Bandai Namco Entertainment
Bandai Namco Entertainment Inc. is a Japanese video game development company and publisher. The company releases videos and other entertainment products related to its intellectual properties; the company is headquartered in Tokyo. Bandai Namco Entertainment is a wholly owned subsidiary of Bandai Namco Holdings and specializes in management and sales of video games and other related entertainment products, while its Bandai Namco Studios subsidiaries specialize in the development of these products, it is the core company of Bandai Namco Group's Content Strategic Business Unit. Bandai Namco Entertainment is the result of a merger in March 2006 between the video game operations of Namco and Bandai. Known as Namco Bandai Games, the company was renamed as Bandai Namco Games in January 2014. In April 2015, Bandai Namco Holdings changed its gaming name from Bandai Namco Games to Bandai Namco Entertainment. In 2005, Namco Ltd. and Bandai Co. Ltd. combined their operations. The merger took effect on 29 September 2005.
For the first six months, both companies stayed intact under the umbrella of the newly created Namco Bandai Holdings. On 31 March 2006, the video games division of Bandai was merged into Namco which in turn became Namco Bandai Games. Namco Hometek and Bandai Games had merged on 2 January 2006, to form Namco Bandai Games America in the United States. On 1 April 2008, Banpresto's video game operations were absorbed by Namco Bandai Games. On 1 April 2009, Bandai Networks, Namco Bandai's mobile phone business, was dissolved and absorbed into Namco Bandai Games. In 2010, Namco Bandai Games entered the Guinness World Records as the company that released the most TV commercials for the same product, a Nintendo DS game called Solatorobo: Red the Hunter, they created 100 versions of the ad. In early 2011, Namco Networks was absorbed into Namco Bandai Games America consolidating Namco Bandai's American console and mobile video game development operations. On 2 April 2012, Namco Bandai Games spun off its development operations into a new company called Namco Bandai Studios.
The new company was spurred by Namco Bandai's interest in faster development times and tighter cohesion between disparate development teams. It comprises 1,000 employees, who were part of Namco Bandai. In March 2013, Namco Bandai Games established two new game studios; the first, Namco Bandai Studios Singapore, is Namco Bandai's "leading development center" in Asia and develops game content for the Asia Pacific market. The second studio, Namco Bandai Studios Vancouver, works on online social games and game content development for North America and Europe, is part of the Center for Digital Media. In July 2013, Namco Bandai Partners, which used to oversee the PAL distribution network since September 2012, merged with Namco Bandai Games Europe in order to push distribution and publishing into one entity, Namco Bandai Games Europe. In 2014, Namco Bandai Games and Namco Bandai Studios became Bandai Namco Games and Bandai Namco Studios, respectively; the change unified the brand internationally in order to increase the "value" and "appeal" of the name.
The full company name was changed to Bandai Namco Entertainment on April 1, 2015. On April 1, 2018, the amusement machine business division of Bandai Namco Entertainment was transferred over to sister company Bandai Namco Amusement. Bandai Namco Entertainment, plays the role of expanding the content business, while Bandai Namco Studios plays the role of creating content. Both companies cooperate to provide services around the world. Bandai Namco Entertainment is a core company of the Content Strategic Business Unit of Bandai Namco, is responsible for all aspects of Bandai Namco Group’s content business, from creation to sales. However, Bandai Namco Entertainment spun off its video games and related entertainment development to Bandai Namco Studios in April 2012; as such, Bandai Namco Entertainment is responsible for managing and marketing of developed content, not only from Bandai Namco Studios but from third-party developers as well. In addition to its core publisher operations in Japan, Bandai Namco Entertainment publishes content worldwide through different entities.
