The Eastman Region--also known as Division No. 1-- is located in the south-eastern corner of the Canadian province of Manitoba. It is bounded on the north by the Winnipeg River and Lake Winnipeg, on the east by the Manitoba-Ontario border, on the south by the Canada–US border and on the west by the Red River, it is bordered on the north by the Northern Region, on the east by Northwestern Ontario on the south by the state of Minnesota, on the west by the Pembina Valley Region and the Interlake Region. The city of Steinbach is the largest population centre in the region; the Trans-Canada Highway runs through the middle of the Eastman Region. The region comprises Manitoba Census Divisions No. 1, No. 2, No. 12, which had a total population of 104,535 at the 2011 census. The total land area is 21,137.02 km². Beausejour Lac du Bonnet Niverville Pinawa Powerview-Pine Falls Ste. Anne St-Pierre-Jolys Steinbach Community Profile: Census Division No. 1, Manitoba. 2, Manitoba. 12, Manitoba.
William Hespeler was a German - Canadian businessman and immigration agent and a member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. He served as Speaker of the Legislature and as honorary consul of Germany to Winnipeg and the Northwest Territories, he was awarded the Order of the Red Eagle for his services to Germany. Hespeler was born as Wilhelm Hespeler in Baden-Baden, Grand Duchy of Baden, the son of Georg Johann and Anna Barbara Hespeler, his mother was a granddaughter of Count Károly Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka, a Hungarian nobleman, his father was a businessman with the house of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Hespeler was educated at the Polytechnic Institute at Karlsruhe, he left school at the age of nineteen and emigrated to Canada with his mother in 1850, his father having died in 1840. Hespeler worked for his older brother Jacob Hespeler before becoming a partner in the firm of Hespeler and Randall, which ran both a distillery and a grain mill, he married a Canadian woman and became a naturalized British subject at some time before 1867, adopting the first name of "William".
In 1870 he returned to Baden-Baden, serving as a stretcher-bearer during the Franco-Prussian War before being hired by the Government of Canada as an immigration agent in 1871. While he was in Baden he heard that a number of Mennonite families in Russia were intending to immigrate to the United States, he reported back to his superiors in Canada, who sent him to Russia to persuade the Mennonites to choose Canada instead. Despite considerable opposition both from British and Russian authorities, he was able to arrange for thousands of Mennonites to immigrate. Most settled in the area around Winnipeg. Impressed with his success, the Minister of Agriculture, John Henry Pope, appointed him Dominion Immigration and Agriculture Agent for Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. Hespeler moved to Winnipeg, he arranged for further Mennonite immigration and encouraged Icelandic immigrants and Jewish refugees from Germany and elsewhere to settle in Manitoba. During this time he combined his work for the government with his private business of grain merchant, but he worked to ensure the welfare of new immigrants through the provision of emergency supplies and temporary shelter.
He planned the town of Niverville and erected the first grain elevator on the Canadian Prairies. In 1876 Hespeler was elected alderman for Winnipeg's South Ward and was appointed a Justice of the Peace and a member of the Council of Keewatin. In 1882 the German government appointed him honorary consul for Winnipeg and the Northwest Territories. Hespeler was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in the 1899 general election as an independent for the rural riding of Rosenfeld. On March 29, 1900 he was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, one of the first men not born a British subject to be appointed to this level of government in the British Empire. Despite his conservative leanings he did not support the government of Conservative premier Hugh John Macdonald. Redistribution eliminated the riding of Rosenfeld in 1903 and Hespeler chose not to run again, his retirement was marred during World War I by hostility from residents of Winnipeg arising from his German connections. After the war he found himself forgotten by the city and the province he had helped to populate.
Hespeler was married three times. After the death of his third wife in 1920, Hespeler moved to Vancouver to live with his son Alfred, he died the next year at the age of 90. Hespeler Avenue in Winnipeg's East Kildonan ward was named for William Hespeler. There are Hespeler Roads in Steinbach, the Rural Municipality of Hanover, Gretna and a Hespeler Park in Niverville that are named after him. William Hespeler, Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Volume XII. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990. William Hespeler at the Manitoba Historical Society The story of Manitoba Who's who in German Canadian history History in Winnipeg Streets at the Manitoba Historical Society
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Steinbach (electoral district)
Steinbach is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was created by redistribution in 1989, has formally existed since the provincial election of 1990. For the 2011 election, Steinbach was redistributed again, it was contracted for the second consecutive time as population densities in the city and area grew. Steinbach is located in southeastern Manitoba, it is bordered by Emerson to the west, La Verendrye to the south and east, Dawson Trail to the north, Morris to the west. The largest community in the riding is the city of the riding's namesake. Other major centres include Kleefeld. Thirty-four per cent of the riding's residents list German as their ethnic origin, a further 7% list themselves as Dutch. There is a strong Mennonite presence in the riding. Steinbach's population in 2006 was 19,415. In the year 1999, the average family income was $46,133, the unemployment rate was 5.00%. Manufacturing accounts for 17% of the riding's industry, followed by agriculture at 14%.
The riding has been held by the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba since its creation, is considered safe for that party. Steinbach's rural nature, as well as the city's religious background, gives the riding a strong social conservative tint. Manitoba political pundits refer to Steinbach as a "yellow dog riding," as it is one of many rural ridings where it is said in jest that the Tories could nominate a yellow dog and still win, it is located within the conservative federal riding of Provencher. The current MLA is Kelvin Goertzen, first elected with 75% of the vote in 2003. Goertzen is the deputy leader of the Progressive Conservatives in Manitoba
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. In his youth he was a popular figure in the court of Queen Victoria, became well known to the public after publishing a best-selling account of his travels in the North Atlantic, he is now best known as one of the most successful diplomats of his time. His long career in public service began as a commissioner to Syria in 1860, where his skilful diplomacy maintained British interests while preventing France from instituting a client state in Lebanon. After his success in Syria, Dufferin served in the Government of the United Kingdom as the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Under-Secretary of State for War. In 1872 he became the third Governor General of Canada, bolstering imperial ties in the early years of the Dominion, in 1884 he reached the pinnacle of his diplomatic career as eighth Viceroy of India. Following his retirement from the diplomatic service in 1896, his final years were marred by personal tragedy and a misguided attempt to secure his family's financial position.
His eldest son was another son badly wounded. He was chairman of a mining firm that went bankrupt after swindling people, although he was ignorant of the matter, his biographer Davenport-Hines says he was "imaginative, warm-hearted, gloriously versatile." He was an effective leader in Lebanon and India, averted war with Russia, annexed Burma. He was charming in high society on three continents, he was born Frederick Temple Blackwood into the Ascendancy, Ireland's Anglo-Irish aristocracy, the son of Price Blackwood, 4th Baron Dufferin and Claneboye. On his father's side, Dufferin was descended from Scottish settlers who had moved to County Down in the early 17th century; the Blackwood family became prominent landowners in Ulster over the following two hundred years, were created baronets in 1763, entering the Peerage of Ireland in 1800 as Baron Dufferin. The family had influence in parliament because they controlled the return for the borough of Killyleagh. Marriages in the Blackwood family were advantageous to their landowning and high-society ambitions.
His mother, Helen Selina Sheridan, was the granddaughter of the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan and through her the family became connected to English literary and political circles. Dufferin was born in 1826 in Florence the capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in the Italian peninsula, with great advantages, he was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, where he became president of the Oxford Union Society for debate, although he left Oxford after only two years without obtaining a degree. While still an Oxford undergraduate, he visited Skibbereen in County Cork to see the impact of the Irish Famine first-hand, he was appalled by. In 1841, while still at school, he succeeded his father as Baron Dufferin and Claneboye in the Peerage of Ireland and in 1849 was appointed a Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria. In 1850 he was additionally created Baron Claneboye, of Clandeboye in the County of Down, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1856, Dufferin set off on a journey around the North Atlantic.
He first made landfall on Iceland, where he visited the very small Reykjavík, the plains of Þingvellir, Geysir. Returning to Reykjavík, Foam was towed north by Prince Napoleon, on an expedition to the region in the steamer La Reine Hortense. Dufferin sailed close to Jan Mayen Island, but was unable to land there due to heavy ice and caught only a brief glimpse of the island through the fog. From Jan Mayen, Foam sailed on to northern Norway, stopping at Hammerfest before sailing for Spitzbergen. On his return, Dufferin published a book about Letters From High Latitudes. With its irreverent style and lively pace, it was successful and can be regarded as the prototype of the comic travelogue, it remained in print for many years and was translated into French and Urdu. The letters were nominally written to his mother, with whom he had developed a close relationship after the death of his father when he was 15. Despite the great success of Letters From High Latitudes, Dufferin did not pursue a career as an author, although he was known for his skilful writing throughout his career.
Instead he became a public servant, with his first major public appointment in 1860 as British representative on a commission to Syria to investigate the causes of a civil war earlier that year in which the Maronite Christian population had been subject to massacres by the Muslim and Druze populations. In light of this work in June 1861 he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. Working with French, Russian and Turkish representatives on the commission, Dufferin proved remarkably successful in achieving the objectives of British policy in the area, he upheld Turkish rule in the area, prevented the French from establishing a client state in Lebanon securing the removal of a French occupying force in Syria. He defended the interests of the Druze community, with whom Britain had a long association; the other parties on the commission were inclined to repress the Druze population, but Dufferin argued that had the Christians won the war they would have been just as bloodthirsty.
The long-term plan agreed by the commission for the governance of the region was that proposed by Dufferin — that Lebanon should be governed separately from the rest of Syria, by a Christian Ottoman, not a native of Syria. He was appointed a Knight of the Order of Saint Patrick on 28 January 1864. Du