Alexandre Dumas fils
Alexandre Dumas fils was a French author and playwright, best known for the romantic novel La Dame aux Camélias, published in 1848, adapted into Giuseppe Verdi's opera La traviata, as well as numerous stage and film productions titled Camille in English-language versions. Dumas fils was the son of Alexandre Dumas père a well-known playwright and author of classic works such as The Three Musketeers. Dumas fils was admitted to the Académie française in 1874 and awarded the Légion d'honneur in 1894. Dumas was born in Paris, the illegitimate child of Marie-Laure-Catherine Labay, a dressmaker, novelist Alexandre Dumas. In 1831 his father recognized him and ensured that the young Dumas received the best education possible at the Institution Goubaux and the Collège Bourbon. At that time, the law allowed the elder Dumas to take the child away from his mother, her agony inspired the younger Dumas to write about tragic female characters. In all of his writings, he emphasized the moral purpose of literature.
At boarding schools, he was taunted by his classmates because of his family situation. These issues profoundly influenced his thoughts and writing. Dumas' paternal great-grandparents were Marquis Alexandre-Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and Général commissaire in the Artillery in the colony of Saint-Domingue—now Haiti—and Marie-Cessette Dumas, an African slave, their son Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became a high-ranking general of Revolutionary France. In 1844, Dumas moved near Paris, to live with his father. There he met Marie Duplessis, a young courtesan who would be the inspiration for the character Marguerite Gauthier in his romantic novel La Dame aux camélias. Adapted into a play, it was titled Camille in English and became the basis for Verdi's 1853 opera, La traviata, Duplessis undergoing yet another name change, this time to Violetta Valéry. Although he admitted that he had done the adaptation because he needed the money, he had great success with the play, which started his career as a dramatist.
He was not only more renowned than his father during his lifetime, but dominated the serious French stage for most of the second half of the 19th century. After this, he abandoned writing novels, though his semi-autobiographical L'Affaire Clemenceau achieved some solid success. On 31 December 1864, in Moscow, Dumas married Nadezhda von Knorring, daughter of Johan Reinhold von Knorring and widow of Alexander Grigorievich Narishkin; the couple had two daughters: Marie-Alexandrine-Henriette Dumas, born 20 November 1860, who married Maurice Lippmann and was the mother of Serge Napoléon Lippmann and Auguste Alexandre Lippmann. After Nadezhda's death, Dumas married Henriette Régnier de La Brière in June 1895, without issue. In 1874, he was admitted to the Académie française and in 1894 he was awarded the Légion d'honneur. Dumas died at Marly-le-Roi, Yvelines, on 27 November 1895, was interred in the Montmartre Cemetery in Paris, his grave is some 100 metres away from that of Marie Duplessis. Aventures de quatre femmes et d'un perroquet Césarine La Dame aux camélias.
Texte online ), with a version illustrated by Albert Besnard English titled as Camellias Le Docteur Servan Antonine Le Roman d'une femme Les Quatre Restaurations. Series of historical novels in La Gazette de France titled Tristan le Roux, Henri de Navarre, Les Deux Frondes Tristan le Roux Trois Hommes forts Histoire de la loterie du lingot d'or Diane de Lys Le Régent Mustel Contes et Nouvelles La Dame aux perles L'Affaire Clemenceau, Mémoire de l'accusé, illustrations by Albert Besnard L'Homme-femme Giuseppe Verdi's La traviata Atala The Lady of the Camellias Diane de Lys Le Bijou de la reine Le Demi-monde La Question d'argent Le Fils naturel Un Père prodigue Un Mariage dans un chapeau coll. Vivier L'Ami des femmes Le Supplice d'une femme coll. Emile de Girardin Héloïse Paranquet coll. Durentin Les Idées de Madame Aubray Le Filleul de Pompignac coll. Francois Une Visite de noces La Princesse Georges La Femme de Claude Monsieur Alphonse L'Étrangère Les Danicheff coll. de Corvin La Comtesse Romani coll.
Gustave Fould La Princesse de Bagdad Denise Francillon La Route de Thèbes Illegitimacy in fiction Legitimacy Maurois, André. The Titans, a three-generation biography of the Dumas. Trans. by Gerard Hopkins. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. OCLC 260126. Lewis, H. D.. A Critical Edition of the Manuscripts of'La Route de Thebes' by Alexandre Dumas fils. Doctorate, University of Leeds. Works by Alexandre Dumas fils at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Alexandre Dumas fils at Internet Archive Works by Alexandre Dumas fils at LibriVox Alexandre Dumas at Library of Congress Authorities, with 213 catalogue records
Pessimism is a mental attitude in which an undesirable outcome is anticipated from a given situation. Pessimists tend to focus on the negatives of life in general. A common question asked to test for pessimism is "Is the glass half empty or half full?". Throughout history, the pessimistic disposition has had effects on all major areas of thinking. Philosophical pessimism is the related idea that views the world in a anti-optimistic fashion; this form of pessimism is not an emotional disposition as the term connotes. Instead, it is a philosophy or worldview that directly challenges the notion of progress and what may be considered the faith-based claims of optimism. Philosophical pessimists are existential nihilists believing that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, their responses to this condition, are varied and life-affirming. The term pessimism derives from the Latin word pessimus meaning'the worst', it was first used by Jesuit critics of Voltaire's 1759 novel'Candide, ou l'Optimisme'. Voltaire was satirizing the philosophy of Leibniz who maintained that this was the'best of all possible worlds'.
In their attacks on Voltaire, the Jesuits of the Revue de Trévoux accused him of pessimisme. Philosophical pessimism is not a state of mind or a psychological disposition, but rather it is a worldview or ethic that seeks to face up to the distasteful realities of the world and eliminate irrational hopes and expectations which may lead to undesirable outcomes. Ideas which prefigure philosophical pessimism can be seen in ancient texts such as the Dialogue of Pessimism and Ecclesiastes In Western philosophy, philosophical pessimism is not a single coherent movement, but rather a loosely associated group of thinkers with similar ideas and a family resemblance to each other. In Pessimism: Philosophy, Spirit, Joshua Foa Dienstag outlines the main propositions shared by most philosophical pessimists as "that time is a burden. While many organisms live in the present and certain species of animals can contemplate the past and future, this is an important difference. Human beings have foreknowledge of their own eventual fate and this "terror" is present in every moment of our lives as a reminder of the impermanent nature of life and of our inability to control this change.
The philosophical pessimistic view of the effect of historical progress tends to be more negative than positive. The philosophical pessimist does not deny that certain areas like science can "progress" but they deny that this has resulted in an overall improvement of the human condition. In this sense it could be said; this is most seen in Rousseau's critique of enlightenment civil society and his preference for man in the primitive and natural state. For Rousseau, "our souls have become corrupted to the extent that our sciences and our arts have advanced towards perfection"; the pessimistic view of the human condition is that it is in a sense "absurd". Absurdity is seen as an ontological mismatch between our desire for meaning and fulfillment and our inability to find or sustain those things in the world, or as Camus puts it: "a divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting"; the idea that rational thought would lead to human flourishing can be traced to Socrates and is at the root of most forms of western optimistic philosophies.
Pessimism turns the idea on its head, it faults the human freedom to reason as the feature that misaligned humanity from our world and sees it as the root of human unhappiness. The responses to this predicament of the human condition by pessimists are varied; some philosophers, such as Schopenhauer and Mainländer, recommend a form of resignation and self-denial. Some followers tend to believe that "expecting the worst leads to the best." Rene Descartes believed that life was better if emotional reactions to "negative" events were removed. Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann asserted that with cultural and technological progress, the world and it's inhabitants will reach a state in which they will voluntarily embrace nothingness. Others like Nietzsche, Julius Bahnsen and Camus respond with a more life-affirming view, what Nietzsche called a "Dionysian pessimism", an embrace of life as it is in all of its constant change and suffering, without appeal to progress or hedonistic calculus. Albert Camus indicated that the common responses to the absurdity of life are often: Suicide, a leap of faith, or recognition/rebellion.
Camus rejected all but the last option as inauthentic responses. Philosophical pessimism has been tied to the arts and literature. Schopenhauer's philosophy was popular with composers. Several philosophical pessimists wrote novels or poetry. A distinctive literary form, associated with pessimism is aphoristic writing, this can be seen in Leopardi and Cioran. Writers which could be said to express pessimistic views in their wor
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Assistens Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen, Denmark, is the burial site of a large number of Danish notables as well as an important greenspace in the Nørrebro district. Inaugurated in 1760, it was a burial site for the poor laid out to relieve the crowded graveyards inside the walled city, but during the Golden Age in the first half of the 19th century it became fashionable and many leading figures of the epoch, such as Hans Christian Andersen, Søren Kierkegaard, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, Christen Købke are all buried here. Late in the 19th century, as Assistens Cemetery had itself become crowded, a number of new cemeteries were established around Copenhagen, including Vestre Cemetery, but up through the 20th century it has continued to attract notables. Among the latter are the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr and a number of American jazz musicians who settled in Copenhagen during the 1950s and 1960s, including Ben Webster and Kenny Drew. An assistenskirkegård is a generic term in Danish, used to refer to cemeteries which were laid out to assist existing burial sites those located in urban settings in connection with churches, therefore a number of cemeteries by the same name are found around Denmark.
The cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen Municipality. In Medieval times intramural interment was the rule although outdoor graveyards became more common. In 1666 the Naval Holmens Cemetery was moved from its original location at Church of Holmen to a site outside the Eastern City Gate as the first burial facility to be located outside the city. An outbreak of plague in 1711 which killed an estimated 23,000 citizens put the existing burial sites under so much pressure that up to five coffins were sometimes buried on top of each other; this led to the establishment of five new cemeteries on the periphery of the city, but just inside the city walls, while the military Garnisons Cemetery was relocated to a site next to that of Holmens Cemetery. In the 1750s the situation deteriorated further and in a letter of 2 May 1757 the City Council proposed to the Chancellery that a large new cemetery be built for the city's parishes outside the city walls. After some negotiations it was decided to place it outside the Northern City Gate and on 26 May 1757 the new facility was founded by Royal charter.
The new cemetery was inaugurated on 6 November 1760. It was enclosed by a wall built by Philip de Lange; the cemetery was intended as a burial ground for paupers. In 1785 an affluent citizen, astronomic writer and First Secretary of the War Chancellery Johan Samuel Augustin, made specific requests to be interred at the cemetery, in his codicil stating that "Mein Begräbnis soll auf dem Armen-Kirchhofe vor dem Norderthor seyn, wesfalls ich sehon mit Mr. Simon, der dort Gräber ist, gesprochen habe", he was soon followed by other leading figures from the elite and the cemetery soon developed into the most fashionable burial ground of the city. Around that time, excursions to the cemetery with picnic baskets and tea became a popular activity among common citizens of Copenhagen. In his account of a visit to Copenhagen in 1827, the Swedish poet Karl August Nicander fondly remembers Assistens Cemetery: In order to enjoy another softer, quieter celebration, I walked out one evening through Nørre Port to the so-called Assistens Cemetery.
It is one of the most beautiful graveyards in Europe. Leafy trees, dark paths, bright open flowery expanses, temples shaded by poplars, marble tombs overhung by weeping willows, urns or crosses wrapped in swathes of roses and bird song, all transform this place of death into a little paradise; the excursions sometimes evolved into rowdy gatherings and legislation was passed to prevent this. A commission established in 1805 issued instructions which prohibited the consumption of food or drink as well as music or any other kind of cheerful behaviour in the cemetery; the gravediggers, who lived on the premises, were to enforce these restrictions but they seem to have taken their duties lightly. Legislation from 1813 prohibited them to sell alcohol to visitors to the cemetery. Despite all these efforts, the desired peace and quiet was a long time in coming. For grand funerals, crowds of spectators would gather, people would festoon the cemetery walls to get a better view. To reduce numbers of visitors, there was talk of introducing admission fees, but this was never carried out.
The cemetery is still serving its original purpose as a burial ground but is a popular tourist attraction, as well as the largest and most important greenspace in the inner part of the Nørrebro district. It is divided into sections; the oldest part is Section A and features the graves of Søren Kierkegaard and the painter Christen Købke among others. Section D is dedicated to religious minorities, containing Roman Catholic and Reformed graves as well as Russian graves. Section E is the section which served under Church of Our Lady. In 2003 an old horse stable in a corner of Assistens Cemetery was converted into a small museum dedicated to writer and artist Herman Stilling, a native to the Nørrebro area and known for painting trolls. Apart from the permanent exhibition, the museum contains an exhibition space for special exhibitions, a picture workshop for children and young people, a café. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen Assistens Cemetery's website Copenhagen's cemeteries main site Folder about Assistens Cemetery in English Assistens Cemetery at Find A Grave ChapelCWGC: Odense Cemetery
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades. Though his work ranged from high drama to absurdist farce, Anouilh is best known for his 1944 play Antigone, an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, seen as an attack on Marshal Pétain's Vichy government. One of France's most prolific writers after World War II, much of Anouilh's work deals with themes of maintaining integrity in a world of moral compromise. Anouilh was born in Cérisole, a small village on the outskirts of Bordeaux, had Basque ancestry, his father, François Anouilh, was a tailor, Anouilh maintained that he inherited from him a pride in conscientious craftmanship. He may owe his artistic bent to his mother, Marie-Magdeleine, a violinist who supplemented the family's meager income by playing summer seasons in the casino orchestra in the nearby seaside resort of Arcachon. Marie-Magdeleine worked the night shifts in the music-hall orchestras and sometimes accompanied stage presentations, affording Anouilh ample opportunity to absorb the dramatic performances from backstage.
He attended rehearsals and solicited the resident authors to let him read scripts until bedtime. He first tried his hand at playwriting here, at the age of 12, though his earliest works do not survive. In 1918 the family moved to Paris where the young Anouilh received his secondary education at the Lycée Chaptal. Jean-Louis Barrault a major French director, was a pupil there at the same time and recalls Anouilh as an intense, rather dandified figure who hardly noticed a boy some two years younger than himself, he earned acceptance into the law school at the Sorbonne but, unable to support himself financially, he left after just 18 months to seek work as a copywriter at the advertising agency Publicité Damour. He liked the work, spoke more than once with wry approval of the lessons in the classical virtues of brevity and precision of language he learned while drafting advertising copy. Anouilh's financial troubles continued after he was called up to military service in 1929. Supported by only his meager conscription salary, Anouilh married the actress Monelle Valentin in 1931.
Though Valentin starred in many of his plays, Anouilh's daughter Caroline, claims that the marriage was not a happy one. Anouilh's youngest daughter Colombe claims that there was never an official marriage between Anouilh and Valentin, she had multiple extramarital affairs, which caused Anouilh much pain and suffering. The infidelity weighed on the dramatist as a result of the uncertainty about his own parentage. According to Caroline, Anouilh had learned that his mother had had a lover at the theatre in Arcachon, his biological father. In spite of this and Valentin had a daughter, Catherine, in 1934 who followed the pair into theatre work at an early age. Anouilh's growing family placed further strain on his limited finances. Determined to break into writing full-time, he began to write comic scenes for the cinema to supplement their income. At the age of 25, Anouilh found work as a secretary to the French actor and director Louis Jouvet at the Comédie des Champs-Elysées. Though Anouilh's boss had lent him some of the set furniture left over from the production of Jean Giraudoux's play Siegfried to furnish his modest home, the director was not interested in encouraging his assistant's attempts at playwriting.
Jouvet had risen to fame in the early 1930s through his collaborations with the playwright Giraudoux, together the two worked to shift focus from the authorial voice of the director back to the playwright and his text. Giraudoux was an inspiration to Anouilh and, with the encouragement of the acclaimed playwright, he began writing again in 1929. Before the end of the year he made his theatrical debut with Humulus le muet, a collaborative project with Jean Aurenche, it was followed by his first solo projects, L'Hermine in 1932 and Mandarine in 1933, both produced by Aurélien Lugné-Poe, an innovative actor and stage manager, head of the Théâtre de l'Œuvre. Ruled by the philosophy, "the word creates the decor," Lugné-Poe let Anouilh's lyrical prose shine in front of a backdrop of simple compositions of line and color that created a unity of style and mood; the plays were not great successes, closing after 37 and 13 performances but Anouilh persevered, following it up with a string of productions, most notably Y'avait un prisonnier.
These works, most in collaboration with the experimental Russian director Georges Pitoëff, were considered promising despite their lack of commercial profits, the duo continued to work together until they had their first major success in 1937 with Le voyageur sans bagage. In subsequent years, there was a season in Paris that did not prominently feature a new Anouilh play and many of these were being exported to England and America. After 1938, much of Anouilh's work was directed by the prominent Paris scenic designer André Barsacq, who had taken over as director of the Théâtre de l'Atelier after Charles Dullin's retirement in 1940. Barsacq was a champion for Anouilh and their affiliation was a major factor in the playwright's continued success after the war. In the 1940s, Anouilh turned from contemporary tales to more mythical and historic subjects. With protagonists who asserted their independence from the fated past, themes during this period are more related to the existential concerns of such writers as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus.
The most famous play of this group is Antigone, which "established Anouilh as a leading dramati