The Katzenjammer Kids
The Katzenjammer Kids is an American comic strip created by Rudolph Dirks in 1897, drawn by Harold Knerr for 35 years. It debuted December 12, 1897, in the American Humorist, the Sunday supplement of William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Dirks was the first cartoonist to express dialogue in comic characters through the use of speech balloons; the comic strip was turned into a stage play in 1903. It inspired several animated cartoons and was one of 20 strips included in the Comic Strip Classics series of U. S. commemorative postage stamps. After a series of legal battles between 1912 and 1914, Dirks left the Hearst organization and began a new strip, first titled Hans and Fritz and The Captain and the Kids, it featured the same characters seen in The Katzenjammer Kids, continued by Knerr. The two separate versions of the strip competed with each other until 1979, when The Captain and the Kids ended its six-decade run; the Katzenjammer Kids published its last strip on January 1, 2006, but is still distributed in reprints by King Features Syndicate, making it the oldest comic strip still in syndication and the longest-running ever.
The Katzenjammer Kids was inspired by Max and Moritz, a children's story of the 1860s by German author Wilhelm Busch. Katzenjammer translates as the wailing of cats but is used to mean contrition after a failed endeavor or hangover in German. Whereas Max & Moritz were grotesquely but comically put to death after seven destructive pranks, the Katzenjammer Kids and the other characters still thrive; the Katzenjammer Kids was so popular that it became two competing comic strips and the subject of a lawsuit. This happened because Dirks, in 1912, wanted to take a break after drawing the strip for 15 years, but the Hearst newspaper syndicate would not allow it. Dirks left anyway, the strip was taken over by Harold Knerr. Dirks' last strip appeared March 16, 1913. Dirks sued, after a long legal battle, the Hearst papers were allowed to continue The Katzenjammer Kids, with Knerr as writer and artist, he took over permanently in the summer of 1914. However, Dirks was allowed to create an identical strip of his own for the rival Pulitzer newspapers, although he had to use a different name for the strip.
Named Hans und Fritz after the two naughty protagonist brothers, Dirks' new feature was called The Captain and the Kids from 1918 on. The Captain and the Kids was similar to The Katzenjammer Kids in terms of content and characters, but Dirks had a looser and more verbal style than Knerr, who on the other hand produced stronger, more direct gags and drawings; the Captain and the Kids soon proved to equal the popularity of The Katzenjammer Kids. It was distributed by the United Feature Syndicate; the Captain and the Kids expanded as a daily strip during the 1930s. However, the Sunday strip remained popular for decades. From 1946, Dirks' son, John Dirks began doing more of the work on The Captain and the Kids, they introduced new characters and plots during the 1950s, including a 1958 science fiction storyline about a brilliant inventor and alien invasions. As John Dirks took over most of the work, Rudolph Dirks signed the strip until his death in 1968. John Dirks' drawing shifted towards a more square-formed line, though it maintained the original style until The Captain and the Kids ended its run in 1979.
Knerr continued drawing The Katzenjammer Kids until his death in 1949. "Doc" Winner, with Joe Musial taking over in 1956. Musial was replaced on The Katzenjammer Kids by Mike Senich, Angelo DeCesare, Hy Eisman. Now syndicated in reprint form, the strip is distributed internationally to some 50 newspapers and magazines. Eisman reused a lot of old gags and stories in years; the Katzenjammer Kids featured Hans and Fritz, twins who rebelled against authority in the form of their mother, Mama. Other characters included John Silver, a pirate sea captain and his crew, King Bongo, a primitive-living but sophisticated-acting black jungle monarch who ruled a tropical island. Several of the characters spoke in stereotypical German-accented English; the defining theme of the strip was Hans and Fritz pranking der Captain, der Inspector, Mama, or all three, for which the boys were spanked, but sometimes shifted the blame to others. Other stories involved der Captain taking the Katzenjammers on treasure hunts or cargo voyages, sometimes aided by or competing with John Silver.
