A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
Higashi-Noshiro Station is a railway station in Noshiro, Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Higashi-Noshiro is served by the Ōu Main Gonō Line, it is located 355.4 km from the terminus of the Ōu Main Line at Fukushima Station, it is the southern terminus of the Gonō Line. Higashi-Noshiro Station consists of one side platform and one island platform, serving a total of three tracks; the station has a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office. The station opened on November 1901 as Noshiro Station, it was renamed Hataori Station on November 1, 1909, renamed Higashi-Noshiro Station on June 15, 1943. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 513 passengers daily. Higashi-Noshiro post office List of railway stations in Japan JR East station information
Dogū are small humanoid and animal figurines made during the late Jōmon period of prehistoric Japan. A Dogū come from the Jōmon period. By the Yayoi period, which followed the Jōmon period, Dogū were no longer made. There are various styles of Dogū, depending on exhumation time period. According to the National Museum of Japanese History, the total number found throughout Japan is 15,000. Dogū were made except Okinawa. Most of the Dogū have been found in eastern Japan and it is rare to find one in western Japan; the purpose of the Dogū remains unknown and should not be confused with the clay haniwa funerary objects of the Kofun period. Everyday ceramic items from the period are called Jōmon pottery; some scholars theorize the Dogū acted as effigies of people, that manifested some kind of sympathetic magic. For example, it may have been believed that illnesses could be transferred into the Dogū destroyed, clearing the illness, or any other misfortune. Dogū are made of clay and are small 10 to 30 cm high.
Most of the figurines appear to be modeled as female, have big eyes, small waists, wide hips. They are considered by many to be representative of goddesses. Many have large abdomens associated with pregnancy, suggesting that the Jomon considered them mother goddesses. According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, these figurines "suggest an association with fertility and shamanistic rites"; the dogū tend to have small arms and hands and compact bodies. Some appear to have "heart-shaped" faces. Most have marks on the face and shoulders, that suggest tattooing and probable incision with bamboo. "heart shaped type" figurine "horned-owl type" figurine "goggle-eyed type" figurine "pregnant woman type" figurine The Shakōki-dogū, or "goggle-eyed dogū," were created in the Jōmon era, are so well known that when most Japanese hear the term dogū, this is the image that comes to mind. The name "shakōki" comes from the resemblance of the figures' eyes to traditional Inuit snow goggles. Another distinguishing feature of the objects are the exaggerated, feminine buttocks and thighs.
Furthermore, the abdomen is covered with patterns, many of which seem to have been painted with vermilion. The larger figures are hollow in order to prevent cracking during the firing process. Unbroken figures are rare, most are missing an arm, leg or other body part. In many cases, the parts have been cut off. One theory is; these types of dogū have been found in the Kamegaoka Site in Aomori Prefecture. All the sites listed have been designated as Important Cultural Properties. Due in part to the enigmatic nature of the figurines, there have been numerous theories of non-scientific nature regarding their ornate appearance with some speculating that the physical appearance is connected to the suits and equipment of modern-day astronauts. One proponent in particular, Erich von Däniken, has written how the dogū "...has modern fastenings and eye apertures on its helmet", an attribution made as part of the final chapter of his 1968 publication Chariots of the Gods? despite lacking any evidence for the claim.
There are disparities in the varieties of dogū, with only a portion of the figures having the characteristic goggle-like eyes, most cited by ancient alien theorists. Haniwa National Treasures of Japan Tokyo National Museum Venus figurine, a type of clay figure found in archeological cultures throughout the world Baltoy and Claydol, two Pokémon whose design is similar to the Jōmon period clay figurines A.^ In the Japanese language dogū is a generic term for any humanoid figure made of clay. The clay figures of prehistoric Eastern Europe, such as the Pit–Comb Ware culture, are referred to as dogū in Japanese. Tokyo National Museum The National Museum of Japanese History Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan, Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties Dogū from the Jōmon period, a photographic imagery database—Tokyo University, Japan Review of recent exhibition of Dogū at the Tokyo National Museum British Museum exhibition of Dogū from Japanese museums, 2009
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
Jūniko Station is a railway station located in the town of Fukaura, Aomori Prefecture Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Jūniko Station is a station on the Gonō Line, is located 46.6 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Higashi-Noshiro. Jūniko Station has one ground-level side platform serving a single bi-directional track; the station is unattended, is managed from Goshogawara Station. The current station building was built by former Iwasaki Village to encourage tourism to the Jūniko Lakes. Jūniko Station was opened on September 1959 as the Jūniko Signal Stop. With the privatization of the Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of JR East, was elevated in status to that of a full station; as of February 1, 1988 all normal local trains began to service the station. The station building was completed on March 19, 2005. National Route 101 Jūniko Lakes in the Tsugaru Quasi-National Park. List of Railway Stations in Japan Endo, Isao.
五能線物語 「奇跡のローカル線」を生んだ最強の現場力. PHP研究所. ISBN 4569830099. 五能線ガイドブック. 無明舎出版. 2002. ISBN 4895443078. Official website
Takinoma Station is a railway station on the JR East located in the town of Happō, Yamamoto District, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Takinoma Station is served by the Gonō Line and is located 24.5 rail kilometers from the southern terminus of the Gonō Line at Higashi-Noshiro Station. Takinoma Station has a single side platform serving bidirectional traffic; the unattended station is managed from Fukaura Station. Takinoma Station was opened on April 20, 1963. Japan National Route 101 JR East station information page
Shikakamidaketozanguchi Station is a railway station located in the town of Fukaura, Aomori Prefecture Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. Shikakamidaketozanguchi Station is a station on the Gonō Line, is located 42.3 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Higashi-Noshiro. Shikakamidaketozanguchi Station has one ground-level side platform serving a single bi-directional track; the station is unattended, is managed from Fukaura Station. Shikakamidaketozanguchi Station was opened on June 1, 1952 as Mutsu-Kurosaki Station on the Japanese National Railways. With the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of JR East; the station was renamed to its present name of December 2, 2000. National Route 101 Shirakami-Sanchi List of Railway Stations in Japan Endo, Isao. 五能線物語 「奇跡のローカル線」を生んだ最強の現場力. PHP研究所. ISBN 4569830099. 五能線ガイドブック. 無明舎出版. 2002. ISBN 4895443078. Official website