Renault in Formula One
Renault are involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault F1 Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986 again from 1989 to 1997 and at various other times since until the present. Renault returned to Formula One in 2000. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as "Renault F1 Team" and started to use Renault as their constructor name, winning both the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships in 2005 and 2006. For the 2011 season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the team changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015, when they returned to the control of Renault as a works manufacturer.
For the 2019 season "Sport" was removed from the team's official title. Renault has supplied engines to other teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula and Williams. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors' Championships and two Drivers' Championships, as an engine supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers' Championships, it has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier. Renault's first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car; the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V6 1.5 L turbocharged engine, the first used turbo engine in Formula One history. Jabouille's car and engine proved unreliable and became something of a joke during its first races, earning the nickname of "Yellow Teapot" and failing to finish any of its races despite being powerful; the first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the ninth round of the season, but the car was not yet ready.
The team's début was delayed until the British Grand Prix. The car's first qualifying session was not a success, Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters, 1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the car's turbo failed on lap 17; the team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment. They returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth, he had a poor start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The team's poor qualifying form returned in Italy, he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. Things improved at Watkins Glen for the United States Grand Prix as Jabouille qualified 14th, but the good pace from Zandvoort seemed to be gone as he once again ran outside the top 10 before retiring with yet another reliability problem, this time the alternator, on lap 31.
Jabouille failed to qualify in Canada. After this, Renault did not travel to the season finale in Japan; the following year was hardly better, characterised by four consecutive retirements caused by blown engines, but near the end of the year the team showed signs of success. Twice, the RS01 qualified 3rd on the grid and while finishing was still something of an issue, it managed to finish its first race on the lead lap at Watkins Glen near the end of 1978, giving the team a fourth-place finish and its first Formula One points; the team did not enter the first two races of 1978, in Argentina and Brazil, but returned for the South African Grand Prix at Kyalami. Jabouille secured Renault's best qualifying position to date, with sixth place, just 0.71 seconds behind polesitter Niki Lauda in the Brabham. He dropped out of the points early in the race before retiring with electrical problems on lap 39. At Long Beach, Jabouille qualified 13th, but retired as the turbo failed again on lap 44, he was twelfth in qualifying for the team's first Monaco Grand Prix, gave the team their first finish in Formula One, finishing in tenth place four laps down on race-winner Tyrrell's Patrick Depailler.
Expanding to two drivers with René Arnoux joining Jabouille, the team continued to struggle although Jabouille earned a pole position in South Africa. By mid-season, both drivers had a new ground-effect car, the RS10, at Dijon for the French Grand Prix the team legitimised itself with a brilliant performance in a classic race; the two Renaults were on the front row in qualifying, pole-sitter Jabouille won the race, the first driver in a turbo-charged car to do so, while Arnoux and Gilles Villeneuve were involved in an competitive duel for second, Arnoux narrowly getting beaten to the line. While Jabouille ran into hard times after that race, Arnoux finished a career-high second at Silverstone in the following race and repeated that at the Glen, proving it was not a fluke. Arnoux furthered this in 1980 with consecutive wins in Brazil and South Africa, both on high altitude circuits whe
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited racing in Formula One as ROKiT Williams Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded by team owner Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head, it is still run by Williams; the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams's two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf–Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" a number, the FW being the initials of team owner, Frank Williams; the team's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Canadian Jacques Villeneuve scored the team's 100th race victory, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and fellow British team McLaren, to win 100 races.
Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Drivers for Williams have included Australia's Alan Jones; each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one Drivers' title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones and Villeneuve defended their title while still with the team. Piquet moved to Lotus after winning the 1987 championship, Mansell moved to the American-based Indy Cars after winning the 1992 championship, Prost retired from racing after his 4th World Championship in 1993, while Hill moved to Arrows after winning in 1996. No driver who has won a drivers' title with Williams has managed to win a title again. Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most with Renault, winning five of their nine Constructors' titles with the French company. Along with Ferrari, McLaren and Renault, Williams is one of a group of five teams that won every Constructors' Championship between 1979 and 2008 and every Drivers' Championship from 1984 to 2008.
Williams F1 has business interests beyond Formula One racing. Based in Grove, Oxfordshire, UK, Williams has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, failed to achieve the success he desired. Despite the promise of a new owner, Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team's rebranding as Wolf–Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as "Williams Grand Prix Engineering". Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the "Williams–Head" partnership. Reuters reported on 20 November 2009 that Williams and Patrick Head had sold a minority stake in the team to an investment company led by Austrian Toto Wolff who said that it was purely a commercial decision.
