients irrespective of their social status. He encouraged the close observation of individual cases in order to make the most accurate diagnosis and the best possible treatment. Not always properly credited, modern evaluation of al-Tasrif manuscript has revealed on early descriptions of some medical procedures that were ascribed to physicians. For example, Al-Zahrawi's al-Tasrif described both what would become known as "Kocher's method" for treating a dislocated shoulder and "Walcher position" in obstetrics. Morover, Al-Tasrif described how to ligature blood vessels 600 years before Ambroise Paré, was the first recorded book to explain the hereditary nature of haemo
Attar of Nishapur
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm, better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn and ʿAṭṭār, was a twelfth-century Persian poet, theoretician of Sufism, hagiographer from Nishapur who had an immense and lasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism. Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr and Ilāhī-Nāma are among his most famous works. Information about Attar's life is scarce, he is mentioned by only two of his contemporaries, ` Tusi. However, all sources confirm that he was from Nishapur, a major city of medieval Khorasan, according to `Awfi, he was a poet of the Seljuq period. According to Reinert: It seems that he was not well known as a poet in his own lifetime, except at his home town, his greatness as a mystic, a poet, a master of narrative was not discovered until the 15th century. At the same time, the mystic Persian poet Rumi has mentioned: "Attar was the spirit, Sanai his eyes twain, And in time thereafter, Came we in their train" and mentions in another poem: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street".`Attar was the son of a prosperous chemist, receiving an excellent education in various fields.
While his works say little else about his life, they tell us that he practiced the profession of pharmacy and attended to a large number of customers. The people he helped in the pharmacy used to confide their troubles in `Attar and this affected him deeply, he abandoned his pharmacy store and traveled - to Baghdad, Kufa, Medina, Khwarizm and India, meeting with Sufi Shaykhs - and returned promoting Sufi ideas.`Attar's initiation into Sufi practices is subject to much speculation. Of all the famous Sufi Shaykhs supposed to have been his teachers, only one - Majd ud-Din Baghdadi a disciple of Najmuddin Kubra- comes within the bounds of possibility; the only certainty in this regard is ` Attar's own statement. In any case it can be taken for granted that from childhood onward `Attar, encouraged by his father, was interested in the Sufis and their sayings and way of life, regarded their saints as his spiritual guides. At the age of 78, Attar died a violent death in the massacre which the Mongols inflicted on Nishapur in April 1221.
Today, his mausoleum is located in Nishapur. It was built by Ali-Shir Nava'i in the 16th century and on underwent a total renovation during Reza Shah the great in 1940; the thoughts depicted in `Attar's works reflects the whole evolution of the Sufi movement. The starting point is the idea that the body-bound soul's awaited release and return to its source in the other world can be experienced during the present life in mystic union attainable through inward purification. In explaining his thoughts,'Attar uses material not only from Sufi sources but from older ascetic legacies. Although his heroes are for the most part Sufis and ascetics, he introduces stories from historical chronicles, collections of anecdotes, all types of high-esteemed literature, his talent for perception of deeper meanings behind outward appearances enables him to turn details of everyday life into illustrations of his thoughts. The idiosyncrasy of `Attar's presentations invalidates his works as sources for study of the historical persons whom he introduces.
As sources on the hagiology and phenomenology of Sufism, his works have immense value. Judging from `Attar's writings, he approached the available Aristotelian heritage with skepticism and dislike, he did not seem to want to reveal the secrets of nature. This is remarkable in the case of medicine, which fell well within the scope of his professional expertise as pharmacist, he had no motive for sharing his expert knowledge in the manner customary among court panegyrists, whose type of poetry he despised and never practiced. Such knowledge is only brought into his works in contexts where the theme of a story touches on a branch of the natural sciences. According to Edward G. Browne, Attar as well as Rumi and Sana'i, were Sunni as evident from the fact that their poetry abounds with praise for the first two caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattāb - who are detested by Shia mysticism. According to Annemarie Schimmel, the tendency among Shia authors to include leading mystical poets such as Rumi and Attar among their own ranks, became stronger after the introduction of Twelver Shia as the state religion in the Safavid Empire in 1501.
In the introductions of Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma, Attar lists the titles of further products of his pen: Dīwān Asrār-Nāma Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr known as Maqāmāt-uṭ-Ṭuyūr Muṣībat-Nāma Ilāhī-Nāma Jawāhir-Nāma Šarḥ al-Qalb He states, in the introduction of the Mukhtār-Nāma, that he destroyed the Jawāhir-Nāma' and the Šarḥ al-Qalb with his own hand. Although the contemporary sources confirm only `Attar's authorship of the Dīwān and the Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, there are no grounds for doubting the authenticity of the Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma and their prefaces. One work is missing from these lists, namely the Tadhkirat-ul-Awliyā, omitted because it is a prose work. In its introduction `Attar mentions three other works of his, including one entitled Šarḥ al-Qalb the same that he destroyed; the nature of the other two, entitled Kašf al-Asrār and Maʿrifat al-Nafs, remains unknown. Led by the hoopoe, the birds of the world set forth in search of their king, Simurgh, their quest takes them through s
An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling. The complete distilling apparatus consists of three parts: the "cucurbit", the still pot containing the liquid to be distilled, heated by a flame. In the case of another distilling vessel, the retort, the "cap" and the "cucurbit" have been combined to form a single vessel; the anbik is called the raʾs of the cucurbit. The liquid in the cucurbit is boiled. A modern descendant of the alembic is the pot still, used to produce distilled beverages. Dioscorides' ambix is a helmet-shaped lid for gathering condensed mercury. For Athenaeus it is a flask. For chemists it denotes various parts of crude distillation devices. Alembic drawings appear in works of Cleopatra the Alchemist and Zosimos of Panopolis. There were alembics with three receivers. According to Zosimos of Panopolis, the alembic was invented by Mary the Jewess; the anbik is described by Ibn al-Awwam in his Kitab al-Filaha, where he explains how rose-water is distilled.