Still other stories involved King Bongo enlisting the Katzenjammers to run errands or go on missions related to his kingdom. Knerr's version of The Katzenjammer Kids introduced several major new characters in the 1930s. Miss Twiddle, a pompous tutor, her brainy niece Lena came to stay permanently with the Katzenjammers in early 1936. In the year Twiddle's ex-pupil, "boy prodigy" Rollo Rhubarb joined them; the ever-smug Rollo is always trying to outwit Hans and Fritz, but his cunning plans backfire. The Captain and the Kids introduced some new characters. Ginga Dun is a snooty Indian trader who can outsmart anyone and only talks in verse. Captain Bloodshot is a pint-sized pirate rival of John Silver's. Notable features of the strips, at both syndicates, included a more constructiv
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Osamu Tezuka was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist and film producer. Born in Osaka Prefecture, his prolific output, pioneering techniques, innovative redefinitions of genres earned him such titles as "the father of manga", "the godfather of manga" and "the god of manga". Additionally, he is considered the Japanese equivalent to Walt Disney, who served as a major inspiration during Tezuka's formative years. Though this phrase praises the quality of his early manga works for children and animations, it blurs the significant influence of his more literary, gekiga works. Tezuka began what was known as the manga revolution in Japan with his New Treasure Island published in 1947, his legendary output would spawn some of the most influential and well received manga series including the children mangas Astro Boy, Princess Knight and Kimba the White Lion, the adult oriented series Black Jack and Buddha, all of which won several awards. Tezuka died of stomach cancer in 1989, his death had an immediate impact on other cartoonists.
A museum was constructed in Takarazuka dedicated to his memory and life works, Tezuka received many posthumous awards. Several animations were in production at the time of his death along with the final chapters of Phoenix, which were never released. Tezuka was the eldest of three children in Osaka; the Tezuka family were well-educated. His mother's family had a long military history. Tezuka's nickname was gashagasha-atama. In life, he gave his mother credit for inspiring confidence and creativity through her stories, she took him to the Takarazuka Grand Theater, which headlined the Takarazuka Revue, an all-female musical theater troupe. Their romantic musicals aimed at a female audience, had a large influence of Tezuka's works, including his costume designs. Not only that, but the large, sparkling eyes had an influence on Tezuka's art style, he has said" for Takarazuka. When Tezuka was young, his father showed him Disney films, he became a Disney movie buff, seeing the films multiple times in a row, most famously seeing Bambi more than 80 times.
Tezuka started to draw comics around his second year of elementary school, drawing so much that his mother would have to erase pages in his notebook in order to keep up with his output. Tezuka was inspired by works by Suihō Tagawa and Unno Juza. Around his fifth year he found a bug named "Osamushi", it so resembled his name. He continued to develop his manga skills throughout his school career. During this period he created his first adept amateur works. During high school in 1944, Tezuka was drafted to work for a factory, supporting the Japanese war effort during World War II. In 1945, Tezuka began studying medicine. During this time, he began publishing his first professional works. Tezuka came to the realization that he could use manga as a means of helping to convince people to care for the world. After World War II, at age 17, he published his first piece of work: Diary of Ma-chan. Tezuka began talks with fellow manga artist Shichima Sakai, who had pitched Tezuka a manga based around the famous story Treasure Island.
Sakai promised Tezuka a publishing spot from Ikuei Shuppan. Tezuka finished the manga. Shin Takarajima was published and became an overnight success which began the golden age of manga, a craze comparable to American comic books at the time. In 1951, Tezuka joined a group known as Tokyo Children Manga Association consisting of other manga artists such as Baba Noboru, Ota Jiro, Furusawa Hideo, Fukui Eiichi, Irie Shigeru, Negishi Komichi. With the success of New Treasure Island, Tezuka traveled to Tokyo in search of a publisher for more of his work. After visiting Kobunsha Tezuka was turned down. However, publisher Shinseikaku agreed to purchase The Strange Voyage of Dr. Tiger and Domei Shuppansha would purchase The Mysterious Dr. Koronko. Whilst continuing his study in medical school Tezuka published his first masterpieces: a trilogy of science fiction epics called Lost World and Next World. Soon after Tezuka published his first major success Jungle Emperor Leo, it was serialized in Manga Shonen from 1950 to 1954.
