Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603 or 1604. Published in the First Folio of 1623, where it was listed as a comedy, the play's first recorded performance occurred in 1604; the play's main themes include justice, "morality and mercy in Vienna," and the dichotomy between corruption and purity: "some rise by sin, some by virtue fall." Mercy and virtue prevail, as the play does not end tragically, with virtues such as compassion and forgiveness being exercised at the end of the production. While the play focuses on justice overall, the final scene illustrates that Shakespeare intended for moral justice to temper strict civil justice: a number of the characters receive understanding and leniency, instead of the harsh punishment to which they, according to the law, could have been sentenced. Measure for Measure is called one of Shakespeare's problem plays, it continues to be classified as a comedy, albeit a dark one, though its tone may defy those expectations.
Vincentio, the Duke of Vienna, makes it known that he intends to leave the city on a diplomatic mission. He leaves the government in the hands of Angelo. In the next scene, we find a group of soldiers on a Vienna street, expressing their hopes, in irreverent banter, that a war with Hungary is afoot, that they will be able to take part. Mistress Overdone, the operator of a brothel frequented by these same soldiers and tells them "there's one yonder arrested and carried to prison was worth five thousand of you all." She tells them that it is "Signor Claudio," and that "within these three days his head to be chopped off" as punishment for "getting Madam Julietta with child." Lucio, one of the soldiers, revealed to be Claudio's friend, is astonished at this news and rushes off. Comes Pompey Bum, who works for Mistress Overdone as a pimp, but disguises his profession by describing himself as a mere'tapster', avers to the imprisonment of Claudio and outrageously explains his crime as "Groping for trouts in a peculiar river."
He informs Mistress Overdone of Angelo's new proclamation, that "All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must be plucked down." The brothels in the city "shall stand for seed: they had gone down too, but that a wise burgher put in for them." Mistress Overdone is distraught. "What shall become of me?" she asks. Pompey replies with a characteristic mixture of bawdy humor and folk-wisdom, "fear you not: good counselors lack no clients: though you change your place, you need not change your trade... Courage! There will be pity taken on you: you that have worn your eyes out in the service, you will be considered." Claudio is led past Pompey and Overdone on his way to prison, explains what has happened to him. Claudio married Juliet, but, as they have not completed all the strict legal technicalities, they were still considered to be unmarried when Juliet became pregnant. Angelo, as the interim ruler of the city, decides to enforce a law that fornication is punishable by death, so Claudio is sentenced to be executed.
Claudio's friend, visits Claudio's sister, Isabella, a novice nun, asks her to intercede with Angelo on Claudio's behalf. Isabella obtains an audience with Angelo, pleads for mercy for Claudio. Over the course of two scenes between Angelo and Isabella, it becomes clear that he lusts after her, he offers her a deal: Angelo will spare Claudio's life if Isabella yields him her virginity. Isabella refuses, but when she threatens to publicly expose his lechery, he tells her that no one will believe her because his reputation is too austere, she visits her brother in prison and counsels him to prepare himself for death. Claudio begs Isabella to save his life, but Isabella refuses, she believes that it would be wrong for her to sacrifice her own immortal soul to save Claudio's transient earthly life. The Duke has not in fact left the city, but remains there disguised as a friar in order to secretly view the city's affairs the effects of Angelo's strict enforcement of the law. In his guise as a friar, he befriends Isabella and arranges two tricks to thwart Angelo's evil intentions: First, a "bed trick" is arranged.
Angelo has refused to fulfill the betrothal binding him to Mariana, because her dowry had been lost at sea. Isabella sends word to Angelo that she has decided to submit to him, but making it a condition of their meeting that it occur in perfect darkness and in silence. Mariana agrees to take Isabella's place, she has sex with Angelo, although he continues to believe he has enjoyed Isabella. After having sex with Mariana, Angelo goes back on his word, sending a message to the prison that he wishes to see Claudio's head, necessitating the "head trick." The Duke first attempts to arrange the execution of another prisoner whose head can be sent instead of Claudio's. However, the villain Barnardine refuses to be executed in his drunken state; as luck would have it, a pirate named Ragozine, of similar appearance to Claudio, has died of a fever, so his head is sent to Angelo instead. This main plot concludes with the'return' to Vienna of the Duke as himself. Isabella and Mariana publicly petition him, he hears their claims against Angelo, which Angelo smoothly denies.
As the scene develops, it appears that Friar Lodowick will be blamed for the'false' accusations leveled against Ang
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1602. Set in Denmark, the play depicts Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others", it was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and still ranks among his most performed, topping the performance list of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch—and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella"; the story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as subsequently retold by the 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest.
Shakespeare may have drawn on an earlier Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet, though some scholars believe Shakespeare wrote the Ur-Hamlet revising it to create the version of Hamlet we now have. He certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant: the First Quarto; each version includes entire scenes missing from the others. The play's structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a plot device to prolong the action but which others argue is a dramatisation of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, thwarted desire. More psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.
The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the deceased King Hamlet, nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. Claudius hastily married King Hamlet's widow, Hamlet's mother, took the throne for himself. Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, in which King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle some years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbras's infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian king's son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle, the sentries Bernardo and Marcellus discuss a ghost resembling the late King Hamlet which they have seen, bring Prince Hamlet's friend Horatio as a witness. After the ghost appears again, the three vow to tell Prince Hamlet; as the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, Hamlet looks on glumly.
During the court, Claudius grants permission for Polonius's son Laertes to return to school in France and sends envoys to inform the King of Norway about Fortinbras. Claudius scolds Hamlet for continuing to grieve over his father and forbids him to return to his schooling in Wittenberg. After the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his mother's hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself; as Polonius's son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim "to thine own self be true." Polonius's daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, but Laertes warns her against seeking the prince's attention, Polonius orders her to reject his advances. That night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees, the ghost vanishes; the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to "put an antic disposition on", or act as though he has gone mad, forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret.
However, he remains uncertain of the ghost's reliability. Soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving erratically. Polonius resolves to inform Claudius and Gertrude; as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlet's mood and behaviour. Additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard: messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his father's battles; the forces that Fortinbras had conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, though they will pass through Danish territory to get there. Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlet's behaviour and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information.
Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while. When Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his "friends" warm
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
Othello is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603. It is based on the story Un Capitano Moro by Cinthio, a disciple of Boccaccio, first published in 1565; the story revolves around its two central characters: Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army and his unfaithful ensign, Iago. Given its varied and enduring themes of racism, jealousy, betrayal and repentance, Othello is still performed in professional and community theatre alike, has been the source for numerous operatic and literary adaptations. Roderigo, a wealthy and dissolute gentleman, complains to his friend Iago, an ensign, that Iago has not told him about the secret marriage between Desdemona, the daughter of a senator named Brabantio, Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army. Roderigo is upset because he had asked her father for her hand in marriage. Iago hates Othello for promoting a younger man named Cassio above him, whom Iago considers less capable a soldier than himself, tells Roderigo that he plans to exploit Othello for his own advantage.
Iago convinces Roderigo to tell him about his daughter's elopement. Meanwhile, Iago warns him that Brabantio is coming for him. Brabantio, provoked by Roderigo, is enraged and will not rest until he has confronted Othello, but he finds Othello's residence full of the Duke of Venice's guards, who prevent violence. News has arrived in Venice that the Turks are going to attack Cyprus, Othello is therefore summoned to advise the senators. Brabantio has no option but to accompany Othello to the Duke's residence, where he accuses Othello of seducing Desdemona by witchcraft. Othello defends himself before the Duke of Venice, Brabantio's kinsmen Lodovico and Gratiano, various senators. Othello explains that Desdemona became enamoured of him for the sad and compelling stories he told of his life before Venice, not because of any witchcraft; the senate is satisfied, once Desdemona confirms that she loves Othello, but Brabantio leaves saying that Desdemona will betray Othello: "Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see:/She has deceived her father, may thee,".
Iago, still in the room, takes note of Brabantio's remark. By order of the Duke, Othello leaves Venice to command the Venetian armies against invading Turks on the island of Cyprus, accompanied by his new wife, his new lieutenant Cassio, his ensign Iago, Iago's wife, Emilia, as Desdemona's attendant; the party arrives in Cyprus to find. Othello orders a general leaves to consummate his marriage with Desdemona. In his absence, Iago gets Cassio drunk, persuades Roderigo to draw Cassio into a fight. Montano tries to calm down an angry and drunk Cassio. Montano is injured in the fight. Othello questions the men as to what happened. Othello strips him of his rank. Cassio is distraught. Iago persuades Cassio to ask Desdemona to convince her husband to reinstate Cassio. Iago now persuades Othello to be suspicious of Desdemona; when Desdemona drops a handkerchief, Emilia finds it, gives it to her husband Iago, at his request, unaware of what he plans to do with it. Othello reenters and vows with Iago for the death of Desdemona and Cassio, after which he makes Iago his lieutenant.
Act III, scene iii is considered to be the turning point of the play as it is the scene in which Iago sows the seeds of doubt in Othello's mind sealing Othello's fate. Iago plants the handkerchief in Cassio's lodgings tells Othello to watch Cassio's reactions while Iago questions him. Iago goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with Bianca, a local courtesan, but whispers her name so that Othello believes the two men are talking about Desdemona. Bianca accuses Cassio of giving her a second-hand gift which he had received from another lover. Othello sees this, Iago convinces him that Cassio received the handkerchief from Desdemona. Enraged and hurt, Othello tells Iago to kill Cassio. Othello proceeds to make Desdemona's life miserable and strikes her in front of visiting Venetian nobles. Meanwhile, Roderigo complains that he has received no results from Iago in return for his money and efforts to win Desdemona, but Iago convinces him to kill Cassio. Roderigo, having been manipulated by Iago, attacks Cassio in the street after Cassio leaves Bianca's lodgings.
Cassio wounds Roderigo. During the scuffle, Iago badly cuts his leg. In the darkness, Iago manages to hide his identity, when Lodovico and Gratiano hear Cassio's cries for help, Iago joins them; when Cassio identifies Roderigo as one of his attackers, Iago secretly stabs Roderigo to stop him revealing the plot. Iago accuses Bianca of the failed conspiracy to kill Cassio. Othello confronts Desdemona, strangles her in their bed; when Emilia arrives, Desdemona defends her husband before dying, Othello accuses Desdemona of adultery. Emilia calls for help; the former governor Montano arrives, with Gratiano and Iago. When Othello mentions the handkerchief as proof, Emilia realizes what her husband Iago has done, she exposes him, whereupon he kills her. Othello, belatedly realising Desdemona's innocence, stabs Iago but not fatally, saying that Iago is a devil, he would rather have him live the rest of his life in pain. Iago refuses vowing to remain silent from that moment on. Lodovico apprehends both Iago and Othello for the murders of Roderigo and Desdemona, but Othello commits suicide.
Charley's Aunt is a farce in three acts written by Brandon Thomas. The story centres on Lord Fancourt Babberley, an undergraduate whose friends Jack and Charley persuade him to impersonate the latter's aunt; the complications of the plot include the arrival of the real aunt and the attempts of an elderly fortune hunter to woo the bogus aunt. The play concludes with three pairs of young lovers united, along with an older pair – Charley's real aunt and Jack's widowed father; the play was first performed at the Theatre Royal, Bury St Edmunds in February 1892. It opened in London at the Royalty Theatre on 21 December 1892 and transferred to the larger Globe Theatre on 30 January 1893; the production broke the historic record for longest-running play worldwide, running for 1,466 performances. It was produced by the actor a friend of Thomas, who appeared as Babberley; the play was a success on Broadway in 1893, in Paris, where it had further long runs. It has been revived continually and adapted for films and musicals.
Jack Chesney and Charley Wykeham are undergraduates at Oxford University in love with Kitty Verdun and Amy Spettigue. Charley receives word that his aunt, Donna Lucia d'Alvadorez, a rich widow from Brazil whom he has never met, is coming to visit him; the boys invite Amy and Kitty to lunch to meet her intending to declare their love to the girls, who are being sent away to Scotland with Amy's uncle, Stephen Spettigue, Kitty's guardian. They seek out another Oxford undergraduate, Lord Fancourt Babberley, to distract Donna Lucia while they romance their girls. While they are out, Babbs breaks into Jack's room to steal all his champagne, but Jack and Charley intercept him and persuade him to stay for lunch. Babbs tells the boys about his own love, the daughter of an English officer called Delahay, whom he met in Monte Carlo, although he does not remember her name. Babbs uses Jack's room to try on his costume for an amateur play in which he is taking part. Amy and Kitty arrive to meet Jack and Charley, but Donna Lucia has not arrived yet, so the girls leave to go shopping until she shows up.
Annoyed, Jack orders Charley to go to the railway station to wait for Donna Lucia. Jack soon receives an unexpected visit from his father, Sir Francis Chesney, a retired colonel who served in India. Sir Francis reveals. Horrified, Jack suggests that Sir Francis should marry Donna Lucia, a widow and a millionaire, in order to clear the family debts. Sir Francis agrees to meet Donna Lucia before he makes a decision. Charley receives a telegram saying; the boys panic: the girls are coming, they won't stay without a chaperone. Babbs's costume happens to be that of an old lady. Jack and Charley introduce Babbs as Charley's aunt, his strange appearance and unchanged voice do not raise any suspicions. Babbs annoys the boys by accepting kisses from Kitty. Sir Francis soon enters to meet Donna Lucia, he takes one look at Babbs and tries to leave. Spettigue angered that Kitty and Amy are lunching with the boys without his permission; however the penniless Spettigue soon learns that Charley's aunt is Donna Lucia D'Alvadorez, the celebrated millionaire.
He decides to stay for lunch to attempt to woo "Donna Lucia". Outside Jack's rooms, in the grounds of St Olde's College, the boys are trying to get their girls alone so that they can confess their love. However, Babbs is in the way, charming the girls as Donna Lucia. Jack's father, Sir Francis, has decided to propose marriage to Donna Lucia, purely for money. Jack urgently corners orders him to let his father down gently. Babbs does so. Spettigue still wants to marry "Donna Lucia" for her money. Meanwhile, the real Donna Lucia, who turns out to be an attractive woman of middle age, arrives with her adopted niece, Miss Ela Delahay, an orphan; the money left to Ela by her father is enough to make her independent for life. Ela reveals that her father had won a lot of money at cards from Fancourt Babberley, for whom Ela still holds a great deal of affection. Donna Lucia recounts the story of a colonel named Frank who she once met more than twenty years ago, of whom she was fond. However, he was too shy to propose, he left for India before he could tell her how he felt.
Sir Francis enters, Donna Lucia recognizes him, the two rekindle their affection. However, before she can introduce herself, she discovers. To investigate, she introduces herself as a penniless widow. Jack and Charley make their declarations of love to their girls. However, they discover; the girls enlist Babbs to get the consent from the greedy Spettigue. Spettigue invites the entire party, including the real Donna Lucia and Ela, to his house, so that he can talk to "Donna Lucia" in private. Babbs, recognizing Ela as the girl he fell in love with in Monte Carlo, tries to escape, but he is caught by Spettigue. Babbs is upset by being in the same room as the girl he loves without being able to talk to her. Jack and Charley try to calm him down. Babbs spends time with the real Donna Lucia, Ela and Kitty, during which the real Donna Lucia embarrasses Babbs by showing how little he knows about Donna Lucia. Ela takes a liking to the fake Donna Lucia, who sounds like the man she loves, pours he
Juliet Capulet is the female protagonist in William Shakespeare's romantic tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Juliet is the only daughter of the patriarch of the House of Capulet, she falls in love with a member of the House of Montague. The story has a long history. One aspect of the story which now seems problematic is Juliet's age; as the story occurs, Juliet is approaching her fourteenth birthday. She was born on "Lammas Eve at night", so Juliet's birthday is 31 July, her birthday is "a fortnight hence", putting the action of the play in mid-July. Her father states that she "hath not seen the change of fourteen years". In many cultures and time periods, women do marry and bear children at an early age. Romeo and Juliet is a play about Italian families. Lady Capulet had given birth to her first child by the time she had reached Juliet's age: "By my count, I was your mother much upon these years that you are now a maid.". Capulet tries to encourage Paris to wait a little longer before thinking of marrying his daughter, feeling that she is still too young.
However, in the English poem the story is based on Juliet is approaching her sixteenth birthday and Romeo is the same age whereas in the Bandello novella she is nearly eighteen with Romeo about twenty. The common English people of that age were rarely in their teens when they married and among the nobility and gentry of the age, brides thirteen years of age were rare, at about one in one thousand brides; that the parts of young women were played by pre-adolescent boys in Shakespeare's day cannot be overlooked and it is possible that Shakespeare had the physique of a young boy in mind during composition, in addition to the fact that Romeo and Juliet are of wealthy families and would be more to marry earlier than commoners. At the time, English noblewomen married on average at 19–21 years while the average marriage age in England was 25–26 years for women and 27–28 for men; the common belief in Elizabethan England was. Therefore, 18 came to be considered the earliest reasonable age for motherhood and 20 and 30 the ideal ages for women and men to marry.
Shakespeare might have reduced Juliet's age from sixteen to thirteen to demonstrate the dangers of marriage at too young of an age. In Verona, an early 14th-century house at Via Cappello no. 23, claiming to be the Capulets' has been turned into a tourist attraction but it is empty. The real second name was in Italian Cappelletti, a noble family, not Capuleti. Cappelletti were in the past members of the light cavalry of the Republic of Venice, they fought for it since the 13th century and they were from Dalmatia and Albania. It features the balcony, in the small courtyard, a bronze statue of Juliet, it is one of the most visited sites in the town. The metal of its chest is worn bare due to a legend that if a person strokes the right breast of the statue, that person will have good fortune and luck in love. Many people write their names and the names of their beloved ones on the walls of the entrance, known as Juliet's wall. Many believe. After a restoration and cleaning of the building, it was intended that further writing should be on replaceable panels or white sheets placed outside the wall.
It is a tradition to put small love letters on the walls, which are taken down by employees to keep the courtyard clean. Another tradition that occurs in Juliet's courtyard is writing your name and that of your loved one on a lock and attaching it to a large ornamental gate in the back left; the gate is overwhelmed with locks. This tradition is seen throughout Europe on gates all over cities. Since the 1930s, letters addressed to Juliet keep arriving in Verona; as of 2010, more than 5,000 letters were received annually, three-quarters of. The largest single group of senders was American teenagers; the letters are read and replied to by local volunteers, organised since the 1980s in the Club di Giulietta, financed by the City of Verona. The club has been the subject of a book by Lise and Ceil Friedman and is the setting for a 2008 book by Suzanne Harper and a 2010 USA movie, Letters to Juliet. A number of famous actresses and some actors have portrayed the role of Juliet: Mary Saunderson was the first woman to play Juliet professionally.
Previous actors had all been males. Eliza O'Neill won her fame with Juliet at Covent Garden, 1814. Katharine Cornell had a notable Broadway success as Juliet opposite the Romeo of Basil Rathbone in 1934, revived the production with Maurice Evans as Romeo and Ralph Richardson as Mercutio
KCET, virtual and UHF digital channel 28, is a non-commercial educational, independent television station licensed to Los Angeles, United States. Owned by the Public Media Group of Southern California, it is the sister station to Huntington Beach, California-licensed Public Broadcasting Service member station KOCE-TV. KCET's studios are located at The Pointe in Burbank, its transmitter is located atop Mount Wilson in the San Gabriel Mountains. KCET was the second attempt at establishing an educational station in the Los Angeles area: KTHE, operated by the University of Southern California, had broadcast on channel 28, beginning on September 22, 1953, it was the second educational television station in the United States, signing on six months and four days after KUHT in Houston, but ceased broadcasting after only nine months on the air because its primary benefactor, the Hancock Foundation, determined that the station was too much of a financial drain on its resources. KCET—the call letters of which stand for either California Educational Television, Committee for Educational Television, Community Educational Television, or Cultural and Educational Television—first signed on the air on September 28, 1964, as an affiliate of National Educational Television.
The station was licensed to the non-profit group Community Television of Southern California. Part of the station's initial funding came from four of Los Angeles's commercial stations–KNXT, KNBC, KTTV and KCOP –along with grants from the Ford Foundation and the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare. KCET broadcast in black and white from Monday through Friday. James Loper, a co-founder of CTSC, served as the station's director of education from 1964 to 1966 and vice president and general manager from 1966 to 1971. Loper served as president of KCET from 1971 to 1983. Creative Person—John Burton a 30-minute film biography of Glass artist and Philosopher John Burton was the first color film commissioned by KCET-TV in 1965, it won the first two Los Angeles area Emmys for KCET for John Burton, for the production by George Van Valkenburg. Van Valkenburg produced a one-hour documentary film titled Paris Air Show 1967 for KCET. Prior to applying for and receiving a construction permit to build the new channel 28, CTSC attempted to acquire one of Los Angeles's seven existing VHF commercial stations.
In 1968, Community Television of Southern California emerged as a potential buyer of KTLA's channel 5 license from then-owner Gene Autry, but could not raise the cash needed to make a serious offer. If CTSC succeeded in moving KCET to channel 5, the move would have mirrored a similar occurrence seven years earlier in the New York City area, where local broadcasters assisted a non-profit group in purchasing commercial independent VHF station WNTA-TV and converting it into non-commercial, educational WNDT. On October 5, 1970, KCET became a charter member of the Public Broadcasting Service at the programming service's inception. For most of the next 40 years, it was the second most-watched PBS station in the country and produced programs distributed to PBS and to individual public television stations; the station served as Southern California's flagship PBS member station, with San Bernardino-licensed KVCR —which the San Bernardino Community College District signed on the air on September 11, 1962—as the service's original sole secondary outlet.
KCET gained additional competitors when the Coast Community College District signed on Huntington Beach-licensed KOCE-TV on November 20, 1972, the Los Angeles Unified School District signed on secondary Los Angeles member KLCS on November 5, 1973. In 1971, KCET purchased the former Monogram Pictures property at 1725 Fleming Street in a historic area of East Hollywood—which was used as a film and television studio from 1912 to 1970—to serve as the station's headquarters, an acquisition assisted in part by financial contributions from both the Ford Foundation and the Michael Connell Foundation; the building was renamed the Weingart Educational Telecommunications Center and housed KCET's master control, digital control rooms and editing stations on the first floor, engineering, new media operations, news and public affairs departments on the second floor. In 1994, KCET and Store of Knowledge Inc. a Carson-based company, launched the KCET Store of Knowledge in Glendale as the first of many partnership stores with PBS affiliates.
In 2004, as part of its image-reclaiming public relations after the Gulf oil spill, BP started granting KCET half the funding for preschool shows including A Place of Our Own and Los Ninos en Su Casa, a Spanish language version. The other half of the $50 million grants for the show and supporting outreach programs came from First 5 California plus additional funding from an anonymous donor; the show won Peabody and local Emmy awards and was shown nationally over PBS. KCET renamed its production studio to BP Studios in thanks. PBS included BP's and other grants for the two pre-school shows in its complex progressive dues structures though the grants came with the stipulation that they could not be used for administrative costs; the PBS dues for KCET had been $4.9 million but with the grants included the dues increased by 40% to close to $7 million. Other large funding sources, counted on were shrinking and thus could not be tapped to pay the dues. KCET's request that these specific grants, which were restricted to show production on