Amongst others, it is mentioned in the Mafatih al-Ulum of Khwarizmi and the Kitab al-Asrar of Al-Razi. Some illustrations occur in the Latin translations of works. Aludel Balneum Mariae The dictionary definition of alembic at Wiktionary
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, was a Persian polymath, alchemist and important figure in the history of medicine. He wrote on logic and grammar. A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to various fields, which he recorded in over 200 manuscripts, is remembered for numerous advances in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor, served as chief physician of Baghdad and Ray hospitals; as a teacher of medicine, he attracted students of all backgrounds and interests and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, he was among the first to use humoral theory to distinguish one contagious disease from another, wrote a pioneering book about smallpox and measles providing clinical characterization of the diseases, he discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and sulfuric acid.
Through translation, his medical works and ideas became known among medieval European practitioners and profoundly influenced medical education in the Latin West. Some volumes of his work Al-Mansuri, namely "On Surgery" and "A General Book on Therapy", became part of the medical curriculum in Western universities. Edward Granville Browne considers him as "probably the greatest and most original of all the Muslim physicians, one of the most prolific as an author". Additionally, he has been described as a doctor's doctor, the father of pediatrics, a pioneer of ophthalmology. For example, he was the first to recognize the reaction of the eye's pupil to light. Razi was born in the city of Ray situated on the Great Silk Road that for centuries facilitated trade and cultural exchanges between East and West, his nisba, Râzī, means "from the city of Ray" in Persian. It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz mountain range situated near Iran. In his youth, Razi moved to Baghdad where he practiced at the local bimaristan.
He was invited back to Rey by Mansur ibn Ishaq the governor of Rey, became a bimaristan's head. He dedicated two books on medicine to Mansur ibn Ishaq, The Spiritual Physic and Al-Mansūrī on Medicine; because of his newly acquired popularity as physician, Razi was invited to Baghdad where he assumed the responsibilities of a director in a new hospital named after its founder al-Muʿtaḍid. Under the reign of Al-Mutadid's son, Al-Muktafi Razi was commissioned to build a new hospital, which should be the largest of the Abbasid Caliphate. To pick the future hospital's location, Razi adopted what is nowadays known as an evidence-based approach suggesting having fresh meat hung in various places throughout the city and to build the hospital where meat took longest to rot, he spent the last years of his life in his native Rey suffering from glaucoma. His eye affliction ended in total blindness; the cause of his blindness is uncertain. One account mentioned by Ibn Juljul attributed the cause to a blow to his head by his patron, Mansur ibn Ishaq, for failing to provide proof for his alchemy theories.
He was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. Al-Razi asked him how many layers does the eye contain and when he was unable to receive an answer, he declined the treatment stating "my eyes will not be treated by one who does not know the basics of its anatomy"; the lectures of Razi attracted many students. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was considered a shaikh, an honorary title given to one entitled to teach and surrounded by several circles of students; when someone raised a question, it was passed on to students of the'first circle'. When all students would fail to answer, Razi himself would consider the query. Razi was a generous person by nature, with a considerate attitude towards his patients, he was charitable to the poor, treated them without payment in any form, wrote for them a treatise Man La Yaḥḍuruhu al-Ṭabīb, or Who Has No Physician to Attend Him, with medical advice. One former pupil from Tabaristan came to look after him, but as al-Biruni wrote, Razi rewarded him for his intentions and sent him back home, proclaiming that his final days were approaching.
According to Biruni, Razi died in Rey in 925 sixty years of age. Biruni, who considered Razi as his mentor, among the first penned a short biography of Razi including a bibliography of his numerous works. Ibn al-Nadim recorded an account by Razi of a Chinese student who copied down all of Galen's works in Chinese as Razi read them to him out loud after the student learned fluent Arabic in 5 months and attended Razi's lectures. After his death, his fame spread beyond the Middle East to Medieval Europe, lived on. In an undated catalog of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most from the 14th century, Razi is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine. Al-Razi was one of the world's first great medical experts, he is considered the father of psychotherapy. Razi wrote: Smallpox appears when blood "boils" and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled, thus juvenile blood is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up as "bubbles found in wine"... this disease can occur at other times (