Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complex
The Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complex is a wildlife preserve operated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California near Klamath Falls, Oregon. It consists of Bear Valley, Klamath Marsh and Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge in southern Oregon and Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Clear Lake NWR in northern California. Lower Klamath NWR, established in 1908, was the first waterfowl refuge in the United States. Consisting of 46,900 acre, it includes shallow freshwater marshes, open water, grassy uplands, croplands that are intensively managed to provide feeding, resting and brood rearing habitat for waterfowl and other water birds. Clear Lake NWR, established in 1911, has an area of 46,460 acres. About 20,000 acres is open water; the balance is the surrounding upland habitat of bunchgrass, low sagebrush, juniper. Upper Klamath NWR, established in 1928, is composed of 15,000 acres of freshwater marsh and open water. Tule Lake NWR, established in 1928, encompasses 39,116 acres of open water and croplands.
Klamath Marsh NWR, established in 1958, consists of 40,646 acres of freshwater marsh and adjacent meadows. Bear Valley NWR, established in 1978, protects a vital night roost site for wintering bald eagles, it consists of 4,200 acres of old growth ponderosa pine, incense-cedar, white fir and Douglas-fir forest. The Klamath Basin was dominated by 185,000 acres of shallow lakes and freshwater marshes; these extensive wetlands attracted peak fall concentrations of over 6 million waterfowl and supported abundant populations of other water birds including American white pelican, double-crested cormorant, several heron species. In 1905, the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation initiated the Klamath Reclamation Project to convert the lakes and marshes of the Lower Klamath Lake and Tule Lake areas to agricultural lands; as these wetlands receded, the reclaimed lands were opened to agricultural development and settlement. Today, less than 25% of the historic wetlands remain. To conserve much of the Basin's remaining wetland habitat, the six National Wildlife Refuges have been established.
The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages these Refuges to enhance wildlife and benefit the American people. Agricultural and water programs are coordinated under an agreement between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Reclamation. Klamath Basin Refuges consist of a variety of habitats including freshwater marshes, open water, grassy meadows, coniferous forests and juniper grasslands, agricultural lands, rocky cliffs and slopes; these habitats support diverse and abundant populations of resident and migratory wildlife with 433 species having been observed on or near the Refuges. In addition, each year the Refuges serve as a migratory stopover for about three-quarters of the Pacific Flyway waterfowl, with peak fall concentrations of over 1 million birds. Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuge Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge List of National Wildlife Refuges Klamath Basin National Refuge Complex website Klamath Waters Digital Library
Gerber Reservoir is an irrigation impoundment created by Gerber Dam. It is located in southern Klamath County, United States; the reservoir covers 3,815 acres. The dam and reservoir are named in honor of Louis C. Gerber, an early pioneer who owned much of the land flooded by the reservoir. Today, the reservoir and surrounding property is owned by the United States Government, it is administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Gerber Reservoir is a popular outdoor recreation site with two campgrounds along its west shore. Native Americans occupied sites around what is now Gerber Reservoir for 6,400 years before the first European settlers arrived in the area. Ancient campsites have been found in the surrounding area. Family bands of Klamath and Modoc peoples used these sites from early spring through fall for hunting and plant gathering activities. Louis C. Gerber and his family were among the first whites to settle in the area. In the mid-1880s, Gerber used the Swamp Act to acquire 840 acres along Miller Creek on the high plateau northeast of the Langell Valley.
In 1895, he filed a homestead claim on an adjacent 168-acre parcel. By 1915, Gerber had purchased 20 abandoned homesteads in the same area, he consolidated all these properties into the Gerber Ranch. In 1923, Gerber sold 1,008 acres to the United States Government; this area was flooded when the Bureau of Reclamation completed the Miller Creek impoundment dam in June 1925. Both the dam and the reservoir it created were named in his honor. During World War II, the island in the middle of Gerber Reservoir was used as a United States military bombing range. Today and pelicans nest on the island. Gerber Reservoir is located on the east side of the Cascade Range in southern Oregon; the reservoir's water comes from its tributaries. In addition to Miller Creek, Barnes Creek, Barnes Valley Creek, Ben Hall Creek are year-around tributaries of the reservoir. There are a number of ephemeral tributaries that dry up in summer; the reservoir's outlet is Miller Creek. From there, the water flows southwest through Miller Creek Canyon to the Langell Valley, where it runs into the Lost River.
The watershed that drains into Gerber Reservoir covers 234 square miles. There are three primary vegetation zones that make up the watershed: coniferous forest, juniper woodlands, shrub-steppe. There are some meadow lands within the pine forest zone and in riparian areas along drainages that empty into the reservoir from the north and south; the watershed to the north and west of the reservoir are pine forest. The area east of the reservoir is juniper woodlands; the areas surrounding the reservoir are shrub-steppe. The vegetation in the coniferous forest is dominated by ponderosa pine. Other tree species found in the watershed are lodgepole pine, sugar pine, white fir, incense cedar; the forest understory include mountain mahogany, big sagebrush, low sagebrush, rabbitbrush and manzanita. Other common forest plants include ceanothus, snowberry, blue elderberry, chokecherry and serviceberry. Flowering plants include lupine, asters, balsamroot, wild strawberry and dandelion. Grasses found in the forested areas include Idaho fescue, intermediate wheatgrass, bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, Thurber needlegrass.
Invasive species include Kentucky cheatgrass brome. There are quaking aspen in the upland meadows areas dispersed within the pine forest portion of the watershed. Juniper woodlands are drier forest areas with sandy soil. Western juniper is the dominant species; the understory is similar to the pine forest with big sagebrush and bitterbrush distributed. Mountain mahogany, low sagebrush and gray horsebrush are common in some areas. Grasses include Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, bottlebrush squirreltail, granite prickly-phlox, western needlegrass, Sandberg bluegrass; the shrub-steppe areas around Gerber Reservoir are dominated by big sagebrush with low sagebrush common in rocky areas. Other vegetation includes rabbitbrush, spiny hopsage, wax currant, desert parsley, willow dock, blazing star, plains mustard, manna grass and ryegrass. Gerber Reservoir is an irrigation impoundment created by Gerber Dam; the reservoir covers 3,815 acres. It is 5 miles long and 2.3 miles wide. The reservoir has a branching shape with shallow arms.
There is one permanent island in the middle of the reservoir. The reservoir has an average depth of 27 feet with a maximum depth of 65 feet, its elevation is 4,835 feet above sea level. While few aquatic plants live in the shallow branches, the reservoir is still productive, its trophic state is classified as eutrophic. A combination of suspended inorganic matter and phytoplankton growth limit the water’s transparency. In the main part of the reservoir, the water is deep enough for thermal stratification. In the deeper thermal layers, there is less oxygen; the reservoir is in the rain shadow of the Cascade Range. As a result, the weather in the Gerber area is typical of high plateaus in the northern Basin and Range Province, it is characterized by ample sunshine, low precipitation, wide temperature ranges. Low humidity causes rapid evaporation; as a rule, winters in the Gerber area are summers mild. The annual average high temperature at Gerber Reservoir is 46.6 °F. The wa
The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or "silvers"; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch. During their ocean phase, coho salmon have dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked. After entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, the males may show a slight arching of the back. Mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds reaching up to 36 pounds, they develop a large kype during spawning. Mature females may be darker with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose; the eggs hatch in early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain immobile in the redd during the alevin life stage, which lasts for 6–7 weeks.
Alevin no longer have the protective egg shell, or chorion, rely on their yolk sacs for nourishment during growth. The alevin life stage is sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants; when the yolk sac is resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their freshwater natal streams spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs, before transforming to the smolt stage. Smolts are 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade and the adult's characteristic silver scales start to dominate. Smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July; some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, return to fresh water in the fall. Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn; some precocious males, known as "jacks", return as two-year-old spawners. Spawning males develop kypes, which are hooked snouts and large teeth; the traditional range of the coho salmon runs along both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russia, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, south to Monterey Bay, California.
Coho salmon have been introduced in all the Great Lakes, as well as many landlocked reservoirs throughout the United States. A number of specimens, were caught in waters surrounding Denmark and Norway in 2017, their source is unknown, but the salmon species is farmed at several locations in Europe, making it probable that the animal has slipped the net at such a farm. The total North Pacific harvest of coho salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish, of which 4.5 million were taken in the United States and 1.7 million in Russia. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all. Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery. Coho salmon average 3.5 % by 5.9 % by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest. The total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight. In North America, coho salmon is a game fish in fresh and salt water from July to December with light fishing tackle, it is one of the most popular sport fish in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.
Its popularity is due in part to the reckless abandon which it displays chasing bait and lure while in salt water, the large number of coastal streams it ascends during its spawning runs. Its habit of schooling in shallow water, near beaches, makes it accessible to anglers on the banks, as well as in boats. Ocean-caught coho is regarded as excellent table fare, it has a moderate to high amount of fat, considered to be essential when judging taste. Only spring chinook and sockeye salmon have higher levels of fat in their meat. Due to the lower fat content of coho, when smoking, it is best to use a cold-smoking rather than hot-smoking process. Coho, along with other species, has been a staple in the diet of several indigenous peoples, who would use it to trade with other tribes farther inland; the coho salmon is a symbol of several tribes, representing life and sustenance. In their freshwater stages, coho feed on plankton and insects switch to a diet of small fish upon entering the ocean as adults.
Spawning habitats are small. Salmonid species on the west coast of the United States have experienced dramatic declines in abundance during the past several decades as a result of human-induced and natural factors; the U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service has identified seven populations, called Evolutionary Significant Units, of coho salmon in Washington and California. Four of these ESUs are listed under the U. S. Endangered Species Act; these are the Lower Columbia River, Oregon Coast, Southern Oregon and Northern California Coasts, Central California Coast. The long-term trend for the listed populations is still downward, though there was one recent good year with an increasing trend in 2001; the Puget Sound/Strait of Georgia ESU in Washington is an NMFS "Species of Concern". Species of Concern are those species for which insufficient information prevents resolving the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's concerns regarding status and threats and whether to list the species under the ESA.
