2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Wasco County, Oregon
Wasco County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,213, its county seat is The Dalles. The county is named for a local tribe of Native Americans, the Wasco, a Chinook tribe who live on the south side of the Columbia River. Wasco County comprises The Dalles Micropolitan Statistical Area. Celilo Falls on the Columbia River served as a gathering place and major trading center for the local Native Americans, including the Wasco and Warm Springs tribes, for thousands of years; these rapids came to be named Les Grandes Dalles de la Columbia or "The Great Falls of the Columbia" by the French Canadian fur traders. The Dalles served as a way station on the Oregon Trail as it approached the Willamette Valley; the construction of the Barlow Road over the Cascade Range in 1845, the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 encouraged families to settle in the area. Over the following years, Wasco County was a major transportation hub for both river and inland traffic; the Oregon Territorial Legislature created Wasco County on January 11, 1854, from the parts of Clackamas, Lane and Marion counties, that were east of the Cascade Range.
At the time of its creation, it was the largest county in the United States, consisting of 130,000 square miles that stretched clear to the Rocky Mountains. Its northern border was the Washington Territory line; when Dakota Territory was created in 1861, Idaho Territory in 1863, Montana Territory in 1864, the parts of Wasco County east of the present Oregon boundaries were ceded to those territories. Other Oregon counties were split away, Wasco was reduced to its current size; the Dalles was designated the county seat with the creation of the county, has been its only location. The river traffic on the Columbia River was profoundly affected in 1935 by the building of Bonneville Dam in Multnomah County and by The Dalles Dam in 1957 in Wasco County. Wasco County attracted international attention in the 1980s, when Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh went to the United States and settled for several years at a marginal ranch called "The Big Muddy", but known as Rajneeshpuram. Disagreements over zoning rules and building codes in the beginning continued to escalate between not only his followers and the inhabitants of Wasco County, but with the rest of the state.
His followers, known as Rajneeshees, settled en bloc in Antelope and were able to elect a majority of the town councillors. Acerbic, if not hostile comments by his spokeswoman, Ma Anand Sheela, only increased tensions, were not helped by Rajneesh's vow of silence; when the Rajneeshees subsequently recruited homeless people from across the United States to settle at Rajneeshpuram, it was seen as an attempt to use the ballot box to seize control of the county. But the most bizarre turn of events was when an outbreak of salmonella in salad bars at ten restaurants in The Dalles was traced to the acts of his followers. About this time, Sheela was removed from her post in Rajneesh's service; this chapter in the county's history ended in 1985, when Rajneesh was arrested as he was fleeing the U. S. On October 23, 1985, a federal grand jury in Portland had secretly indicted Rajneesh and six other of his followers for immigration crimes. Two days a Wasco County grand jury returned indictments against Sheela and two others, charging them with the attempted murder of Swami Devaraj, Rajneesh's personal doctor.
Rajneesh entered an Alford plea and was given a suspended sentence on condition that he leave the country. The former Rajneesh ranch is now known as "Washington Family Ranch", it is owned and operated by Young Life Ministries, a Christian organization providing camp services for youth. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,395 square miles, of which 2,382 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water; the northern boundary with Washington is the Columbia River. Mount Hood National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 23,791 people, 9,401 households, 6,505 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 10,651 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.58% White, 3.81% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.50% Pacific Islander, 0.30% Black or African American, 5.65% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. 9.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
17.8% were of German, 11.8% English, 9.8% American, 9.5% Irish and 5.0% Norwegian ancestry. There were 9,401 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,959, the median income for a family was $42,412. Males had a median income of $36,051 versus $21,575 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,195.
About 10.30% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.70% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Goldendale is a rural agricultural city and county seat of Klickitat County, United States, near the Columbia River Gorge. The population within city limits was 3,760 at the 2000 census and 3,407, a 9.4% decrease at the 2010 census. A nationally known point of interest is north of Goldendale Observatory State Park; the valley area in which Goldendale is located offers a sweeping and dramatic views of the Cascade Range Mountains 40 mile to the west and the Simcoe Hills to the north. In 1872 the town was given its name by the early homesteader John Golden; the Golden House is still viewable at Collins St. in downtown Goldendale. In 1878 Goldendale became the county seat. Other early towns in the county were White Salmon, Bingen, Glenwood and Bickleton, all still in existence. Goldendale was incorporated on November 14, 1879. Goldendale has remained the employment, business and banking center for the valley and, as the county seat, is the location for Klickitat County's courts and government offices.
