Party of Democratic Action
The Party of Democratic Action is a conservative Bosniak nationalist political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Party of Democratic Action was founded on 26 May 1990 in Sarajevo, as a "party of Muslim cultural-historic circle", it was a realisation of Alija Izetbegović's idea of an Islamic religious and national party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many members of the Islamic Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including imams, took part in the party's foundation. Alija, chosen as its chairman tried to resolve disputes between the Muslim nationalist-Islamists led by Omer Behmen and the left-wing Muslims led by Adil Zulfikarpašić; the party has its roots in the old Yugoslav Muslim Organization, a conservative Bosniak party in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Muslim Organization was a successor of Muslimanska Narodna Organizacija, a conservative Bosniak party founded in 1906 during the Austro-Hungarian era; the Muslim National Organization was itself a successor of the conservative Bosniak "Movement for waqf and educational autonomy" that goes back to 1887.
The SDA achieved considerable success in elections after the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. It founded the newspaper Ljiljan; the party remains the strongest political party among the Bosniak population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In November 2000 the party was defeated by the Social Democratic Party and other parties gathered into the "Alliance for Change", found itself in opposition for the first time since its creation; the party has branches in Slovenia, North Macedonia and the Sandžak region of Serbia. One of the goals of the party, outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, is to represent and defend the interests of Bosniaks and other Muslim South Slavs in the entire Balkan region. In Montenegro the party merged with smaller Bosniak and Slavic Muslim parties to create the Bosniak Party; the party is an observer member of the European People's Party. After the 2018 elections, SDA became once again the largest party in Herzegovina. In the 1998 elections SDA was the main party in the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (along with Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Liberal Democratic Party and Civic Democratic Party.
Notes Books Other sources Official website
Lukavac is a town and municipality located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 44,520 inhabitants. Lukavac covers an area of 352,66 km2, it shares borders with municipalities: of Tuzla, Živinice, Banovići, Zavidovići, Petrovo, Gračanica and Srebrenik. Apart from the town, the municipality comprises the following villages: Babice Donje • Babice Gornje • Berkovica • Bikodže • Bistarac Donji • Bistarac Gornji • Bokavići • Borice • Brijesnica Donja • Brijesnica Gornja • Caparde • Cerik • Crveno Brdo • Devetak • Dobošnica • Gnojnica • Huskići • Jaruške Donje • Jaruške Gornje • Kalajevo • Komari • Krtova • Kruševica • Lukavac • Lukavac Gornji • Mičijevići • Milino Selo • Modrac • Orahovica • Poljice • Prline • Prokosovići • Puračić • Smoluća Donja • Smoluća Gornja • Semići • Sižje • Stupari • Šikulje • Tabaci • Tumare • Turija • Vasiljevci • Vijenac In 1971, the population of Lukavac was 51,781, made up of: 34,010 Bosniaks 13,526 Serbs 3,111 Croats 613 Yugoslavs 521 others In the 1991 census, Lukavac municipality had 56,830 residents: Bosniaks Serbs Croats others In the 2013 census the municipality of Lukavac had 44,520 residents: Bosniaks Serbs Croats others Lukavac has strong chemical industry, like the whole Tuzla region.
The main factories are Soda Lukavac, member of Turkish Şişecam group and cement factory Fabrika Cementa Lukavac. The town's football club is FK Radnički Lukavac. There is Aikido Club "GARD" Lukavac. Lukavac town's Karate Club has achieved top recognitions in worldwide Karate competitions, has produced some of the best Karate Champions in the Region. Members of the club represent Bosnia and Herzegovina's representation in world championships. Amir Osmanović, footballer Zlatko Marsalek, goalkeeper Lukavac is twinned with: Bremen, Germany Official site
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments, it is inhabited by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats, why it is sometimes informally referred to as the Bosniak-Croat Federation. It is sometimes known by the shorter name Federation of B&H; the Federation was created by the 1994 Washington Agreement, which ended the part of the conflict whereby Bosnian Croats fought with Bosniaks. It established a constituent assembly that continued its work until October 1996; the Federation has a capital, president, parliament and police departments, two postal systems and an airline. It had its own army, the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, merged with the Army of the Republika Srpska to form the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the capital and largest city is Sarajevo with 438,443 inhabitants and the total population of 688,354 in its metropolitan area.
The Serb-dominated Yugoslav People's Army attacked Croatia from Herzegovina. Their first target was the village Ravno, attacked on 2 November 1991 and destroyed. Yugoslavia effected an economic blockade of Bosnia and Herzegovina, thus trying to keep it as part of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia claimed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a Serb majority and the capital Sarajevo. Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was declared on 27 March 1992 with the goal to incorporate parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina into Yugoslavia; the objective of Serbian politics in Bosnia and Herzegovina was to unite Serbian autonomous provinces into a single unit that would join Yugoslavia, with total blockade of Sarajevo, break Bosnia and Herzegovina into smaller and hardly defensible enclaves. Because of superiority in armaments, support from Belgrade and an embargo on the importation of arms into Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs achieved their goals by June 1992; the Bosniak leadership was still indecisive concerning a major conflict, so the Croats were the first to participate in the war.
