The Boundary Ranges known in the singular and as the Alaska Boundary Range, are the largest and most northerly subrange of the Coast Mountains. They begin at the Nass River, near the southern end of the Alaska Panhandle in the Canadian province of British Columbia and run to the Kelsall River, near the Chilkoot Pass, beyond which are the Alsek Ranges of the Saint Elias Mountains, northwards into the Yukon Territory flanking the west side of the Yukon River drainage as far as Champagne Pass, north of which being the Yukon Ranges. To their east are the Skeena Mountains and Stikine Plateau of the Interior Mountains complex that lies northwest of the Interior Plateau. To their northeast is the Tagish Highland, a subregion of the Yukon Plateau. Both highlands are considered in some descriptions; the Alexander Archipelago lies offshore and is within Alaska. The Boundary Ranges include several large icefields, including the Juneau Icefield, between the Alaskan city of the same name and Atlin Lake in B.
C.. Some of the highest mountains in the Boundary Ranges are: Mount Ratz, 3090 m, Chutine Peak, 2910 m, Devils Thumb, 2766 m, all in the Stikine Icecap region. Despite the height of Mount Ratz and its neighbours, most of the Boundary Ranges are lower than the Pacific Ranges of the southern Coast Mountains; the larger icefields of the Boundary Ranges are at a much lower elevation than their southern counterparts in the Pacific Ranges because of the difference in latitude. Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the granitic intrusions that form the Boundary Ranges are remnants of a Late Cretaceous volcanic arc system called the Coast Range Arc. Rivers draining or transiting the Boundary Ranges include the: Boundary Ranges portal List of Boundary Peaks of the Alaska-British Columbia/Yukon border S. Holland, Landforms of British Columbia, Province of British Columbia, 1976, pp 38-39 map from Bulletin 48: Landforms of British Columbia U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Boundary Ranges "Boundary Ranges". BC Geographical Names. Boundary Ranges of the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Kitimat is a district municipality in the North Coast region of British Columbia, Canada. It is a member municipality of the Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine regional government; the Kitimat Valley is part of the most populous urban district in northwest British Columbia, which includes Terrace to the north along the Skeena River Valley. The city was built by the Aluminum Company of Canada during the 1950s. Kitimat's municipal area is 242.63 km2. It is located on tidewater in one of the few flat valleys on the coast of British Columbia; the 2011 census recorded 8,335 citizens. The District of Kitimat Development Services situates the port of Kitimat as an integral part of the Northwest Corridor connecting North America to the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Rim. "Kitimat" in the Tsimshian language refers to the Haisla First Nation as the "People of the Snow". Before 1950 the Kitimat township was a small fishing village at the head of the Kitimat Arm of the Douglas Channel, a deepwater fjord; the municipal town of Kitimat came into existence in the 1950s after the Provincial Government of British Columbia invited Alcan to develop hydroelectric facilities to support one of the most power-intensive of all industries – the aluminum smelting industry.
The company built a dam, 16 km tunnel, powerhouse, 82 km transmission line, a deep sea terminal and smelter. The company designed, laid out and assisted with the initial construction of the city. At the time, the combined development was considered "the most expensive project attempted by private industry."Alcan employed the services of city planner Clarence Stein in order to ensure the community design facilitated an environment that would attract and retain workers, although Alcan intended it to not be a company town. Today, Kitimat benefits from the quality of planning resulting from the Garden City design concept. Stein's design kept industry well separated from the community with large areas for expansion, he created looped streets surrounding an urban city centre mall and linked by over 45 km of walkways connecting to all areas of the community. The substantial greenspace areas and future expansion concepts designed by Stein have been upheld to this day by the city planners, thereby resulting in a low-density settlement pattern interspersed with forested patches.
The Alcan-based city origin and land provenance remain documented in the form of restrictive covenants registered on title. Aluminum producer Rio Tinto is the main employer in the municipality. Local government, small manufacturing and service/retail are secondary contributors. Secondary core activities include engineering, import of petrochemical products, metal fabrication. $5 billion in manufacturing investment is anticipated in the 2010–2015 period with a further $5 plus billion in the investigative stage over the next decade. Anticipated investment includes an $2 billion modernization to the Rio Tinto Alcan facilities and $3 billion in the Kitimat liquefied natural gas export development on Haisla Industrial Land at Bish Creek; the export facility would see natural gas piped in from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and shipped to Asian markets. The LNG Canada project, a joint venture between Shell and affiliates of Mitsubishi Corp. Korea Gas Corp. and PetroChina Investment Ltd. would, if permitted, begin construction in 2015 of a gas pipeline from northeastern BC and a LNG export terminal with an expected lifespan of 30 years.
