Hermine Kittel was an Austrian contralto from Vienna. She studied singing with Amalie Materna in Vienna, she made her operatic debut in 1897 in Ljubljana. Kittle first sang under Gustav Mahler at the Vienna Hofoper and premiered in a revision of Ariadne auf Naxos, she sang at the Bayreuth Festival in 1908, where she sang Erda in Der Ring des Nibelungen. She sang at the Salzburg Festival, where she played Marcellina in The Marriage of Figaro, she was married to opera singer Alexander Haydter, her brother Karl Kittel was a conductor. 1941: Aufruhr im Damenstift David Cummings. "Hermine Kittel", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com. Ludwig Eisenberg: Großes biographisches Lexikon der Deutschen Bühne im XIX. Jahrhundert. Verlag von Paul List, Leipzig 1903, S. 509. Template:OeML Template:BMLO Template:Operissimo Template:WiSo Name Hermine Kittel discography at Discogs Template:IMDb Hermine Kittel Hermine Kittel und Elise Elizza singen die Barcarole aus Hoffmanns Erzählungen Hermine Kittel Tonaufnahme aus dem Archiv der Österreichischen Mediathek
August Wilson was an American playwright whose work included a series of ten plays, The Pittsburgh Cycle, for which he received two Pulitzer Prizes for Drama. Each work in the series is set in a different decade, depicts comic and tragic aspects of the African-American experience in the 20th century. Wilson was born Frederick August Kittel Jr. in the Hill District of Pittsburgh, the fourth of six children. His father, Frederick August Kittel Sr. was a Sudeten German immigrant, a baker/pastry cook. His mother, Daisy Wilson, was an African-American woman from North Carolina who cleaned homes for a living. Wilson's anecdotal history reports that his maternal grandmother walked from North Carolina to Pennsylvania in search of a better life. Wilson's mother raised the children alone until he was five in a two-room apartment above a grocery store at 1727 Bedford Avenue. Wilson wrote under his mother's surname; the economically depressed neighborhood where he was raised was inhabited predominantly by black Americans and Jewish and Italian immigrants.
Wilson's mother divorced his father and married David Bedford in the 1950s, the family moved from the Hill District to the predominantly white working-class neighborhood of Hazelwood, where they encountered racial hostility. They were soon forced out on to their next home. In 1959, Wilson was one of fourteen African-American students at Central Catholic High School, from which he dropped out after one year, he attended Connelley Vocational High School, but found the curriculum unchallenging. He dropped out of Gladstone High School in the 10th grade in 1960 after his teacher accused him of plagiarizing a 20-page paper he wrote on Napoleon I of France. Wilson hid his decision from his mother. At the age of 16 he began working menial jobs, where he met a wide variety of people on whom some of his characters were based, such as Sam in The Janitor Wilson's extensive use of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh resulted in its "awarding" him an honorary high school diploma. Wilson, who said he had learned to read at the age of 4, began reading black writers at the library when he was 12 and spent the remainder of his teen years educating himself through the books of Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, Arna Bontemps, others.
Wilson knew that he wanted to be a writer, but this created tension with his mother, who wanted him to become a lawyer. She forced him to leave the family home and he enlisted in the United States Army for a three-year stint in 1962, but left after one year and went back to working various odd jobs as a porter, short-order cook and dishwasher. Frederick August Kittel Jr. changed his name to August Wilson to honor his mother after his father's death in 1965. That same year, he discovered the blues as sung by Bessie Smith, he bought a stolen typewriter for $10, which he pawned when money was tight. At 20, he submitted work to such magazines as Harper's, he began to write in bars, the local cigar store, cafes—longhand on table napkins and on yellow notepads, absorbing the voices and characters around him. He liked to write on cafe napkins because, he said, it freed him up and made him less self-conscious as a writer, he would gather the notes and type them up at home. Gifted with a talent for catching dialect and accents, Wilson had an "astonishing memory", which he put to full use during his career.
He learned not to censor the language he heard when incorporating it into his work. Malcolm X's voice influenced Wilson's work. Both the Nation of Islam and the Black Power spoke to him regarding self-sufficiency, self-defense, self-determination, he appreciated the origin myths that Elijah Muhammad supported. In 1969 Wilson married Brenda Burton, a Muslim, converted to Islam, he and Brenda had one daughter, Sakina Ansari-Wilson, divorced in 1972. In 1968, he co-founded the Black Horizon Theater in the Hill District of Pittsburgh along with his friend Rob Penny. Wilson's first play, was performed for audiences in small theaters and public housing community centers for 50 cents a ticket. Among these early efforts was Jitney, which he revised more than two decades as part of his 10-play cycle on 20th-century Pittsburgh, he had no directing experience. He recalled: "Someone had looked around and said,'Who's going to be the director?' I said,'I will.' I said. So I went to look for a book on. I found one called The Fundamentals of Play Directing and checked it out."In 1976 Vernell Lillie, who had founded the Kuntu Repertory Theatre at the University of Pittsburgh two years earlier, directed Wilson's The Homecoming.
That same year Wilson saw Sizwe Banzi is Dead at the Pittsburgh Public Theater, his first professional play. Wilson and poet Maisha Baton started the Kuntu Writers Workshop to bring African-American writers together and to assist them in publication and production. Both organizations are still active. In 1978 Wilson moved to Saint Paul, Minnesota, at the suggestion of his friend, director Claude Purdy, who helped him secure a job writing educational scripts for the Science Museum of Minnesota. In 1980 he received a fellowship for The Playwrights' Center in Minneapolis, he continued writing plays. For three years, he was a part-time cook for the Little Brothers of the Poor. Wilson had a long association with the Penumbra Theatre Company of St. Paul, which premiered some of his plays, he wro
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Otto Kittel was a German fighter pilot during World War II. He flew 583 combat missions on the Eastern Front, claiming 267 aerial victories, making him the fourth highest scoring ace in aviation history according to authors John Weal and Jerry Scutts. Kittel claimed all of his victories against the Red Air Force. Kittel joined the Luftwaffe in 1939, and, in spring 1941, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 54 supporting Army Group North on the Eastern Front, he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 29 October 1943, for reaching 120 aerial victories. During the remainder of World War II, Kittel was credited with 144 more aerial victories and was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords, he was shot down by Soviet aircraft and killed in February 1945. Kittel was the most successful German fighter pilot to be killed in action. Kittel was born on 21 February 1917 in Austria-Hungary. After working as an auto mechanic, Kittel joined the Luftwaffe in 1939. Kittel married his fiancé, Edith, in June 1942.
Kittel's first operations were air superiority missions in support of the German invasion of Yugoslavia, including the bombing of Belgrade, which killed up to 17,000 civilians, destroyed the National Library of Serbia, damaged the Belgrade Zoo. For Operation Barbarossa, JG 54 was moved to East Prussia, in early June 1941; the unit supported Army Group North in its advance through the Baltic states towards Leningrad. On 24 June 1941, Kittel claimed two Tupolev SB-2 bombers, his tally had risen to 19 by May 1942. On 19 February 1943, Kittel achieved his 39th victory. During the fighting in 1943, JG 54 took part in the spring battles over the Crimea Peninsula, Vyazma-Bryansk, Kharkov and Orel regions. During the Battle of Kursk, Kittel's unit escorted Junkers Ju 87 Stukas of a dive bomber wing commanded by Hans-Ulrich Rudel. On 14 September 1943, Kittel claimed a Yakovlev Yak-9 fighter; the 53rd Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark, he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 29 October 1943.