They organized military units, Croatian Defence Forces in November 1991 and the Croatian Defence Council in April 1992. Those units were composed of Bosniaks; the Territorial Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina organized in autumn of 1992. In Serb-controlled areas, Serbs performed mass murders, ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs Bosniaks and Croats, established concentration camps and destroyed Bosniak and Croat cultural inheritance. By November 1992 Serbs had conquered 70% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and held Sarajevo in limbo by terrorizing its population by shelling and constant sniper fire; the creation of a Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was a matter of dispute for Bosniaks. Croats accused Bosniaks of Islamization of the country and attempts to create Bosniak domination in all areas. So they withdrew the ethnic Croat representatives from Parliament and the Presidency. Due to expulsions by Bosnian Serbs, Bosniaks moved to other areas and thus disrupted the Croats' area and altered their pre-war ratio.
Political disputes and minor incidents in central and northern Bosnia and in northern and central Herzegovina led to Croat-Bosniak War in November 1992. The Vance-Owen plan was presented in January 1993, it was planned to create 10 cantons on the territory of the whole of Herzegovina. This plan increased conflict between Bosniaks; the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina launched four offensives and conquered a large area, under control of HVO. Crimes against civilians were committed on both sides. Hostility between Croats and Bosniaks ended with mediation by the United States and the signing of the Washington Agreement on 18 March 1994; the cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was renewed, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a Bosniak and Croat controlled area was established. There was a proposal to create a confederation of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Croatia; the joint command of ARBiH, HVO and Croatian Army was established in March 1995. The closer cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was made through the Split Agreement where Bosnia and Herzegovina's Muslim leaders allowed the Croatian Army to free western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina with cooperation with ARBiH.
After the Operation Storm, the Serbian hoop around Bihać was broken and Croatian and Bosnian armies continued to liberate western Bosnia. The UN unsuccessfully tried to establish peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina by trying to create a successful structure for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs launched an attack on the UN-protected town of Bihać, but they were stopped by the Croatian army during Operation Storm. Joint Croatian-Bosnian military successes made peace negotiations possible; the basis for the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were laid down by the Washington Agreement of March 1994. Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croati
Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska. In the other entity, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbs form the majority in Drvar, Glamoč, Bosansko Grahovo and Bosanski Petrovac, they are referred to as Bosnian Serbs in English, regardless of whether they are from Bosnia or Herzegovina. They are known by regional names such as Krajišnici, Bosanci, Birčani, Posavci, Hercegovci. Serbs have a long and continuous history of inhabiting the present-day territory of Bosnia & Herzegovina, a long history of statehood in this territory. From the 15th to the 19th century, Orthodox Serbs in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina were persecuted under the Ottoman Empire. In the 20th century, persecution by Austria-Hungary, WWII genocide, political turmoil and poor economic conditions caused more to emigrate. In the 1990s, many Bosnian Serbs moved to Serbia proper and Vojvodina.
Having lived throughout much of Bosnia-Herzegovina prior to the Bosnian War, the majority now live in the Republika Srpska. According to the report by the Bosnia and Herzegovina statistics office, on the census of 2013 there were 1,086,733 Serbs living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs settled the Balkans in the 7th centuries. According to De Administrando Imperio, the Serbs had settled what is now Herzegovina, they inhabited and ruled Serbia, which included "Bosnia", "Rascia", the maritime principalities of Travunija and Paganija, the first two having been divided at the Neretva river. Serbia was at the time ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty. During the rule of Mutimir, the Serbs were Christianized; the Serbs were important Byzantine allies. Territory of Bosnia was ruled by several Serbian dynasties in the entire continuity of the Middle Ages. Bosnia or most of its present-day areas were ruled by Vlastimirovic, Vojislavljevic and Kotromanic dynasties. Prince Petar, defeated Tišemir in Bosnia, annexing the valley of Bosna.
Petar took over the Neretva, after which he seems to have come into conflict with Michael, a Bulgarian vassal ruling Zahumlje. Prince Časlav Klonimirović managed to unite all mentioned Serb territories and established a state that encompassed the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Sava river and the Morava valley as well as today's northern Albania. Časlav defeated the Magyars on the Drina river banks when protecting Bosnia, however, he was captured and drowned in the Sava. After his death, Duklja emerged as the most powerful Serb polity, ruled by the Vojislavljević dynasty. Constantine Bodin installed his relative Stefan as Ban of Bosnia. Next, the Nemanjić dynasty acquired the rule of the Serbian lands. With the establishment of the autocephalous Serbian Church, Archbishop Sava founded the Metropolitanate of Zahumlje; the progenitor, according to Porphyrogenitos, was the prince that led the Serbs to the Balkans during the reign of Heraclius The author gives the early genealogy: "As the Serb Prince who fled to Emperor Heraclius" in the time "when Bulgaria was under the Rhōmaíōn", "by succession, his son, grandson, so on, of his family rules as princes.
After some years, Višeslav is born, from him Radoslav, from him Prosigoj, from him Vlastimir."The time and circumstances of the first three rulers are unknown. It is hypothesized that &Višeslav ruled around 780, but it is unclear when Radoslav and Prosigoj would have ruled; when the Serbs were mentioned in 822 in the Royal Frankish Annals one of those two must have ruled Serbia. Dalmatia, in the antique period, stretched from modern-day Dalmatia far into the hinterland, northwards close to the Sava river, eastwards to the Ibar river. Višeslav's great-grandson Vlastimir began his rule around 830, he is the oldest Serbian ruler of which substantial data exists. Vlastimir united the Serbian tribes in the vicinityThe Serbs were alarmed, most consolidated due to the spreading of the Bulgarian Khanate towards their borders, in self-defence, sought to cut off the Bulgar expansion to the south. After the victory over the Bulgars, Vlastimir's status rose, according to Jr. Fine, he went on to expand to the west, taking Bosnia, Herzegovina Vlastimir married off his daughter to Krajina, the son of a local župan of Trebinje, around 847–48.
With this marriage, Vlastimir elevated the title of Krajina to archon. The Belojević family was entitled the rule of Travunija. Krajina had a son with Vlastimir's daughter, named Hvalimir, who would on succeed as župan of Travunia. Vlastimir's elevation of Krajina, the practical independence of Travunija, according to Živković, that Vlastimir was a Christian who understood the monarchal ideology that developed in the early Middle Ages. Časlav takes the throne in 927, with the dea
Gračanica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Gračanica is a city located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northeastern Herzegovina, east of Doboj and west of Tuzla; as of 2013, it has a population of 45,220 inhabitants. Gračanica is located in the lower valley of the River Spreča along the main road from Tuzla to Doboj, about 50 km west of Tuzla; the Gračanica municipality is the home of about 49,000 people. Villages around the town are: • Babići • Boljanić • Bosansko Petrovo Selo • Doborovci • Donja Lohinja • Džakule • Gornja Lohinja • Gračanica • Kakmuž • Karanovac • Lendići • Lukavica • Malešići • Miričina • Orahovica Donja • Orahovica Gornja • Piskavica • Porječina • Pribava • Prijeko Brdo • Rašljeva • Skipovac Donji • Skipovac Gornji • Sočkovac • Soko • Stjepan Polje • Škahovica • Vranovići The Gračanica municipality covers 219 square kilometers. First writings about Gračanica were found in Turkish archives from 1528, in which Gračanica was known by its iron mine.
Some 4 km away from the town was a middle age fortress named Sokol. Gračanica got the status of a town in 1548, it grew bigger during the 17th century, with the help of Ahmed-paša Budimlija, who built the White Mosque, a public bath and a clock tower. Through the time of Austrian Empire, Gračanica experienced huge economic and culture development. From 1929-41, Gračanica was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; the average temperature during January is 1.8 °C, during July 23.3 °C. This area is characteristic for small quantity of downfalls, which average year amount is 830mm/m2. Maximum quantity of downfalls is in May and June, minimum in March. Snowfalls are most at January and March. Gračanica is area with continental climate type. Formia, Italy Fleury-les-Aubrais, France Haninge, Sweden Milan, Italy Branko Cvetković, basketball player Muhamed Konjić, football player Nebojša Radmanović, politician Mitar Lukić, football player Vedin Musić, football player Edvin Kanka Ćudić, human rights defender Prof. dr Ilija Babić, law professor NK Bratstvo Gračanica, an association football club Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991.
Census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991. Official site Gracanica online community site Gračanički Glasnik Selo Buk, Općina Gračanica
Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo Canton, East Sarajevo and nearby municipalities, is home to 555,210 inhabitants.a Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of the Balkans. Sarajevo is the political and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media and the arts. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans", it is one of only a few major European cities which have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue in the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is home to the Balkans first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.
Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by local Young Bosnia activist Gavrilo Princip that sparked World War I, which ended Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II, the establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, the constituent republic's capital, which culminated with the hosting of the 1984 Winter Olympics marking a prosperous era for the city. However, after the start of the Yugoslav Wars, for 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The travel guide series Lonely Planet has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2019; the earliest known name for the large central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo is Vrhbosna. The name Sarajevo derives from the Turkish noun saray, meaning "palace" or "mansion"; the letter "j" in the Bosnian language is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet". The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455, meaning "the plains around the palace" or "palace plains". However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "evo" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some.
The first mention of name Sarajevo was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg. The official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna, it is still known by that name in modern Turkish. Sarajevo has had many nicknames; the earliest is Šeher, the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance which in turn comes from Persian: شهر shahr; as Sarajevo developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem"; some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government house. Sarajevo is near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina and within the historical region of Bosnia proper, it is situated 518 meters above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps. The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post-World War II era.
The city is surrounded by forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica at 2,088 meters Bjelašnica mountain at 2,067 meters, Jahorina at 1,913 meters, Trebević at 1,627 meters, with 1,502 meters Igman being the shortest; the last four are known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo. The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences perched on the hillsides; the Miljacka river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo to west part of city where meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka river is "The Sarajevo River", with its source 2 kilometres south of the town of Pale at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo center; the Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne near Ilidža, is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams such as Koševski Potok run through the city and its vicinity.