The terminal, located on the Douglas Channel near the aluminum refinery, would be able to accommodate two LNG vessels at a time. Annual volume would be 24 million tonnes. In July 2014 the Financial Post reported that Apache Corp. will "completely exit" the Kitimat LNG mega-project planned for B. C.'s West Coast. The U. S. hedge fund Jana Partners LLC has pressured Houston-based Apache to sell its 50% stake in the BC shale gas plays. Pending energy projects that have identified Kitimat as a strategic gateway include Pacific Northern Gas's Pacific Trail Pipeline and the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines. Additional investigations into clean energy developments include a Kitimat port development project featuring break-bulk port facilities and consideration of the best uses for the former Eurocan Wharf. In addition, the decommissioning of the former Eurocan pulp and paper facilities or a slimmed down operation are still under consideration. There is renewed interest in mineral development potential in the Kitimat area.
The neighbouring community of Terrace is in advanced stages of approval for a number of clean energy projects along with the associated infrastructure for linking those projects to the provincial electrical grid. Air services for the community are provided through Northwest Regional Airport, with connections to Prince George and Vancouver. In the 1920s, the provincial government of British Columbia extensively evaluated the province's hydroelectric generating potential. In the late 1940s, the Canadian Government sought to tap the untapped resources of northwest British Columbia. All this led to the identification of the Eutsuk/Ootsa/Nechako River drainage basin as a potential site for a sizable reservoir; the potential of this vast system of rivers and lakes prompted British Columbia to invite Alcan to conduct a detailed investigation of the area. Alcan was searching for a site for a large aluminum smelter, an activity requiring vast amounts of electricity. Alcan concluded that the area was more than adequate to generate the required electricity, decided to build a smel
The Hazelton Mountains are a grouping of mountain ranges on the inland lee of the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in northwestern British Columbia, spanning the area of Hazelton south to the Nechako Reservoir. Defined by the British Columbia geographic names office, they span from the Nass River to the Nechako Plateau, between the Coast Mountains and the Bulkley River, they are considered by geographers to be part of the Interior Mountains complex, though in local perspective they are considered to be part of the Coast Mountains, they are neighboured on the west by the Kitimat Ranges and on the east by the southernmost section of the Skeena Mountains. To their southeast is the Nechako Plateau, including the Quanchus Range on the near-island between Ootsa and Eutsuk Lakes of the Nechako Reservoir; the Hazelton Mountains consist of several subranges:North of the Skeena River: Nass Ranges, between the Kitsumkalum and Kitwanga Rivers. The Nass Ranges include an active volcano which killed 2,000 Nisga'a people.
Kispiox Range, east of the Kitwanga River to the Skeena River. The town of Hazelton, British Columbia is at the range's southeast corner. South of the Skeena River and west of the Bulkley River: Bulkley Ranges, the highest summit is Seven Sisters Peaks, 2,786 m, southwest of Kitwanga, and, the highest summit of the Hazelton Mountains, they include the: Bornite Range Howson Range, the highest summit of, Howson Peak, 2,759 m O. K. Range Rocher Déboulé Range Telkwa Range Tahtsa Ranges, including the: Chikamin Range Kasalka Range Morice Range Sibola Range Tochquonyalla Range Whitesail Range Pattullo Range
North American Cordillera
The North American Cordillera is the North American portion of the American Cordillera, a mountain chain along the western side of the Americas. The North American Cordillera covers an extensive area of mountain ranges, intermontane basins, plateaus in western North America, including much of the territory west of the Great Plains, it is sometimes called the Western Cordillera, the Western Cordillera of North America, or the Pacific Cordillera. The precise boundaries of this cordillera and its subregions, as well as the names of its various features, may differ depending on the definitions in each country or jurisdiction, depending on the scientific field; this cordillera extends from the U. S. state of Alaska to the southern border of Mexico. The North American Cordillera includes some of the highest peaks on the continent, its mountain ranges run north to south along three main belts: the Pacific Coast Ranges in the west, the Nevadan belt in the middle, the Laramide belt in the east. These three orogenic belts arose due to the engagement of tectonic plates which deformed the Earth's lithosphere.
For example, the Laramide orogeny changed the topography of the central Rocky Mountains and adjoining Laramide regions during the Late Cretaceous 80 million years ago. Prior to this time the Rocky Mountain region was occupied by a broad basin. Further topographical evolution occurred during the Eocene and Oligocene, but since that time the region has been stable. Speaking, it will be convenient here to consider these three belts going west to east, north to south. In Alaska, south of the Interior Plains area, is the Rocky Mountain System the Intermontane Basins and Ranges, in the southern part of the state are the Pacific Mountains and Valleys. In the Alaska panhandle, the mainland mountain ranges and offshore islands are extensions of respective ranges further south. In Canada, the North American Cordillera is divided into three physiographic regions: the western system, the interior system, the eastern system; the western system includes the Coast Mountains, the interior system includes the Columbia Mountains, the eastern system includes the Canadian Rockies.
At its midsection between San Francisco and Denver, the North American Cordillera is about 1,000 miles wide, its physiographic provinces at this midpoint are as follows, going from west to east: the Pacific Coast Ranges, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada, the Basin and Range Province, the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains. In the United States, another major feature of the Cordillera is the Columbia Plateau, located north of California between the Cascade Range —, a northern extension of the Sierra Nevada — and the Rocky Mountains. In Mexico, the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sierra Madre Oriental further east, surround the Mexican Plateau. To the west of the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Peninsular Ranges border the Pacific Ocean, the Sierra Madre del Sur is the southern extension of the Peninsular Ranges. Sierra Madre means "Mother Range" in Spanish; the Nevadan belt runs down the middle of the North American Cordillera. Therefore, the intermontane areas of the cordillera can be divided up into the areas east of the Nevadan belt, those west of the Nevadan belt.
The Pacific Coast Ranges, comprising the Pacific Coast Belt, parallel the North American Pacific Coast, comprise several mountain systems. Along the British Columbia and Alaska coast, the mountains intermix with the sea in a complex maze of fjords, with thousands of islands. Off the Southern California coast the Channel Islands archipelago of the Santa Monica Mountains extends for 160 miles. In southern Alaska, the primary mountain ranges are the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, Saint Elias Mountains, Kenai Mountains, Chugach Mountains, Talkeetna Mountains; the Yukon Ranges comprise the mountains in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Alaska and most of the Yukon, Canada. This range has an area of 364,710 km2; the Coast Mountains run from the lower Fraser River and the Fraser Canyon northwestward, separating the Interior Plateau from the Pacific Ocean. Their coastal flank is characterized by an intense network of fjords and associated islands similar to the Norwegian coastline, while their inland side against the plateau they transition to the high plateau in dryland valleys notable for a series of large lakes similar to the alpine lakes of southern Switzerland, beginning in deep mountains and ending in flatland.
They are subdivided in three main groupings, the Pacific Ranges between the Fraser and Bella Coola, the Kitimat Ranges from there northwards to the Nass River and the Boundary Ranges from there to their terminus in the Yukon Territory at Champagne Pass and Chilkat Pass northwest of Haines, Alaska. The Saint Elias Mountains lie to their west and northwest, while the Yukon Ranges and Yukon Basin lie to their north. On the inland side of the Boundary Ranges are the Tahltan and Tagish Highlands and the Skeena Mountains, part of the Interior Mountains system, which extend southwards on the inland side of the Kitimat Ranges; the terrain of the main spine of the Coast Mountains is typified by heavy glaciation, including several large icefields of varying elevation. Of the three subdivisions, the Pacific Ranges are the highest and are crowned by Mount Waddington
Kitlope Heritage Conservancy
The Kitlope Heritage Conservancy or Huchsduwachsdu Nuyem Jees in the Haisla language, is a provincial park located on the Pacific coast of the province of British Columbia, Canada. It preserves the largest continuous tract of coastal temperate rainforest in the world. Beginning at the head of Gardner Canal, the park stretches inland along the Kitlope River to the border of Tweedsmuir Provincial Park; the Kitlope River area is within the ancestral homeland of the Haisla people. The Haisla used the area for hunting and fishing the production of oolichan grease, for which the tribe was famous along the Pacific coast. By the early 1990s, the West Fraser Timber logging company had acquired logging leases for large tracts of forest in the drainage; the Haisla, along with Portland, Oregon-based advocacy group Ecotrust, lobbied the company and the provincial government to place a moratorium on logging in the watershed. In 1994, West Fraser agreed to relinquish its lease without compensation. In consultation with the Haisla Nation, the provincial government established a Protected Area around the Kitlope on February 20, 1996.
In 2008, it was renamed a Conservancy, reflecting the co-management of the park by BC Parks and the Haisla. Conservancies in the park system are a lower level of protection than full Provincial Parks, allowing "low-impact" economic activities such as eco-tourism, but prohibiting heavy industries such as logging, power generation and road construction; the push for a park in the Kitlope valley was part of a larger effort to protect more of the coastal temperate rainforest in B. C. an ecological zone, logged in the south of the province. The Kitlope region is considered part of the Great Bear Rainforest, a term coined by environmental groups; the Conservancy was the first major portion of the GBR to receive protection. The Conservancy covers 322,020 hectares of coastal temperate rainforest, making it the largest such preserve in the world, it lies at the head of the Whidbey Reach of the Gardner Canal, encompasses the drainages of the Kitlope, Gamsby, Tsaytis and Tezwa rivers. During the spring melt, these rivers are subject to heavy flooding and carry large amounts of debris.
Much of the park is mountainous. In the north, they form part of a sub-range of the Tahtsa Ranges. Icefields and glaciers occupy the higher elevations; the valley floors of the park are narrow, most being between one and two kilometres wide. Many, such as the Gamsby valley, are covered by braided channels of gravel deposited by the rivers; the park has one major lake, fed by the Tezwa River and enters the Kitlope River near its estuary. The park is part of a large continuous area of protected wilderness. Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, which abuts Kitlope in the northeast, is the largest protected area in the province; the Fiordland Conservancy protects over 80,000 hectares of coastal fjords on the KHC's western boundary. Together the major parks and several smaller reserves represent over 2.3 million hectares of undeveloped land in a variety of ecological zones. Map of the Conservancy, BC Parks
The Kemano River is a river in the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada. It flows into Kemano Bay on the Gardner Canal near former townsite. List of rivers of British Columbia