On 1 November 1943, Kittel was promoted to the rank of Leutnant. In early April 1944, Kittel achieved his 150th aerial victory. On April 14, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves for his 152nd aerial victory, claimed on 12 April. Kittel received the Oak Leaves from Adolf Hitler at the Berghof on 5 May 1944. In May 1944, the 2 wing was transferred to augment the 3rd group of JG 54 fighting on the Western Front to provide air defense over Germany against Allied aerial attacks. In August 1944, Kittel was appointed squadron leader. Kittel was credited with his 200th aerial victory on 23 August 1944, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords on 25 November 1944. On 14 or 16 February 1945, Kittel took off with his wing flying Fw 190 to engage a formation of 14 Shturmovik aircraft over the Courland Pocket, his wingman reported that his aircraft was hit, descended towards the ground on fire and crashed in flames. The site of the crash is believed to have been 6 kilometers south-west of Džūkste in Latvia.
Matthews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims, researched the German Federal Archives and found records for 265 aerial victory claims, plus three further unconfirmed claims. All of his aerial victories were claimed on the Eastern Front. Victory claims were logged to a map-reference, for example "PQ 44793"; the Luftwaffe grid map covered all of Europe, western Russia and North Africa and was composed of rectangles measuring 15 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude, an area of about 360 square miles. These sectors were subdivided into 36 smaller units to give a location area 3 × 4 km in size. Wound Badge in Black Honorary Cup of the Luftwaffe on 21 December 1942 as Feldwebel and pilot Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold with Pennant "500" Combined Pilots-Observation Badge German Cross in Gold on 18 March 1943 as Feldwebel in the 2./Jagdgeschwader 54 Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords Knight's Cross on 29 October 1943 as Oberfeldwebel and pilot in the 2./Jagdgeschwader 54 449th Oak Leaves on 11 April 1944 as Leutnant pilot in the 1./Jagdgeschwader 54 113th Swords on 25 November 1944 as Oberleutnant and Staffelkapitän of the 2./Jagdgeschwader 54 Henning, Bastian.
"An einem Waldrand enden die Spuren". Badische Zeitung. Retrieved 18 February 2016
Marcel Kittel is a German racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Katusha–Alpecin. As a junior, he specialised in time trials winning a bronze medal in the World Championships for cyclists aged under 23; when he became a professional in 2011, he specialised in bunch sprints, he has won stages in each of the three Grand Tours. Kittel made his professional debut in 2011 with the Dutch team Skil–Shimano. Known as a time trial specialist at the time, he won a bunch sprint during the Tour de Langkawi. After the success he decided to become a sprinter, he won four out of five stages in the Four Days of Dunkirk, all in bunch sprints. Kittel won his first World Tour stage, winning the opening stage of the Tour de Pologne, a race where he won three other stages, he made his Grand Tour debut in the Vuelta a España, where he won the seventh stage beating Peter Sagan and Óscar Freire. He finished the season off by winning two stages at the Herald Sun Tour. Kittel became the second most winning rider in 2011 - winning 17 races and stages.
Kittel made his Tour de France debut in 2012 when he was selected as leader of his team, where he would compete for stage wins and the green jersey. However he withdrew an hour into stage 5, after suffering from a viral infection of the stomach and intestines from stage 2, the fourth retirement of the 2012 Tour, he bounced back in the beginning of August, when he won the first stage of the Eneco Tour, the first event in his return to racing. The only rider, competitive with him in the final bunch sprint was Frenchman Arnaud Démare. After bad luck struck on stage 3, where he suffered a flat tyre with 5 kilometres to go, Kittel prevailed again on stage 4, he congratulated his teammates Tom Veelers and John Degenkolb for their work in the final kilometres, as they sheltered him from the wind before he propelled himself toward the finish line and the victory. At the end of 2012, as the cycling world was affected by the Lance Armstrong doping case revelations, Kittel took a vocal anti-doping stance by stating that he was "sick" of the people who still defended Armstrong in the cycling community.
In 2013, Kittel's team Argos–Shimano was promoted to the first division of the sport and was granted World Tour status. Kittel won the first stage of the Tour of Oman in his first success of the season. In the Tour de France, Kittel found success as a sprinter, he finished first in the Tour's first stage in Corsica and took the inaugural maillot jaune of the 100th Tour de France. He lost the yellow jersey the next day, however, to Jan Bakelants of RadioShack–Leopard. Kittel was not done in this Tour, though, he would go on to win the 12th stages. On the final stage, Kittel triumphed again on the Champs-Élysées, ending the four-year winning streak of Omega Pharma–Quick-Step rider Mark Cavendish, he would finish 4th in the Green Jersey points standings. Kittel started the 2014 season early by winning the People's Choice Classic, followed by three consecutive stage wins at the Dubai Tour. On the third stage, he survived two short climbs near the end of the race and won the sprint of a reduced group.
In April he won the Scheldeprijs for the third time in a row, being the first person in history to achieve this. In the Giro d'Italia, Kittel won stages 2 and 3 before abandoning the race between stage 3 and 4; as he did in 2013, Kittel won the opening stage at the Tour de France and took the yellow jersey, but lost it to Vincenzo Nibali on stage 2. However, Kittel won both stages 3 and 4, he won the final stage 21 on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, as he did in 2013. In September, Kittel won the opening stage of the Tour of Britain by outsprinting Nicola Ruffoni and Mark Cavendish, he won the closing stage. In January, Kittel won the People's Choice Classic in Australia for the second year in a row. By the end of April, he had competed in only two UCI races: the Tour Down Under and the Tour of Qatar, he failed to participate in any sprints in those races. He returned to competition in May in the Tour de Yorkshire, but he dropped out after riding 100 kilometres in the first stage, he was supposed to make another comeback at the Tour of California but he withdrew days before the event, citing illness once again.
He could not finish in the top 10 of a stage. At the end of June, it was announced that Kittel would not participate in the Tour de France, since his condition was not up to par. "Not being nominated is without doubt the most difficult time of my career," said Kittel a day after his non-selection was made public. In October, it was announced that he had signed a two-year deal with Etixx–Quick-Step from 2016, after Team Giant–Alpecin released him from his contract a year early. At the Dubai Tour, his inaugural race of the season, he won two stages, the overall classification as well as the points classification, he carried on his successes to the Portuguese race Volta ao Algarve, winning stage 1 by a significant margin over André Greipel. He won stage 4 and the points classification jersey. Kittel won five stages in the Tour de France, bringing his total of Tour de France stage victories to fourteen. For the third year in a row, he chose to start his season at the Dubai Tour, but was unable to win any stages.
Kittel took two wins in the 2018 season, both of -- Adriatico. Source: Official website Marcel Kittel at ProCyclingStats Marcel Kittel at Cycling Archives Marcel Kittel at CQ Ranking Marcel Kittel profile at Giant-Shimano
Gerhard Kittel was a German Lutheran theologian and lexicographer of biblical languages. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Nazis. and an open antisemite. He is best known in the field of Biblical study for his Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament; the son of Old Testament scholar Rudolf Kittel, he married Hanna Untermeier in 1914, but there were no children from the union. In May 1933, he joined the Nazi Party, he had had no previous involvement in politics but called the Party "a folkish renewal movement on a Christian, moral foundation". In 1945, after Hitler's Third Reich capitulated to the Allies, Kittel was arrested by the French occupying forces, removed from office and interned at Balingen. In his own defense, Kittel maintained his work was "scientific in method" and motivated by Christianity, although it may have appeared antisemitic to some, he attempted to distinguish his work from the "vulgar antisemitism of Nazi propaganda" like Der Stürmer and Alfred Rosenberg, known for his anti-Christian rhetoric, völkisch arguments and emphasis on Lebensraum.
So, Kittel admitted that he had attempted to "grapple with the problem of Jewry and the Jewish question."Professor Martin Dibelius, a theologian at Heidelberg, wrote that Kittel's works related to ancient Judaism "are of purely scientific character" and "do not serve the Party interpretation of Judaism." He said further that Kittel deserved "the thanks of all who are interested in the scientific study of Judaism."Claus Schedl, who attended Kittel's lectures on the Jewish Question in the winter of 1941–1942 in Vienna, said that "one heard not a single word of malice" and that "Professor Kittel did not collaborate." Schedl says that Kittel was one of few scholars who promoted an opinion on the Jewish Question other than the official one. Kittel himself said his goal was to combat the myths and distortions of extremist members of the Nazi Party. Annemarie Tugendhat was a Christian Jew whose father had been taken to the concentration camp Welzheim in 1938, she testified that Kittel had objected against the actions being taken against Jews.
Kittel's work on the Jewish Question was not based on the racial theories of Nazism but upon theology. In 1946, Kittel was released pending his trial, but was forbidden to enter Tübingen until 1948. From 1946–48 he was a pastor in Beuron. In 1948, he was allowed back into Tübingen, but died that year before the criminal proceedings against him could be resumed. For the Third Reich, he produced antisemitic propaganda posing as scholarship. A Professor of Evangelical Theology and New Testament at the University of Tübingen, he published studies depicting the Jewish people as the historical enemy of Germany and European culture in general. In a lecture of June 1933 Die Judenfrage, that soon appeared in print, he spoke for the stripping of citizenship from German Jews, their removal from medicine, law and journalism, to forbid marriage or sexual relations with non-Jews—thus anticipating by two years the Nazi government, which introduced its Nuremberg Racial Laws and took away Jewish rights of German citizenship in 1935.
A close friend of Walter Frank, Kittel joined Frank's Reichsinstitut für Geschichte des neuen Deutschlands, a politicised organisation that claimed to be involved in scholarship, upon its foundation in 1935. Within this institute he was attached to the antisemitic Forschungsabteilung judenfrage. William F. Albright wrote that, "In view of the terrible viciousness of his attacks on Judaism and the Jews, which continues at least until 1943, Gerhard Kittel must bear the guilt of having contributed more than any other Christian theologian to the mass murder of Jews by Nazis." Die Oden Salomos überarbeitet oder einheitlich, 1914 Jesus und die Rabbinen, 1914 Die Probleme des palästinensischen Spätjudentums und das Urchristentum, 1926 Urchristentum, Spätjudentum, Hellenismus, 1926 Die Religionsgeschichte und das Urchristentum, 1932 Founder and co-editor of the Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, 5 vols. 1933–1979 Ein theologischer Briefwechsel mit Karl Barth (A theological correspondence with Karl Barth, 1934 with Karl Barth Christus und Imperator, 1939 Das Antike Weltjudentum – Forschungen zur Judenfrage, 1943 with Eugen Fischer.
Christof Dahm. "Kittel, Gerhard". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 3. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 1544–1546. ISBN 3-88309-035-2. Gerhard Kittel by Textus Receptus
Heinrich Kittel was a German general during World War II who commanded the 462nd Infantry Division. As a POW, he was interned at Trent Park, where his conversations with fellow inmates were surreptitiously recorded by the British intelligence. Appointed commander of the 462nd Infantry Division on 8 November 1944, he led it during the Battle of Metz until his wounding in action on 22 November 1944. Made a prisoner of war when the field hospital he was in was overrun by American forces, he was held in captivity until 1947. According to a review of Soldaten: Secret WWII Transcripts of German POWs by Sönke Neitzel and Harald Welzer, Kittel's transcripts illustrate his culpable passivity while observing mass executions without intervening at all despite his rank: "Kittel:'They seized three-year-old children by the hair, held them up and shot them with a pistol and threw them in. I saw that for myself. One could watch it; the Latvians and the German soldiers were just standing there, looking on'." Kittel, according to the reviewer, ignobly criminally, failed to act, despite the presumption that his high rank could have enabled him to do so.
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 12 August 1944 as Generalmajor and combat commander of Lemberg