Bandai Namco Entertainment America manages operations and handles publishing across North America and oversees operations of Bandai Namco Entertainment Brazil, which operates and handles publishing in Brazil. Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe manages and oversees operations and handles publishing across EMEA, has branches in France, Greece, the Nordic countries, Spain, United Kingdom & Australia. Bandai Namco Entertainment Australia oversees publishing throughout Australia & New Zealand, as well as being the Australian distributor for Square Enix Europe, NIS America and Konami of Europe. Bandai Namco Entertainment Asia manages and oversees operations and handles publishing across Asia, has branches in Malaysia, Korea, Philippines and Hong Kong. Bandai Namco Studios functions as the core video game development studio of Bandai Namco Entertainment. In addition to its video game development operations, Bandai Namco Studios work on other entertainment content such as video and music, related to its video game IPs.
In addition to its core development studio in Tokyo, Bandai Namco Studios has development operations in Singapore, which develops game content for the Asia Pacific, Vancouver, British Columbia, which develops online social games for North America and Europe. Satoshi Oshita
Klonoa is a video game series created by Namco and Klonoa Works, as well as the name of the titular character of the series. The character and series were launched with the release of Klonoa: Door to Phantomile for the PlayStation in 1997. Klonoa is described within the games and manga as a "Dream Traveler", fated to travel to various places where the state of dreams is in danger, but he himself is not aware of that, his traditional voice actor is Kumiko Watanabe, he is voiced by Eric Stitt in the English version of the remake of the first game. He has Namco's mascot Pac-Man on the side of his blue hat. Wanting to be a hero, he is young and good-hearted, is willing to go against all odds to make sure justice is served, he is able to befriend characters along the way who support his cause. His attitude is innocent and a bit naive, as shown in Klonoa 2: Lunatea's Veil. Klonoa was designed by Yoshihiko Arai. Arai's first design, "Shady", had a shadow-like appearance. However, he felt that the lack of color did not seem tasteful, dropped the design.
His next design was created with characteristically animal eyes and long ears, as Arai felt that a person's eyes and silhouette are the features noticed when they are first met. He added a large hat with a Pac-Man emblem on it and collar to give the character a childlike and energetic quality; the design was used for Klonoa. Klonoa: Door to Phantomile was released in late 1997 in Japan and was critically well received by numerous gaming publications and magazines, it was one of the first PlayStation platform games to feature two-dimensional character artwork on a rendered, three-dimensional backdrop. It was described as 2.5 D to distinguish it between other games that relied on the other. A remake of Klonoa: Door to Phantomile, was released on December 4, 2008, in Japan for the Wii console, it features revised graphics and voice acting, as well as many unlockable bonuses that were not in the original. These include new costumes, Mirrored Visions, challenge areas, it was released in North America on May 5, 2009, in Europe on May 22, 2009.
Klonoa's second appearance, Kaze no Klonoa: Moonlight Museum was released in Japan for the Japanese-only WonderSwan handheld system in 1999. It is Klonoa's first handheld appearance and his first two-dimensional one. Despite lacking the artful style of the first game, Moonlight Museum set the standard for the approaching Game Boy Advance titles like Klonoa: Empire of Dreams, which came out two years later. Though it was similar in style and execution to the previous game, it was developed for the more sophisticated Game Boy Advance hardware and was available in North America and Europe. Klonoa 2: Lunatea's Veil was released for the PlayStation 2 with moderate success in 2001, its different types of gameplay includes a standard set of platformer levels in the "2.5D" style, hoverboarding down snowy mountains and water parks, time-attack challenges, puzzle solving, boss fights, introducing the "360 degrees" system. A third handheld title, Klonoa 2: Dream Champ Tournament, was released for the Game Boy Advance in Japan in 2002 with a belated release in North America three years later.
