click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tristão da Cunha

Tristão da Cunha was a Portuguese explorer and naval commander. In 1514, he served as ambassador from king Manuel I of Portugal to Pope Leo X, leading a luxurious embassy presenting in Rome the new conquests of Portugal, he became a member of the Portuguese privy council. Da Cunha was born in c. 1460. He was nominated as first viceroy of Portuguese India in 1504, but could not take up this post owing to temporary blindness. In 1506 he was appointed commander of a fleet of 15 ships sent to the east coast of Africa and off India, his cousin, Afonso de Albuquerque, was in charge of a squadron of five vessels in this fleet that subsequently detached. Their mission was to conquer Socotra Island and build a fortress there, hoping to close the trade in the Red Sea, they sailed together. In the Mozambique Channel they found his friend captain João da Nova stranded while returning from India, they rescued the ship Frol de la mar, both joining the fleet. After a series of successful attacks on Arab cities on the east coast of Africa, they headed to Socotra.

On this voyage Tristão da Cunha discovered a group of remote islands in the south Atlantic Ocean, 2,816 km from South Africa. Although rough seas prevented a landing he named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, anglicized to Tristan da Cunha, he set his eyes on Ajuran Empire territory, where the Battle of Barawa was fought. After a long period of engagement, the Portuguese soldiers looted it. However, fierce resistance by the local population and soldiers resulted in the failure of the Portuguese to permanently occupy the city and the Portuguese would be decisively defeated by the Somalis from Ajuran Empire, the inhabitants who had fled to the interior would return and rebuild the city. Tristão da Cunha was severely wounded and sought refuge in Socotra islands after losing his men and ships. After his victory in a battle with the Ajuran Empire, he decided to re-group his men in Socotra islands and set sail for Mogadishu, but word had spread of what had happened in Barawa, a large troop mobilization had taken place.

Many horsemen and battleships in defense positions were now guarding the city. Tristão still opted to storm and attempt to conquer the city, although every officer and soldier in his army opposed this, fearing certain defeat if they were to engage their opponents in battle, he decided to leave the Somalis and Yemenis in peace after he realized that they were too large a force to subdue and that it would require a larger mobilization thus leaving Ajuran Empire independent. After a while, he distinguished himself in India in various actions, such as the Siege of Cannanore: the Portuguese garrison was on the verge of being overwhelmed, when on 27 August the fleet of 11 ships under Tristão da Cunha coming from Socotra appeared and relieved them with 300 men. After returning to Europe, Tristão da Cunha was sent as ambassador from king Manuel I to Pope Leo X in 1514 to present the new conquests of the Portuguese Empire, having Garcia de Resende as his secretary; the huge, luxurious embassy of one hundred and forty persons made its way through Alicante and Majorca, arriving at Rome outskirts in February.

They walked the streets of Rome on March 12, 1514 in an extravagant procession of exotic wildlife and wealth of the Indies, with many dressed in "Indian style". The procession featured an elephant named Hanno, as a gift to the pope, forty-two other beasts, including two leopards, a panther, some parrots and rare Indian horses. Hanno carried a platform of silver on its back, shaped as a castle containing a safe with royal gifts, including vests embroidered with pearls and gems, coins of gold minted for the occasion; the pope received the procession in the Castel Sant'Angelo. The elephant knelt down thrice in reverence and following a wave of his Indian mahout, used its trunk to suck water from a bucket and sprayed it over the crowd and the Cardinals. By 29 April 1514, the Portuguese had depleted their funds, but they sought a bull signed by the pope, who sent back rich gifts to king Manuel; the king responded with a ship full of spices and an indian rhinoceros sent to him from the sultan Muzaffar Shah II of Gujarat.

The boat that transported it was wrecked off Genoa on early February 1516, the Rhinoceros was portrayed by Albrecht Dürer in his famous Rhinoceros woodcuts in 1515. Although Tristão da Cunha had never assumed the post of Viceroy of India, his son Nuno da Cunha was the 9th Governor of Portuguese India in 1529; the tomb of Tristão da Cunha is located at the Church of Sra. da Encarnação in Olhalvo. Rua do Cunha Tristan da Cunha island article in Italian

Spirit of the Hills

Spirit of the Hills is a 1988 western mystery novel by Dan O'Brien. Jimmy McVay is shot to death in Toledo, Ohio while buying marijuana and his twenty-five thousand dollars is stolen. Tom McVay, his older brother and a Vietnam veteran, finds out that the murderer is a man named P J Billion from Medicine Springs in South Dakota and sets out to recover the lost money and revenge himself. In the meantime something begins to kill the livestock around Medicine Springs; some believe. Buffalo wolves used to roam the prairie but they are extinct now; as incessant livestock killings arouse fear and anger among the farmers, local authorities hire Bill Egan, a seventy-year-old retired wolf trapper. When Tom McVay arrives at Medicine Springs, he happens to pass himself off as a reporter after the wolf. Kattie Running, an attractive Sioux, returns to Medicine Springs from Minnesota to join a new breed of Sioux Indians, they are peaceful political activists who intend to reclaim the Black Hills that once belonged to their ancestors.