In 1951 Tezuka graduated from the Osaka School of Medicine and published Ambassador Atom, the first appearance of the Astro Boy character. By 1952, Ambassador Atom proved to be only a mild success in Japan. Tezuka received several letters from many young boys. Expecting success with a series based around Atom, Tezuka's producer suggested that he be given human emotions. One day while working at a hospital Tezuka was punched in the face by a frustrated American G. I; this encounter gave Tezuka the idea to create Atom. On February 4, 1952, Tetsuwan Atom began serialization in Weekly Shonen Magazine; the character Atom and his adventures became an instant phenomenon in Japan. Due to the success of Tetsuwan Atom, in 1953 Tezuka published shōjo manga Ribon no Kishi, serialized in Shojo Club from 1953 to 1956. In 1954 Tezuka first published what he would consider his life's
Manga outside Japan
Manga, or Japanese comics, have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. France represents about 40% of the European manga market and in 2011 manga represented 40% of the comics being published in the country. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga. In the United States, manga comprises a small industry when compared to the inroads that Japanese animation or Japanese Video Games have made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the United States, VIZ Media, functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha; the UK has fewer manga publishers than the U. S. Since written Japanese fiction flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan; when first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators did not approve of the modification of their work in this way, requested that foreign versions retain the right-to-left format of the originals.
Soon, due both to fan demand and to the requests of creators, more publishers began offering the option of right-to-left formatting, which has now become commonplace in North America. Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception. Translated manga includes notes on details of Japanese culture that foreign audiences may not find familiar. One company, TOKYOPOP, produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a publicized point-of-difference; the Chinese Ministry of Culture announced in 2015 that it has blacklisted 38 Japanese anime and manga titles from distribution in China, including popular series like Death Note and Attack on Titan online or in print, citing "scenes of violence, pornography and crimes against public morality." Manga in Indonesia is published by Elex Media Komputindo, Level Comic, M&C and Gramedia, has influenced Indonesia's original comic industry. The wide distribution of scanlations contributes to the growth of publication of bootleg manga, printed in lower quality.
One of the most notable publisher is Seventh Heaven. Many popular titles, such as Bleach, Magister Nagi, Rose Hip Zero, Kingdom Hearts, have been pirated, which draws controversy toward manga readers in Indonesia. Manga in the Philippines were imported from the USA and were sold only in specialty stores and in limited copies; the first manga in Filipino language is Doraemon, published by J-Line Comics and was followed by Case Closed. A few local publishing companies like VIVA-PSICOM Publishing feature manga created by local artists whose stories are based from popular written books from the writing site Wattpad and are read from left to right instead of the usual right-to-left format for Japanese manga; the first commercial local manga is She Died, an adaptation of the book written by Wattpad writer HaveYouSeenThisGirl. The art was done by Enjelicious. In 2015, VIVA-PSICOM Publishing has announced that they will start publishing manga titles in the Filipino language with the line-up starting with Hiro Mashima's Fairy Tail and Isayama Hajime's Attack on Titan.
In 2015, Boy's Love manga became popular through the introduction of BL manga by printing company BLACKink. Among the first BL titles to be printed were Poster Boy and Sprinters, all were written in Filipino. BL manga have become bestsellers in the top three bookstore companies in the Philippines since their introduction in 2015; the company Chuang Yi publishes manga in Chinese in Singapore. Singapore has its own official Comics Society, led by manga artist Wee Tian Beng, illustrator of the Dream Walker series. In Thailand, before 1992 all available manga were fast, poor quality bootlegs. However, due to copyright laws, this has changed and copyrights protect nearly all published manga. Thailand's prominent manga publishers include Nation Edutainment, Siam Inter Comics and Bongkoch. Many parents in Thai society are not supportive of manga. In October 2005, there was a television programme broadcast about the dark side of manga with exaggerated details, resulted in many manga being banned; the programme issued an apology to the audience.
In 2015, Boy's Love manga have become popular in mainstream Thai consumers, leading to television series adapted from BL manga stories since 2016. France has a strong and diverse manga market. Many works published in France belong to genres not well represented outside Japan, such as too adult-oriented drama, or too experimental and avant-garde works. Early editors like Tonkam have published Hong-Kong authors or Korean authors in their manga collection during 1995/1996, quite uncommon; some Japanese authors, such as Jiro Taniguchi, are unknown in other western countries but received much acclaim in France. Since its introduction in the 1990s, manga publishing and anime broadcasting have become intertwined in France, where the most popular and exploited shōnen, shōjo and seinen TV series were imported in their paper version. Therefore, Japanese books were and accepted by a large juvenile public, familiar with the series and received the manga as part of their own culture. A strong parallel backup was the emergence of Japanese video games, Nintendo/Sega, which were based o
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
History of anime
The history of anime can be traced back to the start of the 20th century, with the earliest verifiable films dating from 1917. The first generation of animators in the late 1910s included Ōten Shimokawa, Jun'ichi Kōuchi and Seitaro Kitayama referred to as the "fathers" of anime. Propaganda films, such as Momotarō no Umiwashi and Momotarō: Umi no Shinpei, the latter being the first anime feature film, were made during World War II. During the 1970s, anime developed further, with the inspiration of Disney animators, separating itself from its Western roots, developing distinct genres such as mecha and its super robot subgenre. Typical shows from this period include Astro Boy, Lupin III and Mazinger Z. During this period several filmmakers became famous Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii. In the 1980s, anime became mainstream in Japan, experiencing a boom in production with the rise in popularity of anime like Gundam, Dragon Ball, genres such as real robot, space opera and cyberpunk. Space Battleship Yamato and The Super Dimension Fortress Macross achieved worldwide success after being adapted as Star Blazers and Robotech.