Utilizing the same game engine as Empire of Dreams, Dream Champ Tournament was a similar gaming experience that benefited from more sophisticated puzzles and featured a newer cast of supporting characters. A sports title, Klonoa Beach Volleyball, released for the PlayStation in Japan and Europe, featured Klonoa and his friends in a unique version of volleyball. A North American version was not released. Klonoa Heroes: Densetsu no Star Medal was released in Japan in late 2002. Taking a unique twist on the series, the game is an action role-playing game rather than a platformer and is played from a top-down perspective. A webcomic adaption of the series made by Namco Bandai subsidiary ShiftyLook, called Klonoa: Dream Traveller of Noctis Sol, began publication on September 26, 2012, it was illustrated with new pages being published every Wednesday. The webcomic came to an abrupt end following the shutdown of ShiftyLook in late 2014. On August 7, 2014, Games.it published a rumor. On October 27, 2016, a Klonoa film adaptation was announced, was in development under the animation production company Henshin.
In January 2019, the film was confirmed cancelled. The games are set in different worlds, though the known ones are Phantomile and Lunatea, it revolves around Klonoa and how he, the Dream Traveler, must save whatever world he is in from peril. Along the way he makes some of them becoming recurring characters; the game is an early example of a side scrolling 3D game. It is an puzzle type of game; the main gameplay feature involves using Klonoa's ring and "Wind Bullets" to inflate enemies, which can be thrown at other objects or at the ground, giving him a boost upwards allowing him to double jump. Klonoa had cameo appearances in Alpine Racer 3, Smash Court 3, Taiko no Tatsujin. Klonoa and Guntz appear as a playable duo in Namco's cross-over role-playing game Namco × Capcom, they retain similar moves from Klonoa Heroes. Joka and various varieties of Moos appear as a part of the game's enemies while Lolo & The High Priestess of La-Lakoosha appear as non-playable characters. In Tales of Destiny 2, a Klonoa plushie can be seen at the left side of the character Harold's room.
In Tales of Symphonia, the character Presea could get a Klonoa costume. In Tales of Hearts and Keroro RPG: Kishi to Musha to Densetsu no Kaizoku, Klonoa appears as a summon character. In Tales of Vesperia, Klonoa appears in the form of a fellowship statue named F Statue. There is a Klonoa costume for the character K
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Klonoa (2008 video game)
Klonoa is a 2008 platform game developed by Paon and published by Namco for the Wii. It is a remake of the 1997 PlayStation game Klonoa: Door to Phantomile. Klonoa was developed by Paon for the Wii as a remake of the PlayStation game, Klonoa: Door to Phantomile; the game's development began after the merge of Namco and Bandai, when vice president Shin Unozawa expressed a desire to "revive the Klonoa series". Namco Bandai developers decided that a remake of the original game, in acknowledgement of its 10th anniversary, would be the best approach; the Wii was chosen to develop for because Namco Bandai felt that the console had a wide appeal, one which fulfilled the original game's premise of appealing to both younger players and adults. The game was produced by Hideo Yoshizawa. Other key members of the original development team - such as chief planner Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, visual chief Yoshihiko Arai, sound designer Kanako Kakino - contributed to the remake to surpass the standards of the original game.
The remake features a graphical upgrade, redesigned characters, updated gameplay, remade cut scenes using cel-shaded animation. The original game features voices in a fictional language unique to each character, but these have been re-acted in Japanese - although the player has the option of hearing either; the voice actors include Kumiko Watanabe as Klonoa, Bin Shimada as Joka, Akemi Kanda as Huepow, Yuko Minaguchi as Lephise. Many small modifications were made to the gameplay to make it "much more intuitive and easier to control", according to producer Yoshizawa; these include the speed at which Klonoa runs, the length of his shot, adjusting the hit range of the enemies. Additions to the gameplay are centered around unlockable features, such as additional costumes and reversible levels designed for "the hardcore fans". Namco Bandai considered a special redesign of the Klonoa character for North America, surveyed audiences on the qualities of a potential redesign; the appearance of the redesign was panned by critics, who considered it "depressing" and compared it to "Poochie", a parody character from The Simpsons, designed as an unnecessary change to a television show, who embodies the idea of "jumping the shark".
Due to strong support for the original design in the survey, Namco Bandai abandoned the redesign. The subtitle, Door to Phantomile, was omitted for the North American/European release; the remake of Klonoa: Door to Phantomile was announced at Nintendo Conference Fall 2008 on October 2, 2008, where a software lineup video for the Wii contained footage of the game. The game received coverage in articles by Japanese magazines and websites, such as Weekly Famitsu and Dengeki DS & Wii. An official website for Door to Phantomile was periodically updated. Namco Bandai dedicated three kiosks to Door to Phantomile at Tokyo Game Show, with one located in a children's area; the advertising campaign for Door to Phantomile consisted of two television commercials and a radio commercial, posters and videos for stores to display. Klonoa: Door to Phantomile was published in Japan on December 4, 2008 by Namco Bandai Games, was released in North America on May 5, 2009 and in Europe on May 22, 2009 The game received positive reviews from critics, earning a 77 out of 100 rating from Metacritic.
The title experienced low sales in Japan, debuting as the 33rd highest-selling game in the region during its first week with only 5,800 copies sold. Reviews of the gameplay have been mixed. Weekly Famitsu felt that the game was overall enjoyable, awarding it a 36 out of 40 score and a Platinum Award, but criticised it for a lack of freshness; the magazine felt that the graphics had "evolved significantly", sentiments echoed by Kotaku, who praised its gameplay while criticizing the game's overall simplicity, calling it a "fairly stock platformer". GameSpot felt the game was enjoyable, but criticised the game for being linear and easy. GameSpot praised the game for a large amount of detail, called the environment "bright and colorful". IGN praised the colours of the game, calling it "visually impressive" due to its "lush water palette" and "great water effects". 1UP.com compared the graphics to those of the original game's successor, Klonoa 2, would include the title in their list of the "Six Obscure Wii Games You Must Play".
Editors of Nintendo Power named Klonoa as one of the 30 "Wii Essentials" in June 2012, ranked it as the 63rd greatest game released for a Nintendo console in their farewell issue the following December. GamesRadar placed the game 38th on its own list of the Top 50 Wii games in 2013. Official website
Famitsu Famicom Tsūshin, is a line of Japanese video game magazines published by Enterbrain, Inc. and Tokuma. Famitsu is published in both weekly and monthly formats as well as in the form of special topical issues devoted to only one console, video game company, or other theme. Shūkan Famitsū, the original Famitsū publication, is considered the most read and respected video game news magazine in Japan. From October 28, 2011 Enterbrain began releasing the digital version of the magazine on BookWalker weekly; the first issue of Famitsū was published on June 1986 as Famicom Tsūshin. It was published semiregularly thereafter, going through periods of monthly and quarterly publication. On July 19, 1991 the magazine was renamed to Shūkan Famicom Tsūshin and issues were published weekly thereafter. Alongside the weekly magazine, a monthly version called Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin was published. At the start of 1996 the magazines underwent another name change, truncating their titles to Shūkan Famitsū and Gekkan Famitsū.
The magazine was published by ASCII from its founding through March 2000 when it was sold to Enterbrain, Inc. The name Famitsū is a portmanteau abbreviation of Famicom Tsūshin; the first issue was published on June 6, 1986. Today, Shūkan Famitsū features multi-platform coverage. Shūkan Famitsū is a weekly publication concentrating on video game news and reviews, is published every Thursday with a circulation of 500,000 per issue. Gekkan Famitsū is published monthly. Famitsū magazine covers alternately feature pop idols or actresses on even-numbered issues and the Famitsū mascot, Necky the Fox in odd-numbered issues. Year-end and special editions all feature Necky dressed as popular contemporary video game characters. Necky is the cartoon creation of artist Susumu Matsushita, he takes the form of a costumed fox; the costumes worn by Necky reflect current popular video games. Necky's name was chosen according to a reader poll, it derives from a complex Japanese pun: "Necky" is the reverse of the Japanese word for fox, キツネ, his original connection to Famicom Tsūshin is intended to evoke the bark of the fox, the Japanese onomatopoeia of, コンコン.
Necky makes a cameo appearance in Super Mario Maker. Famitsū publishes other magazines dedicated to particular consoles. In circulation are: Entamikusu is written for an older audience and covers retrogaming, it has been published monthly since November 2010. Famitsū Connect! On reports on online gaming. Famitsū DS+Wii reports on Nintendo platforms; the magazine was known as Famitsū 64 and Famitsū Cube based on whatever platforms Nintendo was producing games for at the time. Famitsū GREE reports on mobile gaming via GREE. Famitsū Mobage reports on mobile gaming via Mobage. Famitsū spin-offs that are no longer in circulation include: Famitsū Bros. was written for younger audiences and concentrated on video game hints and strategy. It was published monthly and went defunct in September 2002. Famicomi was a comic and manga magazine published irregularly between 1992 and 1995. Famitsū DC covered the Dreamcast. Previous incarnations of this magazine included Sega Saturn Tsūshin which covered the Sega Saturn, with earlier issues covering earlier Sega platforms.
Famitsū Sister covered bishōjo games. Satellaview Tsūshin covered the Satellaview, it was published monthly and ran for only 12 issues from May 1995 to May 1996. Its inaugural issue was the May 1995 issue of Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin. Virtual Boy Tsūshin covered the Virtual Boy. Only one issue was published in 1995. Famitsū PS began publication in May 1996, reported on Sony platforms news, it was known as Famitsū PS2 and Famitsū PSP+PS3 before being discontinued in March 2010. Famitsū Wave DVD covered events and previews; each magazine included a DVD disc with video game footage. It was published monthly and went defunct in May 2011. Famitsū Xbox 360 reported on Xbox 360 news, it went defunct in 2013. Video games are graded in Famitsū via a "Cross Review" in which a panel of four video game reviewers each give a score from 0 to 10; the scores of the four reviewers are added up for a maximum possible score of 40. From the twenty-four games awarded with a perfect score as of 2017, three are for the Nintendo DS and five are for the Wii.
The PlayStation 3 has five games with a perfect score and the Xbox 360 has four, with both consoles having four titles in common. The others are for different platforms with only one title each. Franchises with multiple perfect score winners include The Legend of Zelda with four titles, Metal Gear with three titles, Final Fantasy with two titles; the most recent game to receive a perfect score is Dragon Quest XI. As of 2016, all but two games with perfect scores are from Japanese companies, nine being published/developed by Nintendo, four by Square Enix, three by Sega, three by Konami and one by Capcom; as of 2016, the only two foreign games to achieve a perfect score are The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim by Bethesda Softworks and Grand Theft Auto V, from Rockstar Games. Other foreign games that have achieved near-perfect scores are L. A. Noire, Red Dead Redemption and Grand Theft Auto IV – all three of which came from Rockstar Games.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Klonoa: Empire of Dreams
Klonoa: Empire of Dreams is a video game published by Namco for the Game Boy Advance and released in Japan and North America in 2001 and Europe the following year. Falling somewhere between Klonoa: Door to Phantomile and Klonoa 2: Lunatea's Veil, Empire of Dreams is a two-dimensional adventure game with puzzle elements that takes place in the new realm in the Klonoa series, the Kingdom of Jillius. Klonoa: Empire of Dreams works like a typical 2D sidescroller with the player moving Klonoa left or right on a scrolling screen while defeating enemies using his "wind bullet", a special ring that can shoot a small gust of wind forward and draw an enemy in, allowing Klonoa to lift them over his head. From this position, he can either throw them straight forward like a projectile, taking out any enemy they hit, or he can perform a double-jump, allowing him to reach places he couldn't normally. In addition to enemies, Klonoa can pick up large square blocks and place them wherever the player chooses.
By holding the jump button after Klonoa has left the ground, Klonoa flaps his ears and can float in mid-air for a short duration, which somewhat increases his jumping height. The game is progressed by finding the exit to a stage after collecting three stars within the level. Other items like crystals and hearts can be collected in addition, 1-up items are hidden within a level as well. Hearts can be found to increase Klonoa's health. Klonoa: Empire of Dreams is a side-story to the main console series, follows the adventures of Klonoa after he mysteriously awakens one morning in the Empire of Jillius and is dragged by the emperor's royal guards to his throne room for no reason. Emperor Jillius himself informs Klonoa that he broke the sacred law of his kingdom by dreaming, which he views as a worthless endeavor and a total waste of time; the Emperor himself suffers from insomnia, decrees that if he cannot be allowed to dream no one can. Rather than punish Klonoa outright, he instead offers him a challenge: defeat the four great monsters that are wreaking havoc on the land, he will be set free.
Joined by his friend Huepow, Klonoa has no choice but to travel to the surrounding lands and do battle with the monsters living there, hoping to earn his freedom and bring peace to the kingdom at last. As they defeat the monsters and Huepow become suspicious that someone is using people's dreams for their own ends, as the monsters are in fact transformed versions of various people from each region. Once the duo figure out the culprit is at the imperial castle, they engage Jillius in a fight and manage to defeat him. Only afterwards it is revealed that Jillius' minister, was behind everything. Bagoo, revealing himself to be the King of Despair, explains that through Jillius he had orchestrated a master plan to create his own kingdom of stolen dreams if it meant turning all dreamers in the empire into monsters. Klonoa and Huepow manage to destroy him and Jillius afterwards seems to die in Klonoa's arms, it all turns out to be a dream that Jillius himself had had and he decides that to give his people their dreams and to protect them as well is his real purpose, thus remaking his empire into the Empire of Dreams.
Players assume control of Klonoa, the long-eared hero of the story who wakes up one morning in the strange world this game take place in. Using his trusty ring-like weapon, the Wind Bullet, he is determined to rid the world of five great monsters who are causing trouble, as well as discover the secret to why he came here in the first place, he is joined by his trusty sidekick Huepow, a being that resembles a floating blue sphere with hands and eyes, who doubles as the power source for his weapon. The principle antagonist, Emperor Jillius, is the once-benevolent ruler of his kingdom until chronic insomnia caused him to become exceedingly irritable and ban all dreams within his realm, he is accompanied at all times by Bagoo. During the game, players must defeat four monsters who are citizens of the kingdom transformed by a strange mist, who include an amateur boxer named Chipple, a soprano from a musical land named Muzika, a chef named Chirin, a doctor from a forest village named Doctor Medim.
Empire of Dreams was developed jointly by Namco and Now Production as the second portable title in the franchise after 1999's Kaze no Klonoa: Moonlight Museum on the WonderSwan, was produced by Hideo Yoshizawa, who had worked on all previous Klonoa series titles. Unlike the console games, which were designed to focus more on action, Yoshizawa wanted Empire of Dreams to focus on the puzzles and "To have the same audience, but let them enjoy it in a different way." Representatives from Namco revealed the first details of the game in March 2001, stating that the title would retain all of Klonoa's "general moves" from the console series on Nintendo's Game Boy Advance handheld. The game would make an appearance at the 2001 Tokyo Game Show that same month, which included an early playable demo. A North American English release was announced at the 2001 Electronic Entertainment Expo the following May, with an initial release date set for August of that year. In October 2013, Namco Bandai filed a trademark of "Empire of Dreams", hinting a remake might be in the works.
The game was released on the Wii U's Virtual Console on May 22 in Europe, May 29 in North America, September 3 in Japan. Empire of Dreams received positive reviews from critics, earning an 83.10% and an 85 out of 100 average ratings from aggregate review websites GameRankings and Metacritic. Upon its release in Japan, Weekly Famitsu scored the game a 34 out of 40, earning t