But a few extremists have evil plans to blow up Mount Rushmore

Lisa Dwan

Lisa Dwan is an Irish stage and television actress and writer. She is best known for her performances and adaptations of the work of Samuel Beckett and other theater. Dwan was born in Coosan, County Westmeath and trained as a ballet dancer, she was chosen to dance with Rudolf Nureyev in the Ballet San Jose's production of "Coppélia" in Dublin when she was 12 years old. She left school at 14 after winning a scholarship to attend the Dorothy Stevens School of Ballet in Leeds, danced with the London Lewis Ballet Company. Dwan began acting professionally as a teenager. Dwan's first movie was playing the role of Agnes in an adaptation of Oliver Twist, co-starring Elijah Wood and Richard Dreyfuss. Dwan's first regular series role was as Princess Deirdre, the Mystic Knight of Air, on Saban's Mystic Knights of Tir Na Nog, she played the role of Orla in eight episodes of RTÉ's "The Big Bow Wow" in 2004, the role of Zoe Burke in 28 episodes of the Irish soap opera Fair City from 2006 to 2007, the role of Angel Islington on Rock Rivals.

In January 2009 she starred opposite Martin Sheen as "Marika" in Bhopal: Prayer for Rain. Dwan is most well known internationally for her performances and adaptations of Samuel Beckett's works, she performed in Beckett's Not I in London's Battersea Arts Centre in 2005, was interviewed with Billie Whitelaw, whom Beckett called the "perfect actress", as part of the Beckett celebrations on BBC Radio 3. Beginning in 2006, Whitelaw mentored Dwan on her work on Beckett. Dwan performed the piece again in July 2009 at the Southbank Centre in London in a time of nine minutes and fifty seconds, again at the International Beckett Festival in 2012; the event was repeated at Reading University in May 2013. Beginning in 2013, Dwan toured with "The Beckett Trilogy", consisting of Not I alongside two of Beckett's other short plays and Rockaby, under the direction of Walter Asmus at the Royal Court Theatre, West End, The Barbican Centre, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, performed sold-out shows at various international locations.

In a review of her performance at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, Ben Brantley wrote that Dwan "is an instrument of Beckett, in that way saints and martyrs are said to be instruments of God". In October 2016, Dwan adapted and starred in No's Knife, a one-woman production adapted from Beckett's Stories and Texts for Nothing at London's Old Vic and Abbey Theatre Dublin. Dwan is the first woman to perform Beckett's Texts for Nothing. In 2017, Dwan starred in Harold Pinter's "The Lover" and "The Collection" at the Shakespeare Theatre Company in Washington, D. C. for which she won Shakespeare Theatre Company's Emery Battis Award for Acting Excellence. In 2016, Dwan starred in Marina Carr's stage adaptation of Anna Karenina for the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. Other recent theater appearances include Shining City off-Broadway and at the Irish Repertory Theatre in 2016, Beside the Sea at the Southbank Centre in London in 2012, Diary of an Unhappy Queen in at the Barbican Centre in London in 2012, The Journey Between Us at Southbank Theatre in London in 2016, Illusions by Ivan Viripaev at the Bush Theatre in London, The Soldier's Tale at the Hay Festival in 2013, The Importance of Being Earnest on tour in Ireland in 1999, The History of the World at 3am at Andrews Lane Theatre in Dublin in 1996, among others.

Dwan writes and teaches on theatre and Beckett. Recent speaking engagements include appearances on BBC radio and television and WNYC. Dwan writes about Beckett and the arts, including an in The Guardian, she has lectured at the École Normale Supérieure, University of Reading and the University of Oxford, completed a residency at Princeton University's Lewis Center for the Arts, where she taught a class on adapting Beckett’s prose work. Dwan was a 2017-2018 artist in residence at Columbia University, where she worked with Irish writer Colm Toibin on Pale Sister, a play derived from the class they taught called "The Antigone Project". Dwan was a resident fellow at the School of Art and Ballet at New York University from 2017 to 2018. Dwan is an artist in residence at MIT. Lisa Dwan on IMDb Lisa Dwan at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Lisa Dwan on the Lewis Center for the Arts Lisa Dwan on the Festival of Writing and Ideas

East Aleppo offensive (January–April 2017)

The East Aleppo offensive referred to as the Dayr Hafir offensive, was an operation launched by the Syrian Army to prevent Turkish-backed rebel forces from advancing deeper into Syria, to capture the ISIL stronghold of Dayr Hafir. Another aim of the operation was to gain control of the water source for Aleppo city, at the Khafsa Water Treatment Plant, in addition to capturing the Jirah Military Airbase. At the same time, the Turkish-backed rebel groups turned towards the east and started launching attacks against the Syrian Democratic Forces, west of Manbij. On 17 January, the Syrian Army launched an assault led by its Tiger Forces, capturing a village to the south of al-Bab; the SAA captured four more villages to the south of the city within the next three days, another 13 villages to the southwest of al-Bab between 21 and 24 January. By 29 January, 20 villages had come under Army control. On 1 February, the Turkish-backed rebels captured two villages to the southwest of al-Bab, cutting the main road between the city and Aleppo from another side in front of the recent advances by pro-Syrian government forces who had come within 7 kilometres.

Meanwhile, the SAA captured a village to the south of the Kuweires airbase. By 5 February, the SAA was within two kilometers of cutting the last road into al-Bab, with support from Hezbollah and Russian artillery; the next day, they captured Tal Uwayshiya hill. The SAA advance cut off the last main supply route to the city, putting it under a siege. Government advances continued on 7 February, with SAA and Hezbollah capturing three villages and a nearby hill to the south of Al-Bab, they captured a hill and many other sites to the south of the Kuweires airbase, extending their control over Sabkhat al-Jabbul and securing the road near it. On the same day, it was reported that the rapid Syrian Army advances had nearly encircled 5,000 ISIL militants within Al-Bab and its environs. During the night of 7 February, Turkish forces and rebels launched an assault at Al-Bab, capturing several strategic hills and breaking into the city. On 9 February, the Syrian Army was within 3 kilometres of al-Bab. On the same day, the rebels clashed with the Syrian Army for the first time near al-Bab, in a village to the southwest of the city.

After the Syrian Army advanced within 1.5 kilometres of the city of al-Bab on 10 February, the next day, it was reported that Turkish-backed rebel forces had captured a strategic roundabout cutting off the Syrian Army from Al-Bab. To prevent further southern advances by the rebels, the military started operations east of Kuweires Airbase into ISIL territory so to cut off the rebels. Between 12 and 16 February, the Syrian Army captured nine villages northeast of the airbase, advancing some four kilometres and coming within five kilometres of the ISIL-held town of Dayr Hafir. Between 21 and 25 February, the military seized a dozen more villages and imposed artillery fire-control over Dayr Hafir; the Army started bypassing Dayr Hafir in an attempt to encircle it and force ISIL forces to withdraw instead of launching a direct assault on the town due to the possibility of extensive ISIL fortifications. On 25 February, amid a large retreat of ISIL forces from rural areas of east Aleppo, following the fall of Al-Bab to Turkish-backed rebel forces, it was reported that most of ISIL's fighters had withdrawn from the town of Tadef.

At this point, it remained unclear whether the town would be taken over by pro-government or rebel fighters. The next day, the Syrian Army took control of the town. Subsequently, clashes erupted near Tadef between the Turkish-backed rebels; the rebels claimed that at least 22 Syrian soldiers were killed in the fighting, while at least six rebels died. Still, despite this, the military continued with its advances. Early on 27 February, government forces and Hezbollah seized another village from ISIL, bringing them within 5 or 6 kilometers from linking up with the Syrian Democratic Forces' Manbij Military Council and besieging 13 ISIL-held villages. In the morning, the Syrian Army captured several more villages, reaching SDF lines. Turkish-backed rebels took control of five villages after ISIL forces withdrew from those areas; the SDF launched an assault against ISIL southwest and south of Manbij, capturing nine villages. It was reported that the SDF was planning to capture the town of Al-Khafsa from ISIL, as well as that the SDF and SAA may be coordinating their actions in the region.

During the day, it was reported by Sputnik News that Russia had mediated another ceasefire between the Syrian Army and Turkish-backed FSA forces in the area. On 28 February, both Syrian Army and SDF advances against ISIL continued with both sides capturing a total of five villages. Turkish-backed rebels meanwhile captured two villages. During the day, according to lieutenant general Stephen J. Townsend of the United States Army, the Russian Air Force accidentally bombed the Syrian Democratic Forces forces, mistaking them for ISIL fighters; the bombing caused casualties but was stopped after United States commandos nearby informed Russian forces of the error. On 1 March, the SDF captured five more villages from ISIL, while the Syrian Army took control of one more. Meanwhile, the Turkish-backed rebels made a push towards SDF-held Manbij and captured three villages from the SDF before the SDF recaptured them the following day. Six or 12 rebels were killed in the fighting. On 2 March, the Manbij Military Council announced that it had reached an agreement with Russia to hand over villages to west of Manbij, bordering the front