In recent years this small community has suffered from severe economic decline. After a local aluminum plant that once employed many residents closed, the small community struggled economically; the loss of tax base has taken its toll on the funds available for maintaining the city's infrastructure. In recent years there has been an interest in installing wind turbines. While it has provided some jobs, this industry has not been the economic solution for which many residents hoped. On June 9, 1918, William Wallace Campbell, Director of the Lick Observatory in San Jose, CA, astronomer Heber Curtis journeyed to Goldendale to view a total eclipse; the purpose of the observation was to photograph the sun's corona and the apparent distorted placement of stars due to the sun's gravitational pull on those star's rays while passing by the sun. Lacking proper equipment and instead only using multiple cameras Campbell and Curtis were unable to confirm stars' deflection. However, by November 1919, their efforts would be vindicated by British astronomers and Einstein's Theory of Relativity was confirmed.
Goldendale was the site of another total eclipse that drew national attention. On February 26, 1979, hundreds of people and all major news networks converged on the town for a total solar eclipse, the last visible from the continental United States until 2017. On October 13, 1973, the Goldendale Observatory, the main attraction of the city, was dedicated, it is one of the larger free, public observatories. Because of a small population, Goldendale offers excellent stargazing as well. In 2008 Goldendale hosted the International Gravity Sports Association's'Festival of Speed,' on a segment of the historic Maryhill highway. Goldendale is located at 45°49′N 120°49′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.52 square miles, all of it land. Goldendale's elevation at the County Courthouse is 498 meters; the Little Klickitat River flows east-to-west across the northern portion of the city. Bloodgood Creek, an spring-fed year-round water source, runs through the northwest part of town and intersects with the Little Klickitat just west of the city.
Both are sources of rainbow trout as well as being home to waterfowl such as the great blue heron and several species of duck. Bloodgood Creek provides a portion of Goldendale's drinking water and is capped at the source for that purpose. US Highway 97 runs along the eastern boundary of the city and connects Goldendale with Interstate 84, 21 km south in the state of Oregon and State Route 14, 19 km south and runs along the Washington side of the Columbia River. State Route 142 creates a major east-west route through Goldendale, beginning at US 97 on the north end of town. Goldendale has started to receive much of the wind turbine business, as major companies buy land and build around the town. Goldendale has a continental mediterrean climate; the rain shadow of the Cascades creates distinct and visible difference between the arid and dry areas south of the community, the more lush treed areas to the north. This produces a landscape of open bunch-grass prairies dotted with sagebrush and rabbit brush containing the occasional juniper tree, while the more sheltered areas consist of ponderosa pine and oak savannahs.
Overcast days are rare, occurring in late fall and throughout winter. Summer temperatures can reach well over 100 °F or 37.8 °C, while winter, when most of the annual precipitation of around 17 inches or 430 millimetres occurs, can see temperatures below 0 °F or −17.8 °C in January. Summer thunderstorms occur intermittently in July and August, but due to high cloud bases, rain reaches the ground in any appreciable amount. Lightning-caused range and forest fires are a common occurrence during this time of year. Spring flowers and green meadows and prairies make Goldendale a beautiful site. Spring and summer can be blustery since the Chinook winds off the Pacific Ocean are funneled through the Columbia Gorge. Fall tends to be windless, the autumnal oak leaves add a lovely touch of golden rust red to Observatory Hill on the north side of town; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,407 people, 1,462 households, 858 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,352.0 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,635 housing units at an average density of 648.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.3% White, 0.4% African American, 4.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.1% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of th
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
Samuel Hill known as Sam Hill, was an American businessman, railroad executive, advocate of good roads. He influenced the Pacific Northwest region's economic development in the early 20th century, his projects include the Peace Arch, a monument to 100 years of peace between the United States and Canada, on the border between Blaine and Surrey, British Columbia, the Maryhill Museum of Art. Although his promotion of paved modern roads is his greatest legacy, he is now best remembered for building the Stonehenge replica in Maryhill, Washington. Sam Hill was born into a Quaker family in North Carolina, his family was displaced by the American Civil War and Sam grew up after the war in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Hill graduated from Haverford College in 1878. At Haverford he studied Latin, Greek and German as well as mathematics, English literature, logic and political science, he attended Harvard University for a year to receive a second bachelor's degree in 1879. At Harvard he studied forensics and philosophy.
Despite attending only one year, he became an active Harvard alumnus, serving for several years on the Harvard Board of Overseers though it required many transcontinental trips each year to attend meetings. He joined Harvard Clubs in several cities in the U. S. After Sam Hill graduated from Haverford College in 1878 and Harvard University in 1879, he returned to Minneapolis to practice law. A number of successful lawsuits against the Great Northern Railway attracted the attention of the railway's general manager James J. Hill, who hired Sam to represent the railway. In 1888 Sam Hill married James Hill's eldest daughter Mary. For over a decade, Hill played an important role in his father-in-law's business endeavors, both at the Great Northern and as president of the Minneapolis Trust Company. However, around 1900 they had some type of falling out, the nature and degree of, unclear. In any event, the break was not a sharp one: The two men continued a friendly correspondence in business matters. After a 1901 journey across Russia on the not-quite-completed Trans-Siberian Railway, Hill settled in 1902 in Seattle, where he had major interests in the Seattle Gas and Electric Company, focused in the coal gas business.
Hill had announced his intention to settle in Seattle in December 1900, but his wife Mary did not take well to the Northwest and moved back to Minneapolis after six months in Seattle, with their two children and without Sam. He embarked on a number of ventures in the Pacific Northwest. Sam Hill was an "inveterate globetrotter", he was fluent in German and Italian, learned at least a moderate amount of Russian. Hill made at least fifty separate trips to Europe in the course of his lifetime and visited Japan nine times between 1897 and 1922. All of Hill's extensive travels were during an era when transportation was limited to surface vehicles and vessels. In the early 20th century, Hill was the only American member of the Geographic Society of Germany, he continually gathered harbor depth soundings and information about ocean temperatures in order to map ocean currents. He had this information added to high-quality custom-made globes of German manufacture commissioned from 1902–1914, which Hill gave as gifts.
Among the friends Hill made in his travels was King Albert I of Belgium, who made him a Commander of the Crown and Honorary Belgian Consul for Oregon and Idaho. Hill and his friend Joseph Joffre made an around-the-world trip together in 1922, he befriended Queen Marie of Romania, who granted him the Order of the Crown in the Degree of the Grand Cross. Her 1926 visit to the United States was at his invitation. After leaving the employ of his father-in-law J. J. Hill in 1900, Sam Hill undertook a variety of business ventures and other projects, with varied results, his Seattle Gas and Electric Company was continually in hard-fought rivalry with other utilities, most notably head-on competition with the Citizens' Light and Power Company, whose leadership included several defectors from Hill's company. After a price war, Hill was able to sell the company's gas facilities to the consolidated Seattle Lighting Company in 1904 on favorable terms. Other ventures into utilities was less successful: The Home Telephone Company of Portland pioneered rotary dial telephones in the region, but this independent telephone company lost out to the better-integrated Bell System.
Its stockholders were wiped out, its bondholders – Hill himself was the largest of these – received 70 cents on the dollar. The Deep Water Coal and Iron Company in Alabama was another business failure. At the end of his life the shares in this last enterprise were worthless, due in part to the Great Depression. Starting in 1907, Sam Hill bought up most of what had been a small settlement called "Columbia" or "Columbus" near the Columbia River in Klickitat County, which he envisioned as a new community in the Inland Empire, he named the parcel Maryhill, after his wife and his daughter Mary – neither of whom actually lived there. His original plan was to develop it as a farming community of Quakers, but Sam was the only known Quaker resident. Taken as a whole, his attempt to create the Maryhill community was one of Hill's