DSB (railway company)
DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner, is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia. While DSB is responsible for train operation on most of the Danish railways, goods transport. DSB runs a rail system, called S-train, in the area around the Danish capital, Copenhagen. DSB operates some trains in Sweden, DSB was founded in 1885 when the state-owned companies De jysk-fynske Statsbaner and De sjællandske Statsbaner merged. The first railways in Denmark were built and operated by private companies, the railways in Funen and Jutland were built by Peto and Betts who supplied the locomotives. Most of the staff was recruited from Britain, notably from the Eastern Counties Railway. The network was extended by new construction and by acquisition of the privately operated lines from Silkeborg to Herning and from Grenaa to Randers, the Danish state took over Det sjællandske Jernbaneselskab on January 1,1880, forming De sjællandske Statsbaner. After the merger, new lines were constructed and a new generation of rolling stock, after Busses retirement, however, DSB ceased to design its own locomotives and increasingly came to rely on outside suppliers, mainly Borsig of Berlin.
The nineteen-thirties were a decade of innovation and modernisation for DSB, new railway bridges were built across the Little Belt, the Storstrøm and Oddesund, eliminating the costly and time-consuming process of transfer by steam ferry. The suburban lines in and around Copenhagen were electrified for multiple-unit operation at 1,500 Volts DC, coinciding with the opening of the Little Belt Bridge in 1935, DSB introduced their new express train concept known as lyntog. Instead, DSB looked to foreign suppliers, general Motors diesel-electric locomotives had proved themselves in the US and Canada before the war. They were followed by the successful class MX with a lower axle load for branch line services. After the success of the Deutsche Bundesbahns VT11.5 class on Trans Europ Express services, DSB acquired eleven power cars, the 1960s were marked by an increasingly poor economy for DSB, leading to a steady staff reduction throughout the decade. However, this was accompanied by the appearance of new technology, notably the utilisation of electronic equipment, improving the safety.
DSBs position was strengthened by the oil crisis in 1973. On regional services in Funen and Jutland, the prewar design MO class railcars were displaced by MR class DMUs, in 1990, after a delay of several years, the IC3 trains came into use, initially as lyntog, and in 1991 as ordinary intercity trains. The IC3 trains, being a specimen of the Flexliner type of units, have a distinct appearance due to the rubber-framed ends. The Great Belt fixed link was opened for traffic in 1997
Klampenborg is a northern suburb to Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in Gentofte Municipality, directly on Øresund, between Taarbæk and Skovshoved, like other neighbourhoods along the Øresund coast, Klampenborg is an affluent area with many large houses. Klampenborg is known for a cluster of building projects by the Functionalist Danish architect Arne Jacobsen and these include Bellevue Beach, the Bellavista housing estate and the Bellevue Theatre, all completed between 1932–36 as some of the earliest Danish examples of Modernism. The area includes a Jacobsen-designed restaurant, now called Jacobsen, Klampenborg is the main gateway to the extensive Deer Garden forest park, one of the most popular natural areas in the Copenhagen area, known for its large deer population and ancient oak trees. The entrance, one of many, is located next to Klampenborg Station and is marked by a red-painted wooden gate. In connection with the lies the oldest operating amusement park in the world, Dyrehavsbakken
Hellerup Station is a regional and S-train railway station serving the district of Hellerup in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is served by trains on the Coast Branch, as well as S-trains. The station was designed by V. C. H, wolf and opened on 22 July 1863, simultaneous with the start of service on the Klampenborg line. The station was among the very first on Copenhagens S-train network, the very first S-train line included Hellerup station. This was in 1934 and the S-trains did initially follow the path of todays F-line. Hellerup station was the station from Klampenborg and the same counted from Vanløse. Since has the part of the F-line got a new path and several new stations have opened. The regional train lines goes from Nivå station to Copenhagen Airport via the City Centre, and from Elsinore via the City Centre to Copenhagen Airport and further to Scania and some other provinces in southern Sweden. Each hour departures 6 regional trains in each direction, the station serves Copenhagens S-train lines B, C, E, and F services.
For the latter line is the station its northern end station or terminus, weekdays do 60 S-train departure every hour. Twelve departures on Line-F, and six departures in each direction for the three lines. This gives 72 departing regional- and S-trains every hour from the stations five platform tracks and this doesnt quite reflect the number of passengers who use the station, but it is still a rather important station. Hellerup station is located within Copenhagen municipality, but the immediate surroundings formes the Hellerup borough of Gentofte municipality, media related to Hellerup Station at Wikimedia Commons
A suburb is a residential area or a mixed use area, either existing as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In some areas, such as Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and a few U. S. states, new suburbs are routinely annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land, the English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, which is in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs. The first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, in Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities, the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density suburbs in proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area.
The term middle suburbs is used, Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London, suburbs include formerly separate towns and villages that have been gradually absorbed during a growth and expansion. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city. The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements, large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town. The word suburbani was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas, as populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the city expanded.
The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest, by the mid-19th century, the first major suburban areas were springing up around London as the city became more overcrowded and unsanitary. A major catalyst in suburban growth came from the opening of the Metropolitan Railway in the 1860s, the line joined the capitals financial heart in the City to what were to become the suburbs of Middlesex. Harrow was reached in 1880, and the line extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street. Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of surplus land, in 1912, it was suggested that a specially formed company should take over from the Surplus Lands Committee and develop suburban estates near the railway. However, World War I delayed these plans and it was only in 1919, with expectation of a housing boom. The term Metro-land was coined by the Mets marketing department in 1915 when the Guide to the Extension Line became the Metro-land guide and this promoted the land served by the Met for the walker and the house-hunter
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales. If a station is on a line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in parts of the world. Stations may be at level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other modes such as buses. In British usage, the station is commonly understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station, Railway station and railroad station are less frequent. Outside North America, a depot is place where buses, trains, or other vehicles are housed and maintained and from which they are dispatched for service. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore.
The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, as the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is slightly older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road. The station was the first to incorporate a train shed, the station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal, the first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, manchesters Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses, dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, such stations were known as flag stops or flag stations.
Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the architecture of the time. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations often imitated 19th-century styles, various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used and they primarily serve lower density suburban areas, and often share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours, average speeds are high, often 50 km/h or higher. These higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved, some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones. The general range of commuter trains distance varies between 15 and 200 km, sometimes long distances can be explained by that the train runs between two or several cities. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems.
Toilets are often available on trains and in stations. Their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs, frequently they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays, especially where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the standard gauge track. Some light rail systems may run on a narrower gauge, some countries, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the USA and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters, most S-bahns typically behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, and long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city. The distances between stations however, are usually short, in larger systems there is usually a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Munich and Frankfurt, S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and very little exclusive trackage. A similar network exists in Copenhagen called the S-tog, in Hamburg and Copenhagen, diesel driven trains, do continue where the S-Bahn ends. Regional rail usually provides rail services between towns and cities, rather than purely linking major population hubs in the way inter-city rail does, Regional rail operates outside major cities. Unlike Inter-city, it stops at most or all stations between cities and it provides a service between smaller communities along the line, and connections with long-distance services at interchange stations located at junctions or at larger towns along the line. Alternative names are local train or stopping train, examples include the former BRs Regional Railways, Frances TER, Germanys DB Regio and South Koreas Tonggeun services
Dyrehavsbakken, commonly referred to as Bakken, is an amusement park near Klampenborg, but which belongs under Lyngby-Taarbæk Kommune, about 10 km north of Copenhagen. It opened in 1583 and is the worlds oldest operating amusement park, with 2. 5-2.7 million visitors per year, it is the second most popular attraction in Denmark, after the more widely known Tivoli Gardens amusement park. Residents of Copenhagen were attracted to the due to the poor water quality in central Copenhagen during this period. Many believed the natural spring water to have properties, and therefore Piils discovery drew large crowds. These large crowds attracted entertainers and hawkers, whose presence began the origins of amusement parks as are presently known, for a period the area that the spring was located on was not open to the public due to it being on royal hunting grounds. In 1669, King Frederick III decided to set up a park in the area and his son, Christian V. The area was named Jægersborg Dyrehave, its present name, in 1671, the park was off-limits to the general public under Christian V and this did not change until 1756, under Frederick V.
Open to the public once again, Dyrehavsbakken began to flourish. Bakken continued to grow throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Its popularity was aided by easier accessibility due to the development of steamships and railroads, as well as good publicity from poets. As the popularity of Bakken grew, its conditions worsened, as a result, some of the business owners, or tent owners as they are still called today, created the Dyrehavsbakken Tent Owners’ Association of 1885. The association improved garbage collection, restroom facilities, water supply, the association is still around today, and all businesses operating in the park are required to join. The entertainment options improved over time, cabarets such as Sansouci, which opened in 1866, and Bakkens Hvile, which opened in 1877, became increasingly popular. The 20th century brought other popular ventures, such as the Circus Revue, over time, more modern rides and entertainment options have been introduced. Bakken may have started as a place to get clean spring water, Bakken is home to six roller coasters, the most famous of which is Rutschebanen, a wooden roller coaster open since 1932.
Rutschebanen has been deemed an American Coaster Enthusiasts Coaster Classic, the park is home to dozens of other flat, or amusement, rides suited for all ages. Each of the rides requires a number of coupons. Bumper Cars - bumper cars Crazy Theater - indoor laser shoot-out, 5D Cimema - shows 4 different movies, each about 10 –12 minutes long
Heinrich Emil Charles Wenck was a Danish architect, known for the numerous railway stations he designed in his capacity of chief architect for the Danish State Railways from 1894 to 1921. During the years Wenck held the post, the network in Denmark experienced a strong expansion. Among these are Copenhagen Central Station and the Øresund Railway stations which are examples of his National Romantic, from 1903 he was a titular professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen. Heinrich Wenck was born on 10 March 1851 in Aarhus to Theodor Wenck, a officer and general à la suite who worked for the Danish road services. He attended the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1869 studying under Ferdinand Meldahl and Christian Hansen, in 1878 he won the Academys small gold medal for a project for a library in Neo-Gothic style and received a travel scholarship which took him to Italy from 1883 to 1885. From 1882 Wenck was employed by the Danish State Railways and his first major assignment was Helsingør railway station which he designed in collaboration with Holsøe.
It was inaugurated on 24 October 1891, from 1895 to 1897 he worked on the stations for the Øresund Railway which connected Copenhagen to Helsingør. They are designed in a fabulating National Romantic style which draws on inspiration from Martin Nyrop, Wenck did not just design the stations proper but a number of related buildings, such as carriage houses, housing for workers, switchmens houses and lavatories. With many of the stations, his approach was that of Gesamtkunst to the effect that he designed the signs, door handles, chandeliers. The stations won him the Eckersberg Medal in 1898, Wenck retired from the State Railways in 1921 and was succeeded by Knud Tanggaard Seest. fl. fl
The Copenhagen S-train, is the S-train of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a hybrid urban-suburban rail serving the Greater Copenhagen region, the average distance between stations is 2.0 km, shorter in the city core and inner boroughs, longer at the end of lines that serves suburbs. Of the 85 stations,32 are located within the ticket fare zones,1 and 2. The S-tog is analogous to S-Bahn systems in Germany, and is a system from the Copenhagen Metro, which operates in the city centre, Frederiksberg. On weekdays all stations are served at least every 10 minutes until the evening, There are six main lines and one peak hour support line. Since all lines, with exception of one, use the path through the city core, train departures occur every second minute there. On most suburban lines, trains depart every five minutes, on Sundays these time intervals are doubled. The first line was opened in 1934, which was Klampenborg-Copenhagen H-Vanløse-Frederiksberg, most were converted from steam operated railways to electric, metro-like operation and stations.
Today the network forms the heart of public transport in the city, the S-train is owned and run by DSB S-tog A/S. Similar to the S-Bahns of Berlin and Hamburg, the S-train network covers the greater urban area. The different networks use a system for fare zones and tickets. Copenhagens two different city rail systems, the S-train and the Metro, serve more than half a million people a day, as of January 2009 there are 170 km of dual track and 84 S-train stations, of which eight are in neighbouring towns outside greater Copenhagen. Trains across Øresund to Scania and its city, Malmö. In the city centre, the trains run underground in two tunnel sections, elsewhere they are in the open, occasionally above or below street level. There is only one station, Nørreport, but many stations are elevated above street level. Flintholm, Ny Ellebjerg and Danshøj stations have tracks crossing each other at different levels with platforms on each level, while at Ryparken they are on the same level. The ring line or F line has a section including Nørrebro Station.
Also, the junctions of the Farumbane with the lines at Ryparken and Svanemøllen include a short elevated section