Dallas Public Library

The Dallas Public Library system serves as the municipal library system of the city of Dallas, Texas. In 1899, the idea to create a free public library in Dallas was conceived by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs, led by president Mrs. Henry Exall, she helped raise US$11,000 from gifts from public school teachers, local businessmen, Alfred Horatio Belo of The Dallas Morning News. The library became a reality when Mrs. Exall requested and received a US$50,000 grant from philanthropist and steel giant Andrew Carnegie to construct the first library building in Dallas. On October 22, 1901, the Carnegie library opened at the corner of Harwood and Commerce streets with a head librarian, three assistants, 9,852 volumes; the first story held the entire collection. The art room was the first public art gallery in Dallas and became what is known today as the Dallas Museum of Art. An Oak Cliff branch opened in 1914 to serve the citizens of the area, annexed into Dallas in 1903. Four more branches opened in the 1930s including the Paul Lawrence Dunbar Library, the first to serve the African American population of Dallas.

This began under the director of Cleora Clanton. In World War II, the library was established as a War Information Center. By 1950, the library resources and facilities were stretched to the limit, so supporters formed an auxiliary organization called the Friends of the Dallas Public Library to lobby for better library services. By the 1950s, the Carnegie Library was badly deteriorating and overcrowded, a new modern library was built on the same site. During construction, the Library was housed temporarily on the mezzanine of Union Station; the new building, now known as Old Dallas Central Library, had room for over 400,000 volumes and opened in 1954. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Dallas Public Library added 17 branches to the system. In 1962, Lillian M. Bradshaw was named Library Director, the first woman to head a department in the City of Dallas, marking a milestone in the civil rights and women's liberation movements of that era. Days after she was put into office, she faced a censorship push from a Dallas council-member, but the community and media rallied to her defense.

The City Council, in response, overwhelmingly approved her appointment and passed a resolution not to censor books purchased by the library. By the 1970s, the Central Library had again become overloaded and was unequipped to handle emerging technology. In 1972, the City selected a 114,000 square feet site at Young and Ervay across from the Dallas City Hall for a new central library facility. In 1982, the technologically sophisticated structure opened its doors, it was one of the first libraries in the nation to include an Online Public Access Catalog and state-of-the-art audiovisual capabilities. It was renamed the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in 1986 in honor of the former mayor who played a large role in the library system's development. In 1996, the Library implemented the STAR computer system, which allowed patrons to access a multitude of electronic databases and the Internet. By the 2000s, the system had 27 branch locations with over 2.5 million volumes, including books, magazines and cassettes.

The system attracts 2.8 million visitors per year and has 540,000 cardholders who check out more than 3.8 million books and other materials per year. The Library operates a "Library on Wheels" Mobile Learning Center to service Dallas communities; the Dallas Public Library is home to a copy of Shakespeare's First Folio, the only copy in a US public library outside of New England. It was purchased by the Dallas Shakespeare Club in 1984 at a cost of $275,000 and was gifted to the Library in 1986, it is displayed on the 7th floor. A Dunlap Broadside copy of the Declaration of Independence is housed on the 7th floor. Printed by John Dunlap of Philadelphia, it is only one of twenty-five known to survive; this is the only copy west of the Mississippi, one of only 3 displayed by a public library. It was given to the city; the library operates 27 branch locations throughout the city, an 8-story main branch, the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library, in the Government District of downtown, it operates the Bookmarks Children's Library located in NorthPark Center.

Arcadia Park Branch Library in West Dallas Audelia Road Branch Library in Lake Highlands Bachman Lake Branch Library Dallas West Branch Library in West Dallas Forest Green Branch Library in Lake Highlands Fretz Park Branch Library in North Dallas Grauwyler Park Branch Library in Dallas Hampton-Illinois Branch Library in Oak Cliff Highland Hills Branch Library in the Highland Hills neighborhood of South Dallas Kleberg-Rylie Branch Library in Kleberg in far Southeast Dallas Lochwood Lakewood Branch Library in Junius Heights, near Lakewood Martin Luther King Jr. Library and Learning Center near Fair Park Mountain Creek Branch Library in Mountain Creek, Texas North Oak Cliff Branch Library in Oak Cliff Oak Lawn Branch Library in Oak Lawn Park Forest Branch Library in North Dallas Paul Laurence Dunbar Lancaster-Kiest Branch Library in South Dallas Pleasant Grove Branch Library in Pleasant Grove Polk-Wisdom Branch Library in Southwest Dallas Prairie Creek Branch Library Preston Royal Branch Library in North DallasPreston Royal first opened in 1964.

Its roof has arches above, according to Andrew Scoggin of The Dallas Morning News this makes the library appear distinct compared to oth