Blekholmsbron is a pedestrian bridge in central Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching over Klara Sjö, it connects Norrmalm to Kungsholmen; the bridge is about 55 metres long between the abutments, of which some 32 metres passes over water with a horizontal clearance of 3,3 metres. It is named after Blekholmen, a small islet once located in Klara Sjö until continuous landfilling made it part of Norrmalm during the 18th century; this name dates from at least the 17th century and is most referring to the fabrics laid out for bleaching on the islet. Other nearby bridges include: Kungsbron, Sankt Eriksbron and Klarabergsviadukten. List of bridges in Stockholm
Riddarfjärden is the easternmost bay of Lake Mälaren in central Stockholm. Stockholm was founded in 1252 on an island in the stream where Lake Mälaren drains into the Baltic Sea; the panorama picture featured in this article was taken from the heights of Södermalm, west of Stadsholmen, looking down on Riddarfjärden. Left to right are viewable: Västerbron bridge Kungsholmen Island Stockholm City Hall, a red brick building with a bell tower, where the Nobel Prize dinner is served The tower of Klara Kyrka on Norrmalm, with its green copper roof five white sky scrapers between Sergels torg and Hötorget construction cranes iron tower of Riddarholmen Church on Riddarholmen Island yellow tower of Storkyrkan on Stadsholmen, in front of the flat roof of the Stockholm Palace narrow tower of Tyska Kyrkan on Stadsholmen distant radio and TV tower Kaknästornet Riddarfjärden throughout the year. Geography of Stockholm Media related to Riddarfjärden at Wikimedia Commons
Stadshusbron known as Nya Kungsholmsbron is a bridge in central Stockholm, Sweden located just north of the Stockholm City Hall. Stretching over Klara sjö, it connects mainland Norrmalm on the eastern shore to the island Kungsholmen on the western shore. Strong population growth on Kungsholmen caused a first bridge to be built on the location in 1669-1672, it was a 500 metres long pontoon bridge forming an angle on the southern side of the strait, at the time the longest bridge in Europe. It was rebuilt first in 1709 and a second time in 1766-1772. By that time, the strait had been made narrower by land fillings; the original bridge was replaced by a steel swing bridge in 1868. In connection to the construction of the City Hall in 1917-1919, the present 19 metres wide double-leafed drawbridge was built; the drawbridge was closed in 1949. List of bridges in Stockholm Klarabergsviadukten Blekholmsbron Kungsbron Barnhusbron
Geography of Stockholm
The City of Stockholm is situated on fourteen islands and on the banks to the archipelago where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. The city centre is situated on the water; the area of Stockholm is one of several places in Sweden with a joint valley terrain. In these landscapes erosion along geological joints has split the flattish upper surfaces into low-lying plateaus. In the case of Stockholm the plateau surfaces are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain; the access to fresh water is excellent in Stockholm today, in contrast to the horrible state of things, when lakes and watercourses were used as refuse dumps and latrines, causing epidemic cholera and many other diseases. By the 1860s things changed, as water fetched from Årstaviken, the waters south of Södermalm, was treated in the first water-purifying plant at Skanstull and from there distributed through water mains. In modern times the city gets its water from Lake Mälaren purified by plants at Norsborg and Lovön, together producing 350,000 m³ per day, which means Stockholmers are consuming 200 litres per day on average.
Water is purified at three plants at Bromma and Loudden, together filtering some 400,000 m³ sewage per day from pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus, before discharging it into the Baltic Sea. Levels of several pollutants in lakes in the central parts of the city on the western side, are far above average, including substances such as cadmium, copper and lead. Decreasing usage of several of these substances has reduced these levels in the upper sediments of the lakes; the Stockholm area used to contain a lot more lakes and watercourses than it does today, much due to post-glacial rebound, but because of lake reclaims for settlements and health. Historical lakes, such as Fatburssjön on Södermalm and Träsket on Norrmalm, were filthy and associated with the high mortality in Stockholm until the late 19th century. Other historical lakes, like Packartorgsviken and its interior part Katthavet, were filled with mud and stinky. Other lakes still present today were once much larger – such as Magelungen, Judarn, Råstasjön – while some bays of today once were proper lakes – Brunnsviken and Hammarby sjö.
Like in many other urban areas, the lakes of Stockholm are directly affected by the city's sewer system and pollution from settlements and industry. Sewers reduce the catchment areas of smaller lakes by redirecting surface water to Lake Mälaren or Lake Saltsjön. While nutritious substances such as phosphorus and nitrogen are derived from agriculture, urban areas produce high amounts of metals and organic compounds. In Stockholm, this applies to central bays – such as Klara sjö, Årstaviken, Ulvsundasjön, Riddarfjärden, Hammarby Sjö - but waters surrounded by bungalows and villas – like Långsjön in Älvsjö; the historical name for Stockholm Old Town was "The city between the bridges", a name, still used for the entire city which spans over numerous islands and hills. During the course of centuries, the city has seen many bridges relieve each other. In an urban code dated 1350, King Magnus IV prescribed the bridges leading over Norrström and Söderström to be built and maintained by the city of Stockholm together with six other cities surrounding Lake Mälaren, as they were the only land passage between the provinces Uppland and Södermanland and south of the city respectively.
In the view of the king, the city, a hundred years after its foundation, still couldn't afford to maintain its own bridges. Still, these first bridges were in no sense technically complicated or physically impressive, but rather simple wooden bridges, either floating bridges or beam bridges resting on poles or stone caissons, in either case with spans of no more than a few metres; the width corresponded to the directions for public roads, eight ell or 4,8 metres, more than enough for many centuries. The long and narrow bridges were demolished in case of siege, which besides the drawbridges necessary for the passing of ships, was an important defensive strategy; as the accounts of the city tells, spring floods and ice break-ups resulted in the frequent destruction of the bridges. By the mid 17th century, the population of the city had resulted in settlements north and south of Gamla stan, on Norrmalm and Södermalm, the number of bridges had grown if not their dimensions or quality. In a map dated 1640, three bridges connects Stadsholmen to Norrmalm passing over Helgeandsholmen, at the time still a group of islets.
Several new bridges of considerable length connected Norrmalm to the islets east of it. By the end of the 17th century, population growth resulted in an additional bridge north of Stadsholmen. One of the oldest bridges was located where today Stallbron is found south of the Riksdag Building; the first stone bridge, was built in front of the Royal Palace under Gustav III. Not until the 20th century, Stockholm was able to surpass the bays surrounding the city. Half of the about 30 bridges in central Stockholm were built most of them during the 1930s; this development was due to increasing traffic loads caused by a fivefold increase of vehicles in the 1920s. At Slussen, passing ships caused stationary rows of trams several hundreds metres long; the situatio
Barnhusviken is a body of water in central Stockholm, Sweden. Separating the island Kungsholmen from the mainland district Norrmalm north of it, it connects Karlbergssjön to Klara Sjö. Together with Karlbergskanalen, Karlbergssjön, Klara Sjö, Barnhusviken constitute the nameless body of water which separates Kungsholmen from the city districts Norrmalm and Vasastaden and the northern suburb Solna; the northern shore occupied by the Klarastrandsleden motorway and eight rows of railway tracks, is not accessible to pedestrians, but, in contrast, the southern shore offers a section of the walk stretching some 2 km from the City Hall and all the way along the northern shore of Kungsholmen. Just like the bridge Barnhusbron spanning across it and several other local structures, the former bay was named in the 1860s after an orphanage relocated from Riddarholmen to the neighbourhood on its northern shore in the 1630s, it is called a bay because it used to be a bay before continuous land filling transformed it into the narrow canal it is today.
On maps from the early 19th century it is labelled Rörstrandssjön after the vicinity to the porcelain factory of Rörstrand. Several prominent buildings line-up along the shores of Barnhusviken: On the northern shore is the Bonnier Tower, the skyscraper of the headquarters of Bonnier media group, designed be architects Anders and Ivar Tengbom and during the period 1949-1958 the tallest building in Stockholm. Next to it is the Bonniers Konsthall, designed by Johan Celsing and inaugurated in 2006. On the southern shore is the St Erik Area, a prestigious residential area build during the second half of the 1990s in a style imitating the Nordic Classicism prevalent in Sweden during the 1920s; the area is dominated by the huge flight of stairs leading down to the waterfront. While this project has been much criticized by architects as an outdated Disneyfication and New urbanism at its worst, the green space below this monumental staircase has proven popular among the numerous feral domestic rabbits who, since they started to spread from Solna in the mid-1980s, are giving the area a reputation.
Between the St Erik Area and the bridge is the headquarters of the insurance company Trygg Hansa, built 1967-76, on the opposite side of the bridge Tekniska nämndhuset, a huge brick complex built 1962-65 to house some 1.200 white-collar workers of the Stockholm City Planning Administration and various city committees. A matching addition facing the continuation of the bridge was made for the Stockholm District Court in 1984-86. Geography of Stockholm History of Stockholm "Norrmalm". Stockholms gatunamn. Stockholm: Kommittén för Stockholmsforskning. 1992. P. 149. ISBN 91-7031-042-4. Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur förlag. 1999. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. "Bonniers Konsthall - About: Profile". Bonniers Konsthall. Retrieved 2008-01-04. "Bonniers Konsthall - Architecture: Glass and concrete". Bonniers Konsthall. Retrieved 2008-01-04. Hallgren, Magnus. "Innerstaden översvämmas av kaniner". Dagens Nyheter. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15. Retrieved 2008-01-04
Klara is a part of lower Norrmalm in the central part of Stockholm. It has its name from Klara Church. Today the name, though not used in daily speech, has become synonymous with the old city that once occupied lower Norrmalm. Arvfurstens palats Sagerska Palatset Klara Church Kulturhuset Sergels torg During the 1950s and 1960s Klara went through an extensive urban renewal project. Over 450 buildings were torn down and most of the existing houses in this area were rebuilt during the early 19th century. Before the demolitions the area was characterized by workshops; the new buildings on the other hand were office buildings. Many writers and journalists have condemned the demolitions. History of Stockholm
Klarabergsviadukten is a reinforced concrete bridge and a viaduct in central Stockholm, Sweden. Stretching over Klara Sjö, it connects Norrmalm to Kungsholmen. Where in English viaduct signify a bridge composed of several small spans, in Swedish it is used for other bridges railway or motorway bridges, of one span or more, spanning only land or, for example a street; the spans of Klarabergsviadukten stretches over both a railway yard and Klara sjö, was intended to form part of a traffic route, connecting central Stockholm to the western suburbs, plans cancelled in 1974. Though not a viaduct in the Swedish sense, it still retains its name. First brought up in a proposal in 1928, a traffic route bridging the central railway yard in Stockholm and Klara sjö was planned to continue through the Seraphim Hospital area over Norr Mälarstrand along the southern shore of Kungsholmen to reach Drottningsholmsvägen, the road leaving Stockholm for the western suburbs. Over the years, the expected development of the traffic system in Stockholm made the planned route wider and wider, from the planned 18 metres in 1932 to 31 metres when the viaduct and bridge were built in 1961.
Klarabergsviadukten is composed of several sections. It stretches 106 metres with a maximum span of 32 metres over Vasagatan; because the bridge never was used as part of a motorway, its dimensions are out of proportion, it is therefore being used for parking. List of bridges in Stockholm Stadshusbron Blekholmsbron Kungsbron Barnhusbron Stockholm Waterfront