On May 6, 1997, NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce, listed as threatened the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast coho salmon ESU
Rangelands are grasslands, woodlands and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, savannas, chaparrals and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid rock, concrete and/or glaciers. Rangelands are distinguished from pasture lands because they grow native vegetation, rather than plants established by humans. Rangelands are managed principally with practices such as managed livestock grazing and prescribed fire rather than more intensive agricultural practices of seeding and the use of fertilizers. Grazing is an important use of rangelands but the term "rangeland" is not synonymous with "grazinglands". Livestock grazing can be used to manage rangelands by harvesting forage to produce livestock, changing plant composition or reducing fuel loads. Fire is an important regulator of range vegetation, whether set by humans or resulting from lightning.
Fires tend to reduce the abundance of woody plants and promote herbaceous plants including grasses and grass-like plants. The suppression or reduction of periodic wildfires from desert shrublands, savannas, or woodlands invites the dominance of trees and shrubs to the near exclusion of grasses and forbs; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines rangeland as "lands on which the native vegetation is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing use." The EPA classifies natural grassland and savannas as rangeland, in some cases includes wetlands, tundra, "certain forb and shrub communities." The primary difference between rangeland and pasture is management. Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina, the steppes of Eurasia.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by other herbaceous plants. However and rush families can be found. Grasslands occur on all continents except Antarctica. In temperate latitudes, such as northwest Europe and the Great Plains and California in North America, native grasslands are dominated by perennial bunch grass species, whereas in warmer climates annual species form a greater component of the vegetation. Steppe, in physical geography, refers to a biome region characterized by grassland plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes; the prairie is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. It may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest, but not dry enough to be a desert. Pampas are the fertile South American lowlands that include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba, most of Uruguay, the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in the southernmost end of Brazil covering more than 750,000 km2.
These vast plains are only interrupted by the low Ventana and Tandil hills near Bahía Blanca and Tandil, with a height of 1,300 m and 500 m respectively. The climate is mild, with precipitation of 600 mm to 1,200 mm, more or less evenly distributed through the year, making the soils appropriate for agriculture; this area is one of the distinct physiography provinces of the larger Paraná-Paraguay Plain division. These plains contain unique wildlife because of the different terrains around it; some of this wildlife includes the rhea, the badger, the prairie chicken. Shrubland is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs also including grasses and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur or be the result of human activity, it may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as browsing.
Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. The term "shrubland" was first coined in 1903. Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher densities and areas of trees, with closed canopy, provide extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forest. Savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or spaced so that the canopy does not close; the open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting of C4 grasses. Desert is a landscape or region that receives an low amount of precipitation, defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimetres per year, or as areas where m
Tule Lake is an intermittent lake covering an area of 13,000 acres, 8.0 km long and 4.8 km across, in northeastern Siskiyou County and northwestern Modoc County in California, along the border with Oregon. Tule Lake is fed by the Lost River; the elevation of the lake is 4,035 ft. Tule Lake is located 2.4 km, southwest of the town of Tulelake in Northern California. It is part of the Klamath Project. Canby's Cross is located about three miles south of the lake. During World War II, the United States federal government forced the evacuation of Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans, including citizens born in the United States, to numerous camps built in the interior of California and inland states, they were forced to sell their businesses and homes, suffered enormous economic and psychological losses by being treated as potential enemies. The Tule Lake War Relocation Center, a Japanese American internment camp, is located to the east in neighboring Modoc County. Following World War II, the federal government awarded 86 farm sites on land reclaimed by the drainage of Tule Lake to returning veterans using a Land Lottery.
A lottery was used because the number of applicants was greater than the number of homesteads available. Klamath Basin List of lakes in California
Gerber Dam is a concrete arch dam located 14 miles east of Bonanza and about 12 miles north of the California border, in Klamath County, Oregon. The dam was completed in 1925 by the United States Bureau of Reclamation as part of the Klamath Project, it provides irrigation storage but no hydroelectric power, it reduces flow into the downstream Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge in California. The dam is 460 feet long at the crest. Gerber Reservoir, formed by impounding Miller Creek, contains 94,300 acre-feet of water; the reservoir is a popular recreation area. Atlas of Oregon Lakes site
Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge
The Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States in northern California near the Oregon border. It covers 39,116 acres in the Tule Lake basin; the refuge was established in 1928 by President Calvin Coolidge to preserve habitat for birds and other animals. It is a staging area for migrating waterfowl such as the greater white-fronted goose, snow goose, Ross's goose, cackling goose; the refuge's waterways are inhabited by endangered fish species such as the Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker. Local habitat types include uplands vegetated with grasses and shrubs such as sagebrush, wetlands such as marshes; the refuge includes about 19,000 acres of cropland leased to growers. Crops include potato, horseradish and cereals. Recreation opportunities and public services include wildlife viewing and photography and hunting. List of National Wildlife Refuges Volcanic Legacy Scenic Byway Media related to Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge.