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Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. The size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites. DNA sequence comparisons have yielded the surprising conclusion that kiwi are much more related to the extinct Malagasy elephant birds than to the moa with which they shared New Zealand. There are five recognised species, four of which are listed as vulnerable, one of, near-threatened. All species have been negatively affected by historic deforestation but the remaining large areas of their forest habitat are well protected in reserves and national parks. At present, the greatest threat to their survival is predation by invasive mammalian predators; the kiwi's egg is one of the largest in proportion to body size of any species of bird in the world. Other unique adaptations of kiwi, such as their hairlike feathers and stout legs, using their nostrils at the end of their long beak to detect prey before they see it, have helped the bird to become internationally well-known.

The kiwi is recognised as an icon of New Zealand, the association is so strong that the term Kiwi is used internationally as the colloquial demonym for New Zealanders. The Māori language word kiwi is accepted to be "of imitative origin" from the call. However, some linguists derive the word from Proto-Nuclear Polynesian *kiwi, which refers to Numenius tahitiensis, the bristle-thighed curlew, a migratory bird that winters in the tropical Pacific islands. With its long decurved bill and brown body, the curlew resembles the kiwi. So when the first Polynesian settlers arrived, they may have applied the word kiwi to the new-found bird; the genus name Apteryx is derived from Ancient Greek "without wing": a-, "without" or "not". The name is uncapitalised, with the plural either the anglicised "kiwis" or, consistent with the Māori language, appearing as "kiwi" without an "‑s". Although it was long presumed that the kiwi was related to the other New Zealand ratites, the moa, recent DNA studies have identified its closest relative as the extinct elephant bird of Madagascar, among extant ratites, the kiwi is more related to the emu and the cassowaries than to the moa.

Research published in 2013 on an extinct genus, known from the Miocene deposits of the Saint Bathans Fauna, found that it was smaller and capable of flight, supporting the hypothesis that the ancestor of the kiwi reached New Zealand independently from moas, which were large and flightless by the time kiwi appeared. There are five known species of kiwi, as well as a number of subspecies. Relationships in the genus Apteryx Their adaptation to a terrestrial life is extensive: like all the other ratites, they have no keel on the sternum to anchor wing muscles; the vestigial wings are so small that they are invisible under the bristly, hair-like, two-branched feathers. While most adult birds have bones with hollow insides to minimise weight and make flight practicable, kiwi have marrow, like mammals and the young of other birds. With no constraints on weight due to flight requirements, brown kiwi females carry and lay a single egg that may weigh as much as 450 g. Like most other ratites, they have no uropygial gland.

Their bill is long and sensitive to touch, their eyes have a reduced pecten. Their feathers lack barbules and aftershafts, they have large vibrissae around the gape, they have no tail and a small pygostyle. Their gizzard is weak and their caecum is long and narrow; the eye of the kiwi is the smallest relative to body mass in all avian species resulting in the smallest visual field as well. The eye has small specialisations for a nocturnal lifestyle, but kiwi rely more on their other senses; the sight of the kiwi is so underdeveloped that blind specimens have been observed in nature, showing how little they rely on sight for survival and foraging. In an experiment, it was observed that one-third of a population of A. rowi in New Zealand under no environmental stress had ocular lesions in one or both eyes. The same experiment examined three specific specimens that showed complete blindness and found them to be in good physical standing outside of ocular abnormalities. A 2018 study revealed that the kiwi's closest relatives, the extinct elephant birds shared this trait despite their massive size.

Unlike every other palaeognath, which are small-brained by bird standards, kiwi have proportionally large encephalisation quotients. Hemisphere proportions are similar to those of parrots and songbirds, though there is no evidence of complex behaviour. Before the arrival of humans in the 13th century or earlier, New Zealand's only endemic mammals were three species of bat, the ecological niches that in other parts of the world were filled by creatures as diverse as horses and mice were taken up by birds; the kiwi's nocturnal habits may be a result of habitat intrusion by predators, including humans. In areas of New Zealand where introduced predators have been removed, such as sanctuaries, kiwi are seen in daylight, they prefer subtropical and temperate podocarp and beech forests, but they are being forced to adapt to different habitat, such as sub-alpine scrub, tussock grassland, the mountains. Kiwi have a developed sense of smell, unusual in a bird, are the only birds with nostrils at the end of their long beaks.

Kiwi eat small invertebrates, seeds, g

Quad City Thunder

The Quad City Thunder were a Continental Basketball Association franchise, based in the Quad Cities of Illinois and Iowa. They played in the CBA from the 1987–88 season until the CBA folded in 2001; the Thunder were successful on the court, capturing CBA championships in the 1993–94 and 1997–98 seasons, runner-up in the 1990–91 season. The Thunder played in Moline, first at Wharton Field House before moving to the new MARK of the Quad Cities in 1993; the Thunder first began play at the Wharton Field House in Moline, Illinois, in the 1987–88 season, with 6,047 fans attending the first home game. The Thunder were the first professional basketball franchise in the Quad Cities since the Tri-Cities Blackhawks moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1953. A great success in the CBA, the Thunder struggled with attendance towards the end of their existence with competition from their co-tenants at the Mark, the Quad City Mallards hockey team. During their existence, the franchise was owned by Anne Potter DeLong, Jay Gellerman, Isiah Thomas and a Blind Trust.

The Thunder folded. In 1992, history was made when, for the first time in the 45-year history of U. S. professional basketball, a father and son opposed one another as head coaches. Former Thunder Coach Mauro Panaggio went head to head against son Dan Panaggio when Mauro's Rockford Lightning played Dan's Quad City Thunder; the 1993–1994 team went 34–22 under Dan Panaggio. They swept through the playoffs, they first defeated the Rochester Renegades in overtime of a playoff play-in in Bismarck, N. D, they defeated the Grand Rapids Hoops 4–1 in best-of-seven second round. The Thunder defeated the Omaha Racers 4–1, winning last three on road to claim franchise’s first league title; the Thunder won the opener in double overtime after Tate George tied the game with last-second buckets at both the end of regulation and of the first overtime. The Thunder lost the second game in triple overtime, but won three straight in Omaha, the last in overtime. Chris Childs averaged 17.4 points and 8.5 assists in the playoffs, was the Finals MVP and went on to the National Basketball Association.

Other key players were Harold Ellis 21.4ppg, Tate George 16.4, Bobby Martin 13.6, Barry Mitchell 13.0, Matt Fish 7.1RPG, Ashraf Amaya 6.9, Cedric Henderson 6.1. The 1997–98 Thunder finished 38–18 under Dan Panaggio. In the playoffs they swept the Swept La Crosse Catbirds in three games and defeated the Rockford Lightning in five games. In the CBA Finals, they won a deciding seventh at home over the Sioux Falls Skyforce to capture their second CBA Championship. Key players were: Jimmy King 16.4ppg, Jeff McInnis 14.9ppg, Alvin Sims 13.6ppg, Doug Smith 12.8ppg, Willie Burton 11.6, Byron Houston 8.7Rpg, Barry Sumpter. King won league MVP, McInnis was Newcomer of the Year, Sims became the Thunder’s first Rookie of the Year and Dan Panaggio won his second Coach of the Year award; the Thunder and their fans enjoyed a spirited rivalry with the Rockford Lightning. The Thunder's mascot was the Norse god of thunder. Hall of Fame player George Gervin played for the Thunder in 1989–90. Mauro Panaggio 132-88 15-18 Dan Panaggio 313-191 41-30 Bob Thornton 8-13.

1992 Barry Mitchell 1993 Derek Strong 1998 Jimmy King 2000 Jeff McInnis

Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México

The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México known as ITAM, is a private Ph. D.-granting research university. It is one of Mexico’s most important institutions of higher learning, it is considered one of Mexico's think tanks and has the highest rank of admission to the Mexican Foreign Service. It was an Economics School and one year it opened its undergraduate business school. Due to the opening of the Accounting School, the institute grew from 52 students in 1947 to 500 in 1951. In 1963, by government decree, the ITAM was recognized as a “Free University School” and the school added the word "autonomous" to its name; however the inclusion of the word autonomous in its name was not recognized by the government until 1985. During the 1970s new programs were added including Applied Mathematics, Social Science and a Master of Business Administration. In the 1980s and'90s the additions were: Law, Actuarial Science, Computer Science, Political Science, International Relations and Industrial Engineering.

During the last decade the academic offer was increased by the establishment of Business Engineering, Financial Management and Mechatronics. During its first four years the ITAM was located in a house in Mexico City's centro in 518 La Palma street. In 1950 the institute moved to 65 Serapio Rendón street in the Colonia San Rafael. During the late 1950s it moved once more to a new building built specially for the institute at the corner of Marina Nacional street and Lago Zirahuen street in the Colonia Anáhuac. In 1978, ITAM moved to its current campus in 1 Río Hondo, in San Ángel. In 1991 the smaller graduate school campus, in 939 Camino Santa Teresa, was opened. During its 60 years ITAM has had eight rectors: Arturo Fernández Pérez. Javier Beristain Iturbide. Antonio Carrillo Flores. Joaquín Gómez Morín. Enrique Moreno de Tagle. Gustavo Petricioli Iturbide. Agustín de la Llera. Eduardo García Máynez. Today the institute has 38 academic programs dependent organized on 5 academic divisions, subdivided in 14 academic departments.

The academic programs include Licenciaturas and Ingenierias, as well as Masters and a Ph. D. program. This division is in charge of: B. A./B. Sc. in Economics B. A. in Political Science LL. B. M. A. in Economics M. A. in Human Rights M. Sc. in Economic Theory Ph. D. in Economics The ITAM, through this department, offers an education in modern economics, with a considerable emphasis on analytic techniques and economic models, in line with the subjects being taught in economics departments around the world. The Department of Economics has been influential, it is a major feeder for Latin American candidates into top international graduate programs, has played an important role in the economic liberalization process that the Mexican Government started in the mid 1980s. The department is ranked as the best Economics school in Mexico, depending on the survey, one of the Top 75 Economics departments globally; the Department of Political Science has been considered the leading faculty in the field since the mid 1980s.

With the formal change of the major in 1991, the program was adapted to modern American political science, thus incorporated important tools like mathematics and statistics. The program has since been a tremendous success, becoming a leading school in the subject; this is due to the number of students and full-time faculty with PhDs from other leading universities such as Harvard, Columbia, Chicago, Princeton, UCLA, UCSD, Yale. Many of its undergraduate students are recruited in the best universities in the United States and Europe and others are employed in the federal and local governments and political parties; the division is in charge of: B. A. in Business Administration. B. A. in Public Accountancy and Financial Strategy. B. A. in Financial Management. Master of Business Administration. Executive MBA. M. A. in International Management. M. A. in Management Sciences. M. A. in Marketing. M. A. in Accountancy. M. Sc. in Finances. The division is in charge of: B. Sc. in Applied Mathematics. B. Sc. in Actuarial Science.

M. Sc. in Risk Management. M. Sc. in Data Science. The Department of Mathematics at ITAM consists of full-time researchers with graduate degrees who follow active research lines and publish in internationally renowned journals; the department has participated in the global mathematics community by hosting several international applied mathematics conferences over the years. Its main strengths lie in numerical analysis, financial mathematics, stochastic processes, real analysis and dynamic systems applied to the social sciences. Both BSc programs it maintains have been hugely successful in providing high level technical skills to its students, which obtain graduate degrees abroad in Math, Economics and Operations Research; this division is in charge of: B. A. in International Relations. The Department of International Studies is one of the main research centers of diplomatic studies in Mexico and Latin America, it coordinates the Institute of European Integration Studies and

William Aldam

William Aldam was an English Liberal Party politician and MP for the Yorkshire constituency of Leeds between 1841 and 1847. Aldam studied law at the Middle Temple beginning in 1834 and was called to the bar in 1839 but never practised as a barrister, he became a Justice of the Peace in the West Riding of Yorkshire court of quarter sessions in 1842 and High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1878. Aldam was noted for promoting the development of railways and canals and for his staunch supporter of free trade, he was converted to Anglicanism. A ship named William Aldam was registered at Goole in 1854 and wrecked in 1856, his father called William Aldam, was a cloth merchant in Leeds. The family name was Pease, but his father changed it when he inherited the estate of the Aldam family at Frickley, near Doncaster). On 13 November 1845 he married daughter of Rev. Godfrey Wright, of Bilham, his son and heir William Wright Aldam married Sarah Julia Warde in 1878 and took the surname of Warde-Aldam. His nephew William Aldam Milner was High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1911.

"Papers of William Aldam of Frickley". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 March 2011. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Aldam

Halloween (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)

"Halloween" is episode six of season two of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. It was directed by Bruce Seth Green; the narrative follows Ethan Rayne who sells Halloween costumes that transform their wearers into a more real version of that costume. Buffy and Angel agree to a date, but Buffy is delayed by a vampire; as Angel waits at The Bronze, Cordelia starts flirting with him. When Buffy arrives, she sees Angel talking to Cordelia and turns to leave; the next day, Principal Snyder forces Buffy and her friends to chaperone small children while they trick-or-treat. Larry, the school bully, threatens Xander while asking him about Buffy, who smashes Larry into a soda machine. Buffy and Willow speculate. To find out they decide to sneak into Giles' office and borrow the passed-down Watchers' Diary; the gang head to Ethan's Costume Shoppe, where Willow gets a Halloween ghost costume and Xander buys a toy gun to go with his army fatigue outfit. Buffy gets a beautiful pink 18th-century gown—one that matches what she has spied from Giles' Watcher files on Angel.

Spike is reviewing a video of Buffy fighting. Drusilla tells him. Meanwhile, Ethan is chanting to a statue of Janus in the back room of his shop; that night, Ethan's spell takes effect and everyone wearing a costume from his store turns into the respective persona. Willow becomes a real ghost, able to walk through walls. S. soldier. With Buffy incapable of fighting the threats around them, Willow is forced to take the lead and rushes them to Buffy's house. Outside, Cordelia screams and Xander goes out to save her. Angel takes Buffy into the kitchen; as Angel tries to kill a vampire that has sneaked in, he reveals his vampire face. Buffy runs from the house. Arriving at the library by walking through walls, Willow tells Giles about Ethan's costumes, they head to the shop. He forces Ethan to tell him. Spike is hunting for Buffy, who meets Larry, now a pirate. Xander arrives to beat up Larry; the gang tries to barricade themselves inside a warehouse. Ethan reveals the secret to ending the spell and Giles smashes the statue, breaking the spell.

Buffy recovers just in time to defeat Spike and he flees. Buffy admits to Angel, he tells her. The women were dull, he found that someone when he encountered his world was never the same. They kiss; the next day, Giles returns to the store to find a note. Ethan has promised to return soon. "Halloween" on IMDb "Halloween" at

Moshtagh Yaghoubi

Moshtagh Hossain Yaghoubi in Dari: مشتاق حسین یعقوبی. Yaghoubi started playing football at the age of 13 with his local club HaPa. After playing in the youth teams of MP, HJK and PK-35 he joined Honka in 2011. Yaghoubi made his debut for Honka against KuPS on 13 October 2011. Yaghoubi scored his first goal on 27 May 2012 against FC Haka. Yaghoubi made his Europa League debut on 18 July 2013 in the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League second qualifying round where Honka lost 1–3 in the first leg to 2012–13 Ekstraklasa runners up Lech Poznań. Yaghoubi played 1 season on loan for the second team of FC Honka, he scored 2 goals. After his loan he returned to FC Honka. In February 2014 Yaghoubi was transferred to the Latvian Higher League club FK Spartaks Jūrmala, signing a three-year contract, he was given shirtnumber 7. Soon after his move to Spartaks Jūrmala he was loaned to the Russian Premier League side Dynamo Moscow. Yaghoubi was given shirt number 61 in the first team, but did not make any appearances for them remaining on the bench and being involved in the reserve team action.

In August 2014 he returned to Spartaks Jūrmala. Yaghoubi scored his first Latvian Higher League goal on 26 October 2014 in a 1–0 victory over FK Daugava Rīga. On 5 March 2015 he signed a contract with RoPS, a football team in the Finland Veikkausliiga, he made his debut against SJK on 17 March 2015. He scored his first goal against FC Inter Turku in the Suomen Cup, he ended the season with a second place in the Finnish league. He made 5 assists, he won at the end of the season the Best Midfielder award for his club and the Best Midfielder award for the Finland U21. In February 2016, Yaghoubi went on trial with Kazakhstan Premier League side FC Shakhter Karagandy. On 17 March 2016, Yaghoubi signed a season-long loan deal with Shakhter Karagandy. Yaghoubi's loan was terminated by Shakhter Karagandy on 17 June 2016. On 4 November 2016, HJK Helsinki announced the signing of Yaghoubi. On 31 January 2019, Seinäjoen Jalkapallokerho announced the signing of Yaghoubi. Yaghoubi acquired Finnish nationality in 2013 and got called up for Finland national under-21 team for 2015 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship qualification match against Lithuania on 11 June 2013.

Yaghoubi scored his national team debut goal when Finland beat Wales U-21 5–1 in UEFA Under-21 Championship qualification on 14 August 2013. On 31 October 2013 Yaghoubi made his debut for Finland national football team in an unofficial 4–2 friendly match loss to Mexico, he made his official debut for Finland in a 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Turkey. He came on the field in the 67th minute for Sakari Mattila; as of match played 4 June 2017 Statistics accurate as of match played 29 March 2017 Yaghoubi was born in Kabul, Afghanistan, to ethnic Hazara parents. Yaghoubi and his family fled Afghanistan in 1999 to settle down in Iran. After living seven years in Iran his family applied for asylum in Finland. Yaghoubi has a tattoo on his leftarm with the name of his late father Gholam Sakhi. Veikkausliiga profile Moshtagh Yaghoubi at FC Honka Moshtagh Yaghoubi at Soccerway Media related to Moshtagh Yaghoubi at Wikimedia Commons