The film Akira set records in 1988 for the production costs of an anime film and went on to become an international success. In 2004, the same creators produced Steamboy, which took over as the most expensive anime film. Spirited Away shared the first prize at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival and won the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, while Innocence: Ghost in the Shell was featured at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. According to Natsuki Matsumoto, the first animated film produced in Japan may have stemmed from as early as 1907. Known as Katsudō Shashin, from its depiction of a boy in a sailor suit drawing the characters for katsudō shashin, the film was first found in 2005, it consists of fifty frames stencilled directly onto a strip of celluloid. This claim has not been verified though and predates the first known showing of animated films in Japan; the date and first film publicly displayed is another source of contention: while no Japanese-produced animation is definitively known to date before 1917, the possibility exists that other films entered Japan and that no known records have surfaced to prove a showing prior to 1912.
Film titles have surfaced over the years. The first foreign animation is known to have been found in Japan in 1910, but it is not clear if the film was shown in a cinema or publicly displayed at all. Yasushi Watanabe found a film known as Fushigi no Bōrudo in the records of the Yoshizawa Shōten company; the description matches James Blackton's Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, though academic consensus on whether or not this is a true animated film is disputed. According to Kyokko Yoshiyama, the first animated film called Nippāru no Henkei was shown in Japan at the Asakusa Teikokukan in Tokyo sometime in 1911. Yoshiyama did not refer to the film as "animation" though; the first confirmed animated film shown in Japan was Les Exploits de Feu Follet by Émile Cohl on April 15, 1912. While speculation and other "trick films" have been found in Japan, it is the first recorded account of a public showing of a two-dimensional animated film in Japanese cinema. During this time, German animations marketed for home release were distributed in Japan.
Few complete animations made during the beginnings of Japanese animation have survived. The reasons vary. After the clips had been run, reels were sold to smaller cinemas in the country and disassembled and sold as strips or single frames; the first anime, produced in Japan was made sometime in 1917, but there it is disputed which title was the first to get that honour. It has been confirmed that Dekobō Shingachō: Meian no Shippai was made sometime during February 1917. At least two unconfirmed titles were reported to have been made the previous month; the first anime short-films were made by three leading figures in the industry. Ōten Shimokawa was a political cartoonist who worked for the magazine Tokyo Puck. He was hired by Tenkatsu to do an animation for them. Due to medical reasons, he was only able to do five movies, including Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki, before he returned to his previous work as a cartoonist. Another prominent animator in this period was Jun'ichi Kōuchi, he was a caricaturist and painter, who had studied watercolour painting.
In 1912, he entered the cartoonist sector and was hired for an animation by Kobayashi Shokai in 1916. He is viewed as the most technically advanced Japanese animator of the 1910s, his works include around 15 movies. The third was Seitaro Kitayama, an early animator who made animations on his own and was not hired by larger corporations, he founded his own animation studio, the Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo, closed due to lack of commercial success. He utilized the chalkboard technique, paper animation and without pre-printed backgrounds; the works of these two latter pioneers include Namakura Gatana and a 1918 film Urashima Tarō which were believed to have been discovered together at an antique market in 2007. However, this Urashima Tarō was proved to most be a different film of the same story than the 1918 one by Kitayama, which, as of October 2017, remains undiscovered. Yasuji Murata, Hakuzan Kimura, Sanae Yamamoto and Noburō Ōfuji were students of Kitayama Seitaro and worked at his film studio. Kenzō Masaoka, another important animator, worked at a smaller animation