In February 2011, Williams F1 announced plans to raise capital through an initial public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in March 2011, with Sir Frank Williams remaining the majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. As of December 2017, ownership is as follows: Frank Williams. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season. Lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix; the new team failed to score a point. For the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car: the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom Pryce. Jones's first race for the team was the Argentine Grand Prix where he qualified the lone Williams car in 14th position, but retired after 36 laps with a fuel system failure; the team scored its first championship points two rounds at the South African Grand Prix when Jones finished fourth.
Williams managed their first podium position at the United States Grand Prix, where the Australian came second, some 20 seconds behind the Ferrari of future Williams driver Carlos Reutemann. Williams ended the season in tenth place in the Constructors' Championship, with a respectable 16 points, while Alan Jones finished 12th in the Drivers' Championship. Towards the end of 1978 Frank Williams recruited Frank Dernie to join Patrick Head in the design office. Head designed the FW07 for the 1979 season with Frank Dernie picking up the aerodynamic development and skirt design; this was the team's first ground effect car, a technology first introduced by Colin Chapman and Team Lotus. Williams obtained membership of the Formula One Constructors' Association which expressed a preference for teams to run two cars, so Jones was partnered by Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni, it was not until the seventh round of the championship, the Monaco Grand Prix, that they achieved a points-scoring position. Regazzoni came close to taking the team's first win but finished second, less than a second behind race winner Jody Scheckter.
The next round at Dijon is remembered for
1954 Indianapolis 500
The 38th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Monday, May 31, 1954. The event was part of the 1954 AAA National Championship Trail, was race 2 of 9 in the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. Bill Vukovich won his second consecutive 500. Vukovich died the following year attempting to win his third consecutive Indy 500; the race went 110 laps before the first yellow light. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 15 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 16 – Second day time trials Saturday May 22 – Third day time trials Sunday May 23 – Fourth day time trials Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Eddie Johnson — Johnson drove relief during the race Pole position: Jack McGrath – 4:15.26 Fastest Lead Lap: Jack McGrath – 1:04.04 Relief drivers: Troy Ruttman & Duane Carter shared car no 34. Shared points for 4th position. Paul Russo & Jerry Hoyt shared car no 5. Art Cross, Jimmie Davies, Johnnie Parsons, Andy Linden & Sam Hanks shared car no 45.
Chuck Stevenson, Walt Faulkner shared car no 98. Duane Carter, Jimmy Jackson, Tony Bettenhausen & Marshall Teague shared car no 16. Ed Elisian & Bob Scott shared car no 27. Frank Armi & George Fonder shared car no 71. Sam Hanks, Jimmie Davies & Jim Rathmann shared car no 1. Rodger Ward & Eddie Johnson shared car no 12. Gene Hartley & Marshall Teague shared car no 31. Andy Linden & Bob Scott shared car no 74. Johnny Thomson, Andy Linden & Jimmy Daywalt shared car no 43. Jim Rathmann & Pat Flaherty shared car no 38. Spider Webb & Danny Kladis shared car no 65. Len Duncan & George Fonder shared car no 33; the race was carried live flag-to-flag on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network. It was the second time; the broadcast was anchored by Sid Collins, his third as chief announcer, seventh year overall with the crew. Charlie Brockman served as booth analyst and statistician, reported from victory lane. Of note, the network expanded its coverage to include four qualifying wrap-up shows during time trials weekends.
The network expanded to include four qualifying wrap-up shows, the number of affiliate stations increased to 210. All five major radio stations in Indianapolis carried the broadcast; the 1954 broadcast is notable in that it featured for the first time the famous phrase "Stay tuned for the Greatest Spectacle in Racing." Due to the increased number of affiliates at the time, the network needed a scripted "out-cue" to alert producers when to manually insert local commercials. A young WIBC marketing staff member named Alice Greene is credited with inventing the phrase, chief announcer Sid Collins coined it on-air, it has been used since, with all of the chief announcers proudly reciting it during their respective tenures. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site 1954 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Automobili Turismo e Sport
ATS is an Italian automotive constructor. It once had a racing team that operated between 1963 and 1965, formed after the famous "Palace Revolution" at Ferrari; the company was formed by Carlo Chiti and Giotto Bizzarrini, among others – intending for it to be a direct competitor to Ferrari both on the race track and on the street. Chiti and Bizzarrini built, with sponsorship from the Scuderia Serenissima's Count Giovanni Volpi, a road-going sports car and a Formula One racing car, it was presented in April 1963 at the Geneva Motor Show. The sports car was the ATS 2500 GT, a small coupé developed by Chiti and Bizzarrini with a Franco Scaglione-designed bodywork built by Allemano; the engine was a mid-mounted 2.5 L V8 engineered by Chiti, capable of achieving 245 hp and accelerating to 257 km/h. Only 12 cars were built, few exist today. Apart from being the second mid-engine sports cars, the 2500 GT never gained fame or popularity, but its 90 degree DOHC V8 with a flatplane crankshaft was developed into Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 engine in 2 L, 2.5 L and 3 L formats by Carlo Chiti at Autodelta.
Construction of the Tipo 100 began in mid-1962 on a farm near Bologna, with the car being unveiled in that city in December 1962. The Tipo 100 had a pencil thin body, was powered by a V8 1,494cc engine, which featured fuel injection and double-overhead camshafts; the transmission was a 6-speed Colotti gearbox. Suspension consisted of rockers arms with inboard coils for the front, double wishbones with coils for the rear, while disc brakes were mounted inboard. Total weight was just over 1,000 pounds The cars were to be driven by Phil Hill and Giancarlo Baghetti, who had both left Ferrari after a disappointing 1962 season. Testing took place at Monza, but this was slow and tedious, as when something broke, the car had to be taken back to Bologna for repairs, taken back to Monza for further testing. One of the major problems was chassis flexing, fixed by the unusual method of reinforcing tubes being welded over the top of the engine; the car was entered for several non-Championship races early in the season, but was withdrawn, due to not being ready.
A similar situation occurred for the Monaco Grand Prix, before the cars made their first appearance, at the Belgian Grand Prix. Spectators and fellow competitors were shocked by the Tipo 100’s appearance. After looking so fantastic at the public unveiling back in Bologna, they now had rumpled body panels, pock marks and were poorly painted; the cars were oily and greasy, the body panels were ill-fitting. Due to the reinforcing tubes being over the top of the engine, they had to be sawed apart for an engine change, welded back into place. A new higher engine cover had been hurriedly fabricated to hide the tubes. Both cars retired; the team did not attend the French and German races. The Tipo 100 returned for the Italian Grand Prix, both cars started and finished, although a long way down the field – Hill 11th and Baghetti 15th; that was the only race where an ATS was classified as a finisher, with both cars retiring in the United States Grand Prix and Mexican Grand Prix, which marked the end of A.
T. S as a Formula 1 team; the ATS would be used in the Derrington-Francis project spearheaded by the Rob Walker Racing Team's former chief mechanic, Alf Francis. The car made one appearance at a Formula 1 race, the 1964 Italian Grand Prix, driven Mário de Araújo Cabral, where it retired after 25 laps; this car was subsequently restored in the late 1990s, has appeared in historic racing meetings since then. Count Volpi subsequently backed the Serenissima marque which used much technology similar to ATS. Bruce McLaren used a Serenissima engine for a few Grands Prix in 1966. After the demise of ATS, Bizzarrini moved to Lamborghini before building his own cars as Bizzarrini, while Chiti founded Autodelta together with fellow ex-Ferrari engineer Lodovico Chizzola, which would work with Alfa Romeo for the following decades. In 2012, 50 years Daniele Maritan bought the brand and began development on two cars: the ATS Wild Twelve, which used a 3.8-litre V12 engine combined with four electric motors, the modern iteration of the 2500 GT, which used a 2.5-litre Subaru-Cosworth turbocharged flat-4-cylinder engine with a power output of 500 PS.
In 2017, ATS introduced the GT, which uses McLaren's 3.8-litre twin-turbocharged V8 engine, as seen on McLaren's new models. ATS has planned production of 12 cars. Stiel, Simon. "Rebels Without Speed: The ATS Fiasco". F1 Rejects. Archived from the original on 22 March 2013. Official site
1954 German Grand Prix
The 1954 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Nürburgring on 1 August 1954. It was race 6 of 9 in the 1954 World Championship of Drivers, it was the 17th German Grand Prix since the race was first held in 1926 and the 16th to be held at the Nürburgring complex of circuits. The race was won by 1951 world champion, Argentine driver Juan Manuel Fangio driving a Mercedes-Benz W196. Ferrari 625 drivers Mike Hawthorn and Maurice Trintignant finished second and third for Scuderia Ferrari; the race was lengthened from 18 to 22 laps, bringing the German Grand Prix up to the 500 kilometre race distance used by the majority of Formula One Grands Prix at the time. Mercedes had brought to the Nürburgring their new open-wheeled version of the W196 for Fangio and Hermann Lang after Mercedes's defeat at Silverstone in their streamlined cars. Hans Herrmann drove a streamlined W196s. Qualifying saw Fangio take pole position from Hawthorn, but practice was marred by the death of official Maserati driver Onofre Marimón.
Going into the Wehrseifen slight right hand/sharp left hand turn, Marimón's Maserati 250F failed to negotiate the corner while going down the downhill run to the corner, plunged down an embankment, the car somersaulted and he was killed instantly. Marimón's teammate Luigi Villoresi withdrew from the race, as did Owen Racing entered Maserati of Ken Wharton but the team's third car for Sergio Mantovani made the race start. Stirling Moss qualified third in his entered Maserati 250F ahead of Hans Herrmann and Paul Frère. Fangio and Karl Kling led the way in their two Mercedes. Hawthorn was an early retirement with a broken axle as were Moss, Frère and privateer Maserati driver Roberto Mieres. Hermann Lang, one of the pre-war stars of the Mercedes'silver arrows' spun out of his final Grand Prix appearance after ten laps. Gonzalez started and was running third but was so upset by Marimón's death he was called in after 16 laps to hand over to Hawthorn, who set off in pursuit of the Mercedes, he moved into second when Kling pursued Fangio relentlessly.
Late in the race, drizzle forced him to slow and he held second from Trintignant. Kling finished fourth ahead of Mantovani, the last driver to travel the full race distance, getting some points for a saddened Maserati. Kling claimed the fastest lap point. Just ten of the 23 qualifiers finished the gruelling race. With an elapsed time of 3 hours 45 minutes 45.8 seconds this was the longest F1 championship race in history, until the 2011 Canadian Grand Prix, which lasted just over four hours. The win pushed Fangio further ahead in the championship, now to the point where he had more than double the points of his nearest rival Gonzalez. A win in the next race at the Swiss Grand Prix could wrap up his second championship. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Shared Drive – Car #1: González Hawthorn Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship
Theodor "Theo" Helfrich was a racing driver from Germany. He participated in three World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 3 August 1952, but scored no championship points, he was German Formula Two Champion in 1953, took a number of wins in the German Formula Three Championship in a Cooper-Norton, finished in second place in the 1952 24 Hours of Le Mans race. Theo Helfrich profile at The 500 Owners Association
1954 Formula One season
The 1954 Formula One season was eighth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured a number of non-championship races; the World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series which commenced on 17 January and ended on 24 October 1954. The championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio who drove, won races, for both Maserati and Mercedes-Benz over the course of the series. Argentine drivers gained the first two positions in the championship with José Froilán González placing second to his compatriot Fangio. With Formula One changing to 2.5 litre unsupercharged engines for 1954, Mercedes re-entered grand prix racing for the first time since the Second World War at the French Grand Prix with a streamlined single seater which Fangio and Karl Kling took to a 1–2 win. Fangio's French success had come after switching from the Maserati team, with whom he had won the first two Grands Prix of the season. Although the streamlined, closed-wheel body proved unsuitable for Silverstone, Mercedes produced a more conventional open-wheel body for the Nürburgring race.
Reigning champion Alberto Ascari had a less successful switch of teams, choosing to leave Ferrari for the newly formed Lancia team. Lancia's car, the D50, was not ready until the final World Championship race, meaning he had to sit out most of his title defence. Championship points were awarded for first five places in each race on an 8, 6, 4, 3, 2 basis with 1 point awarded for the fastest lap. Only the best five of nine scores counted towards the championship. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps unless one of the drivers was deemed to have completed "insufficient distance". Drivers who shared more than one car during a race received points only for their highest finish. Argentine Onofre Marimón was killed during practice for the German Grand Prix driving a Maserati 250F, it was the first fatality at a championship Formula One race weekend. The following races counted towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. All championship races were open to cars complying with FIA Formula One regulations with the exception of the Indianapolis 500, for cars complying with AAA National Championship regulations, counted towards the 1954 AAA Championship.
The Dutch Grand Prix was supposed to be held at Zandvoort but there was no money for the race to be held, it was cancelled. The German Grand Prix was given the honorary title of being the European Grand Prix of 1954; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1954 FIA World Championship of Drivers. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between multiple drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points; the following is a summary of the races for Formula One cars staged during the 1954 season that did not count towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers