Trajan was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Declared by the Senate optimus princeps, Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death, he is known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Trajan was born in the city of an Italic settlement in the province of Hispania Baetica. Although misleadingly designated by some writers as a provincial, his family came from Umbria and he was born a Roman citizen. Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in 89 Trajan supported Domitian against a revolt on the Rhine led by Antonius Saturninus. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army.
After a brief and tumultuous year in power, culminating in a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard, Nerva was compelled to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. He was succeeded by his adopted son without incident; as a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, his conquest of Dacia enriched the empire as the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia, his campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus, he was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian.
As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. In the Renaissance, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus" – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second; as far as ancient literary sources are concerned, an extant continuous account of Trajan's reign does not exist. An account of the Dacian Wars, the Commentarii de bellis Dacicis, written by Trajan himself or a ghostwriter and modelled after Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico, is lost with the exception of one sentence. Only fragments remain of a book by Trajan's personal physician Titos Statilios Kriton.
The Parthiká, a 17-volume account of the Parthian Wars written by Arrian, has met a similar fate. Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. Besides this, Pliny the Younger's Panegyricus and Dio of Prusa's orations are the best surviving contemporary sources. Both are adulatory perorations, typical of the late Roman era, that describe an idealized monarch and an idealized view of Trajan's rule, concern themselves more with ideology than with actual fact; the tenth volume of Pliny's letters contains his correspondence with Trajan, which deals with various aspects of imperial Roman government, but this correspondence is neither intimate nor candid: it is an exchange of official mail, in which Pliny's stance borders on the servile. It is certain that much of the text of the letters that appear in this collection over Trajan's signature was written and/or edited by Trajan's Imperial secretary, his ab epistulis.
Therefore, discussion of Trajan and his rule in modern historiography cannot avoid speculation, as well as recourse to non-literary sources such as archaeology and epigraphy. Marcus Ulpius Traianus was born on 18 September 53 AD in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, in the city of Italica. Although designated the first provincial emperor, dismissed by writers such as Cassius Dio as "an Iberian, neither an Italian nor an Italiot", Trajan appears to have hailed on his father's side from the area of Tuder in Umbria, at the border with Etruria, on his mother's side from the Gens Marcia, of an Italic family of Sabine origin. Trajan's birthplace of Italica was founded as a Roman military colony of Italian settlers in 206 BC, though it is unknown when the Ulpii arrived there, it is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC.
Trajan was the son of Marcia, a Roman noblewoman and sister-in-law of the second Flavian Emperor Titus, Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general f
The Roman army was the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire. It is thus a term that may span 2,206 years, during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.. The Early Roman army was the armed force of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic. During this period, when warfare chiefly consisted of small-scale plundering raids, it has been suggested that the army followed Etruscan or Greek models of organisation and equipment; the early Roman army was based on an annual levy. The infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the commanding authority during the regal period was the high king; until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, the king assumed the role of commander-in-chief.
However, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The commanding position of the army was given to the consuls, "who were charged both singly and jointly to take care to preserve the Republic from danger"; the term legion is derived from the Latin word legio. At first there were only four legions; these legions were numbered "I" to "IIII", with the fourth being written as such and not "IV". The first legion was seen as the most prestigious; the bulk of the army was made up of citizens. These citizens could not choose the legion. Any man "from ages 16–46 were selected by ballot" and assigned to a legion; until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Rome's army was organised to the Greek phalanx. This was due to Greek influence in Italy "by way of their colonies". Patricia Southern quotes ancient historians Livy and Dionysius in saying that the "phalanx consisted of 3,000 infantry and 300 cavalry"; each man had to provide his equipment in battle. Politically they shared the same ranking system in the Comitia Centuriata.
The Roman army of the mid-Republic was known as the "manipular army" or the "Polybian army" after the Greek historian Polybius, who provides the most detailed extant description of this phase. The Roman army started to have a full-time strength of 150,000 at all times and 3/4 of the rest were levied. During this period, the Romans, while maintaining the levy system, adopted the Samnite manipular organisation for their legions and bound all the other peninsular Italian states into a permanent military alliance; the latter were required to supply the same number of troops to joint forces as the Romans to serve under Roman command. Legions in this phase were always accompanied on campaign by the same number of allied alae, units of the same size as legions. After the 2nd Punic War, the Romans acquired an overseas empire, which necessitated standing forces to fight lengthy wars of conquest and to garrison the newly gained provinces, thus the army's character mutated from a temporary force based on short-term conscription to a standing army in which the conscripts were supplemented by a large number of volunteers willing to serve for much longer than the legal six-year limit.
These volunteers were from the poorest social class, who did not have plots to tend at home and were attracted by the modest military pay and the prospect of a share of war booty. The minimum property requirement for service in the legions, suspended during the 2nd Punic War, was ignored from 201 BC onward in order to recruit sufficient volunteers. Between 150-100 BC, the manipular structure was phased out, the much larger cohort became the main tactical unit. In addition, from the 2nd Punic War onward, Roman armies were always accompanied by units of non-Italian mercenaries, such as Numidian light cavalry, Cretan archers, Balearic slingers, who provided specialist functions that Roman armies had lacked; the Roman army of the late Republic marks the continued transition between the conscription-based citizen-levy of the mid-Republic and the volunteer, professional standing forces of the imperial era. The main literary sources for the army's organisation and tactics in this phase are the works of Julius Caesar, the most notable of a series of warlords who contested for power in this period.
As a result of the Social War, all Italians were granted Roman citizenship, the old allied alae were abolished and their members integrated into the legions. Regular annual conscription remained in force and continued to provide the core of legionary recruitment, but an ever-increasing proportion of recruits were volunteers, who signed up for 16-year terms as opposed to the maximum 6 years for conscripts; the loss of ala cavalry reduced Roman/Italian cavalry by 75%, legions became dependent on allied native horse for cavalry cover. This period saw the large-scale expansion of native forces employed to complement the legions, made up of numeri recruited from tribes within Rome's overseas empire and neighbouring allied tribes. Large numbers of heavy infantry and cavalry were recruited in Spain and Thrace, archers in Thrace and Syria. However, these native units were not integrated with the legions, but retained th
Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judaea in AD 117. He was the principal commander against the Jewish rebellion known as the Kitos War; as both a general and a acclaimed commander, he was notably one of the most accomplished Berber statesmen in ancient Roman history. After the death of the emperor Trajan, Quietus was murdered or executed on the orders of Trajan's successor Hadrian. A Berber prince, Lusius' father and his warriors had supported the Roman legions in their attempt to subdue Mauretania Tingitana during Aedemon's revolt in 40, his father's service to Rome, on a notoriously difficult frontier, was honoured with the gift of Roman citizenship for him and his family. His son Lusius joined the Roman army and served as an auxiliary officer in the Roman cavalry. For outstanding service, emperor Domitian rewarded him with equestrian rank but had him dismissed from service for insubordination. Quietus's fortunes were revived once again when a new emperor, came to power. Quietus was brought back into the army and served as one of the emperor's auxiliary cavalry commanders during the Dacian wars.
After the successful conquest of Dacia, Quietus was elevated to the position of senator. He next served with the emperor during his campaign in Parthia during which he led a brilliant rearguard action, which allowed the tactical withdrawal of troops and saved them from destruction; this action ensured he was well known to the army. During the emperor's Parthian campaign in AD 115–116, Quietus sacked the cities of Nisibis and Edessa; when the inhabitants of Babylonia revolted, they were suppressed by Quietus, now rewarded by being appointed governor of Iudaea. Major revolts by diasporic Jews in Cyrene, Cyprus and Egypt resulted in the ransacking of towns and the slaughter of Roman citizens and others by the Jewish rebels, a conflict now known as the Kitos War, after a simplified version of Quietus's name. Quietus methodically set about defeating the rebellions; the emperor Trajan died in the year and was succeeded by Hadrian and the rebellion in Judea was crushed by Quietus. Quietus was murdered in the year and it has been theorized that Quietus was assassinated on the orders of the new emperor, for fear of Quietus' popular standing with the army and his close connections to Trajan.
A Talmudic story relates that the Roman general who defeated the rebellious Jews at this time was executed. Bartolomeo Borghesi, Œuvres, i. 500. 3d ed. iv. 116 et seq. 407 et seq.. 617, 666-670. 308, No. 325. The Berbers p54-55. Blackwell, 1996. ISBN 978-0-631-20767-2 Roman Prefects and Procurators of Iudaea Province, AD 6-132 AD This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore. "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War. Zealotry was the term used by Josephus for a "fourth sect" or "fourth Jewish philosophy" during this period; the term "zealot", the common translation of the Hebrew kanai, means one, zealous on behalf of God. The term derives from Greek ζηλωτής, "emulator, zealous admirer or follower". Josephus' Jewish Antiquities states that there were three main Jewish sects at this time, the Pharisees, the Sadducees, the Essenes; the Zealots were a "fourth sect", founded by Judas of Galilee in the year 6 CE against Quirinius' tax reform, shortly after the Roman Empire declared what had most been the tetrarchy of Herod Archelaus to be a Roman province, that they "agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia article on Zealots: Judah of Gaulanitis is regarded as the founder of the Zealots, who are identified as the proponents of the Fourth Philosophy.
In the original sources, however, no such identification is anywhere made, the question is hardly raised of the relationship between the Sicarii, the upholders of the Fourth Philosophy, the Zealots. Josephus himself in his general survey of the various groups of freedom fighters enumerates the Sicarii first, whereas he mentions the Zealots last. Others have argued that the group was not so marked out as some have thought. Simon the Zealot was listed among the apostles selected by Jesus in the Gospel of Luke and in the Acts of the Apostles. Two of Judas of Galilee's sons and Simon, were involved in a revolt and were executed by Tiberius Alexander, the procurator of Iudaea province from 46 to 48; the Zealots had the leading role in the First Jewish–Roman War. The Zealots objected to Roman rule and violently sought to eradicate it by targeting Romans and Greeks. Another group related, were the Sicarii, who raided Jewish habitations and killed Jews they considered apostate and collaborators, while urging Jews to fight Romans and other Jews for the cause.
Josephus paints a bleak picture of their activities as they instituted what he characterized as a murderous "reign of terror" prior to the Jewish Temple's destruction. According to Josephus, the Zealots followed John of Gischala, who had fought the Romans in Galilee, came to Jerusalem, inspired the locals to a fanatical position that led to the Temple's destruction, they succeeded in taking over Jerusalem, held it until 70, when the son of Roman Emperor Vespasian, retook the city and destroyed Herod's Temple during the destruction of Jerusalem. In the Talmud, the Zealots are the non-religious, are called the Biryonim meaning "boorish", "wild", or "ruffians", are condemned for their aggression, their unwillingness to compromise to save the survivors of besieged Jerusalem, their blind militarism against the rabbis' opinion to seek treaties for peace. However, according to one body of tradition, the rabbis supported the revolt up until the Zealots initiated a civil war, at which point all hope of resisting the Romans was deemed impossible.
The Zealots are further blamed for having contributed to the demise of Jerusalem and the Second Temple, of ensuring Rome's retributions and stranglehold on Judea. According to the Babylonian Talmud, Gittin:56b, the Biryonim destroyed decades' worth of food and firewood in besieged Jerusalem to force the Jews to fight the Romans out of desperation; this event directly led to the escape of Johanan ben Zakai out of Jerusalem, who met Vespasian, a meeting which led to the foundation of the Academy of Jamnia which produced the Mishnah which led to the survival of rabbinical Judaism. The Zealots advocated violence against the Romans, their Jewish collaborators, the Sadducees, by raiding for provisions and other activities to aid their cause. One extreme group a subgroup of the Zealots, was known in Latin as sicarii, meaning "violent men" or "dagger men", because of their policy of killing Jews opposed to their call for war against Rome. Many Zealots were sicarii and they may be the biryonim of the Talmud that were feared by the Jewish sages of the Mishnah.
According to historian Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson, the Sicarii based in Galilee, "were fighting for a social revolution, while the Jerusalem Zealots placed less stress on the social aspect" and the Sicarii "never attached themselves to one particular family and never proclaimed any of their leaders king". Both groups objected to the way. Taking the Greek word zelotes in Acts 22:3 and Galatians 1:14 of the New Testament to mean a'Zealot' with capital Z, an article by Mark R. Fairchild suggests that Paul the Apostle may have been a Zealot, which might have been the driving force behind his persecution of the Christians before his conversion to Christianity, his incident at Antioch after his conversion. While most English translations of the Bible render this Greek word as the adjective "zealous", the word is a noun meaning'adherent, enthusiast. A'Zealot' with capital Z, howev
Judea or Judæa is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of the region of Palestine. The name originates from the Hebrew name Yehudah, a son of the Jewish patriarch Jacob/Israel, Yehudah's progeny forming the biblical Israelite tribe of Judah and the associated Kingdom of Judah, which the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia dates from 934 until 586 BCE; the name of the region continued to be incorporated through the Babylonian conquest, Persian and Roman periods as Yehud, Yehud Medinata, Hasmonean Judea, Herodian Judea and Roman Judea, respectively. As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian. A large part of Judea was included in Jordanian West Bank between 1948 and 1967; the term Judea as a geographical term was revived by the Israeli government in the 20th century as part of the Israeli administrative district name Judea and Samaria Area for the territory referred to as the West Bank.
The name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name "Judah", which encompassed the territory of the Israelite tribe of that name and of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c.733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah. Judea was sometimes used as the name including parts beyond the river Jordan. In 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius, described "Nazara" as a village in Judea."Judea" was a name used by English speakers for the hilly internal part of Palestine until the Jordanian rule of the area in 1948. For example, the borders of the two states to be established according to the UN's 1947 partition scheme were described using the terms "Judea" and "Samaria" and in its reports to the League of Nations Mandatory Committee, as in 1937, the geographical terms employed were "Samaria and Judea". Jordan called the area ad-difa’a al-gharbiya. "Yehuda" is the Hebrew term used for the area in modern Israel since the region was captured and occupied by Israel in 1967.
The classical Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote: In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea; the southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa; the city Jerusalem is situated in the middle. Nor indeed is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais: it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, presided over all the neighboring country, as the head does over the body; as to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies. This country begins at Mount Libanus, the fountains of Jordan, reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias, its inhabitants are a mixture of Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, those that lie round about it.
Judea is a mountainous region, part of, considered a desert. It varies in height, rising to an altitude of 1,020 m in the south at Mount Hebron, 30 km southwest of Jerusalem, descending to as much as 400 m below sea level in the east of the region, it varies in rainfall, starting with about 400–500 millimetres in the western hills, rising to 600 millimetres around western Jerusalem, falling back to 400 millimetres in eastern Jerusalem and dropping to around 100 millimetres in the eastern parts, due to a rainshadow effect. The climate, moves between Mediterranean in the west and desert climate in the east, with a strip of steppe climate in the middle. Major urban areas in the region include Jerusalem, Gush Etzion and Hebron. Geographers divide Judea into several regions: the Hebron hills, the Jerusalem saddle, the Bethel hills and the Judean desert east of Jerusalem, which descends in a series of steps to the Dead Sea; the hills are distinct for their anticline structure. In ancient times the hills were forested, the Bible records agriculture and sheep farming being practiced in the area.
Animals are still grazed today, with shepherds moving them between the low ground to the hilltops as summer approaches, while the slopes are still layered with centuries-old stone terracing. The Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended in the devastation of vast areas of the Judaean countryside. Mount Hazor marks the geographical boundary between Samaria to Judea to its south; the early history of Judah is uncertain.
Legio XII Fulminata
The Legio duodecima Fulminata known as Paterna, Antiqua, Certa Constans, Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC; the unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt. In centuries it came to be called but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the Thundering Legion; the Twelfth legion, as it is better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians, also in the Siege of Alesia. The Twelfth fought at the Battle of Pharsalus. After Caesar won the civil war, the legion was named Victrix, enlisted in 43 BC by Lepidus and Mark Anthony. Mark Anthony led the Twelfth, renamed XII Antiqua during his campaign against the Parthian Empire. During the latest part of Augustus' principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, they were the Lost Legion in Syria. From his eastern Parthian Empire in present-day Iran and Iraq, King Vologeses I in 58 AD invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome.
Emperor Nero ordered the new Legate of Cappadocia, to manage the matter. Corbulo ordered Legion IV Scythica from Moesia, along with the III Gallica and VI Ferrata defeated the Parthians, restoring Tigranes VI to the Armenian throne. In 62 AD, the XII Fulminata joined the IV Scythica, now commanded by the new Legate of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus. Both legions were defeated by the Armenians at the battle of Rhandeia. In 66, after a Zealot revolt had destroyed the Roman garrison in Jerusalem, the XII Fulminata, with vexillationes of IV Scythica and VI Ferrata, were sent to retaliate; this force was sent back by Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria, when he recognized the legion was too weak. On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon in the Battle of Beth Horon losing its aquila. However, XII Fulminata fought well in the last part of the war, supported its commander T. Flavius Vespasian in his successful bid for the imperial throne. At the end of the war, XII Fulminata and XVI Flavia Firma were sent to guard the Euphrates border, camping at Melitene.
In 75 AD, the XII Fulminata was in the Caucasus, where Emperor Vespasian had sent the legion to support the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania. An inscription from this period has been found in modern-day Azerbaijan which reads: IMP DOMITIANO CAESARE AVG GERMANIC, LVCIVS IVLIVS MAXIMVS, LEG XII FVL Translation: Imp Domitian Caesar Aug'Germanic', Lucius Julius Maximus, Leg XII Ful; some historians argue that the settlement of Ramana near Baku was founded by the Roman troops of Lucius Julius Maximus from Legio XII Fulminata in circa 84-96 AD and derives its name from the Latin Romana. Facts that strengthen this hypothesis include: a military-topographical map of the Caucasus published in 1903 by Russian administrators, which refers to the town as "Romana"; the legion was in Armenia during Trajan's campaign of 114 AD, that ended with the annexation of the Kingdom of Armenia. In 134, the threat of the Alans was subdued by the governor of Cappadocia, who defeated the invaders with the aid of XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris.
The Twelfth fought in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus, in 162-166, if a mixed unit of XII and XV controlled for some time the newly conquered Armenian capital Artaxata. Emperor Marcus Aurelius commanded the XII Fulminata in his campaign against the Quadi, a people inhabiting an area in modern-day Slovakia, an episode of a miraculous rain and lightning saving a Twelfth subunit from defeat is reported by the sources. At this time, most of the Twelfth was composed chiefly of Christians. There was a belief that this had led to the emperor issuing a decree forbidding the persecution of the Christians, but this seems to have been based on a forgery. In 175, the legion was in Melitene. After the death of Emperor Pertinax, 193, XII Fulminata supported the governor of Syria, Pescennius Niger, in the end defeated by Emperor Septimius Severus; when the Eastern frontier of the Empire was moved from the Euphrates to the Tigris, the Twelfth stayed in the reserve as a punishment for its support of Severus' rival.
The region around Melitene was one of the first. Polyeuctes is a martyr under Valerian, a soldier of the Twelfth; the Sassanid Empire was a major threat to the Roman power in the East. King Shapur II conquered the base of the XV Apollinaris and sacked Trapezus. Emperor Valerian was defeated and captured; the defeat caused the partial collapse of the Empire, with the secessionistic Gallic Empire in the West and Palmyrene Empire in the East. It is known that the XII Fulminata was under the command of Odaenathus, ruler of the Palmyrene Empire, but that Emperor Gallienus awarded the legion with the cognomen Galliena. After these episodes, the records of the Fulminata are scarce; the Palmyrene Empire was reconquered by Aurelian. The Twelfth, which took part to these campaigns, is recorded guarding the frontier of the Eup
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon