Royal Palace of Amsterdam
The Royal Palace in Amsterdam is one of three palaces in the Netherlands which are at the disposal of the monarch by Act of Parliament. The palace was built as a city hall during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century, the building became the royal palace of King Louis Napoleon and of the Dutch Royal House. It is situated on the west side of Dam Square in the centre of Amsterdam, opposite the War Memorial and next to the Nieuwe Kerk. The palace was built as the Town Hall of the City of Amsterdam and was opened as such on 29 July 1655 by Cornelis de Graeff and it was built by Jacob van Campen, who took control of the construction project in 1648. It was built on 13,659 wooden piles and cost 8.5 million gulden, a yellowish sandstone from Bentheim in Germany was used for the entire building. The stone has darkened considerably in the course of time, marble was the chosen material for the interior. Jacob van Campen was inspired by Roman administrative palaces and public buildings and he wanted to build a new capitol for the Amsterdam burgomasters who thought of themselves as the consuls of the new Rome of the North.
The technical implementation was looked after by the town construction master Daniël Stalpaert, the sculptures were executed by Artus Quellijn. The central hall is 120 feet long,60 feet wide and 90 feet high, on the marble floor there are two maps of the world with a celestial hemisphere. The Western and Eastern hemispheres are shown on the maps, the hemispheres detail the area of Amsterdams colonial influence. The terrestrial hemispheres were made in the mid-18th century and they replaced an earlier pair made in the late 1650s. The originals showed the regions explored by the Dutch East India Companys ships in the first half of the 17th century. This feature may have inspired by the map of the Roman Empire that had been engraved on marble and placed in the Porticus Vipsania. On top of the palace is a domed cupola, topped by a weather vane in the form of a cog ship. This ship is a symbol of Amsterdam, just underneath the dome there are a few windows. From here one could see the ships arrive and leave the harbour, in the cupola is the famous carillon by François and Pieter Hemony cast in 1664 in Amsterdam.
It was renovated by Eijsbouts in 1965, only 9 bells by François and Pieter Hemony remained. 38 new bells by Eijsbouts were made and tuned in meantone temperament, the old corroded Hemony bells are kept inside the palace
A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen and they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places, an important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris, they originated as guilds of students as at Bologna, or of masters as at Paris. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices, there were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. In many cases became the governing body of a town. The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, Trade guilds arose in the 14th century as craftsmen united to protect their common interest.
The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship, in France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, Within the guild itself there was little division of labour. Thus, according to Étienne Boileaus Book of Handicrafts, by the century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society, a shoemakers guild is recorded in 1208. In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as companies, survive today. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently, membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain, e. g. Valencia or Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds, some cities were free, in order to become a Master, a Journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called Journeyman years. The practice of the Journeyman years still exists in Germany and France, in Ghent, as in Florence, the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business
A shooting range or firing range or shooting ground is a specialized facility designed for archery or firearms practice. Each facility is typically overseen by one or more supervisory personnel, supervisory personnel are responsible for ensuring that all weapon safety rules are followed at all times. In some countries, it is, common to have shooting ranges without supervision, Ranges are usually situated in distant places in forests, and people can use them on their own, without any supervision. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides recommendations for protecting workers and shooters from hazardous exposures at indoor and outdoor firing ranges and this article discusses shooting or firing ranges in a general sense. By their nature, shooting ranges for Airsoft competitions may be located nearly everywhere, even in-doors and this article, and the articles for specific locales, do not address shooting ranges intended for Airsoft guns. In urban areas, most shooting ranges will be at indoor facilities, similarly, in less-populated areas, shooting ranges are often at outdoor facilities.
Many amusement parks and carnivals formerly provided shooting galleries, stationary target practice Indoor ranges usually have a back wall with a sloped earthen berm or bank, with reinforced baffles additionally situated along the roof and side walls. Ranges with proper ventilation pull smoke and lead particles away from the shooting line, when ranges lack proper ventilation and users are exposed to lead dust from bullets or cartridge primers. It can be inhaled or can settle on skin or clothing, discharge of firearms in indoor ranges can produce noise levels of over 140 dB sound pressure level. To combat this, it is recommended to double up ear protection by using both earplugs and over-the-head earmuffs. To protect range bystanders from exposure, many modern ranges have an air-locked corridor for sound-proofing. Most indoor ranges restrict the use of certain powerful calibers, rifles or the use of automatic weapons. In many shooting ranges.50 caliber or higher bullets are not allowed, shooting galleries appeared following development of rimfire ammunition in the 19th century.
Early shooting galleries typically included several shooting positions for pump-action.22 caliber rifles, durable steel or cast iron targets indicated hits by tipping over or rotating around a horizontal mounting rod. Target distances were short enough to make such movement obvious—as little as 10 feet for portable carnival galleries, the muzzle of each rifle was often chained to a slightly down-range attachment to prevent the rifle from being aimed to miss the bullet trap and threaten bystanders. Outdoor shooting ranges are used for shooting up to or exceeding 1,200 yards. Training might specifically require exposure to the such as wind or rain. Competition shooting is preferred under benign conditions, although conditions may change
The Singel is a canal in Amsterdam which encircled the city in the Middle Ages. It served as a moat around the city until 1585, when Amsterdam expanded beyond the Singel, the canal runs from the IJ bay, near Central Station, to the Muntplein square, where it meets the Amstel river. It is now the inner-most canal in Amsterdams semicircular ring of canals, the canal should not be confused with the Singelgracht canal, which became the outer limit of the city during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th Century. Other Dutch towns have ring-shaped canals named Singel, Amsterdams famous flower market, Bloemenmarkt, is located along the Singel between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares. The market stalls are actually boats floating in the canal, part of the Singel has been designated a red-light district, with prostitutes offering their services from behind red-lit windows. The area, known as the Singelgebied, is located near Lijnbaanssteeg, yab Yum, one of Amsterdams most exclusive brothels until closed by the local authority in January 2008, was located at Singel 295.
The Singel is lined by many beautiful, richly decorated canal houses built during the Dutch Golden Age, notable buildings along the canal include, A house said to be the narrowest in the world — only one meter wide, at Singel 7. De Dolphijn, at Singel 140-142, a monumental canalside house built in ca,1600, once inhabited by Frans Banning Cocq, the central figure in Rembrandts painting The Night Watch. The Oude Lutherse Kerk, at Singel 411, built in 1632-1633, the Ronde Lutherse Kerk, known as Koepelkerk or Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk, built in 1668-1671. The library of the University of Amsterdam, at Singel 425, the Kalvertoren shopping center, between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares. The Munttoren tower, originally part of a gate in the Medieval city walls, on Muntplein square, the Haringpakkerstoren tower was part of Amsterdams Medieval city defenses. The tower stood at the beginning of the Singel, near the IJ, the municipal government is currently considering a plan to rebuild the tower and adjacent houses.
However, this remains highly controversial, opponents consider it in poor taste. The Torensluis, built in 1648, is an arched and exceptionally wide bridge across the Singel, now covered by cosy café terraces and a bust of Dutch writer Multatuli, the Torensluis is the oldest remaining bridge in Amsterdam, and the widest bridge in Amsterdam. The Jan Roodepoortstoren tower stood on one end of the bridge but was torn down in 1829, the towers foundations remain part of the bridge. The entrance and barred windows of the dungeon are still visible. The bridge, known as Brug 9, crosses the Singel near Dam square, up until the 15th century, the Singel was known as the Stedegracht. In the 17th century the canal was known for time as Koningsgracht, in honor of King Henry IV of France
Thomas de Keyser
Thomas de Keyser was a Dutch painter and architect. De Keyser was born and died in Amsterdam and he excelled as a portrait painter, and was the most in-demand portrait painter in the Netherlands until the 1630s, when Rembrandt eclipsed him in popularity. Rembrandt was influenced by his work, and many of de Keysers paintings were attributed to Rembrandt. A contemporary namesake of the painter was Thomas de Keyser, an actor and his portraiture is full of character and masterly in handling, and often distinguished by a rich golden glow of color and Rembrandtesque chiaroscuro. In addition to portraits, he executed some historical and mythological pictures, such as the Theseus and Ariadne in the Amsterdam town hall. De Keyser worked as an architect, from 1662 until his death in 1667 he oversaw construction of the new Amsterdam town hall, now Royal Palace. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has the largest collection of paintings by de Keyser and his work can be seen at the Louvre in Paris, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg and the National Gallery in London, among others.
The Stedelijk Museum modern art museum in Amsterdam carries a statue of de Keyser on its facade, a street in Enschede is named for him. De Keyser was a son of the architect and sculptor Hendrik de Keyser and we have no definite knowledge of his training, and but scant information as to the course of his life. According to the Netherlands Institute for Art History, he was a pupil of Cornelis van der Voort, the landscape painter Jacob Isaakszoon van Ruisdael painted a landscape as a background to one of his group portraits. In the 1640s, de Keyser received very few painting commissions and he owned a basalt business from 1640 until 1654, when he returned to painting. Balthasar van der Ast Jan Gerritsz van Bronckhorst David Bailly This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. De Keyser. Works and literature on Thomas de Keyser Artcyclopedia list of museums with works by Thomas de Keyser Works at WGA
Govert Teuniszoon Flinck was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age. Here Flinck was joined by Jacob Backer, and the companionship of a youth determined like himself to be an artist only confirmed his passion for painting. Amongst the neighbours of Jacobszon at Leeuwarden were the sons and relations of Rombertus van Uylenburgh, other members of the same family lived at Amsterdam, cultivating the arts either professionally or as amateurs. The pupils of Lambert probably gained some knowledge of Rembrandt by intercourse with the Ulenburgs, for many years Flinck laboured on the lines of Rembrandt, following that masters style in all the works which he executed between 1636 and 1648. With aspirations as a painter, however, he looked to the swelling forms and grand action of Peter Paul Rubens. Flincks relations with Cleves became in time very important and he was introduced to the court of the Great Elector, Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg, who possessed the Duchy and who married in 1646 Louisa of Orange.
He obtained the patronage of John Maurice of Nassau, who was stadtholder of Cleves in 1649. In 1652 a citizen of Amsterdam, Flinck married in 1656 an heiress, Sophie van der Houven, Flinck died in Amsterdam on 2 February 1660. The earliest of Flincks authentic pieces is a portrait of a lady, dated 1636 and his first subject picture is the Blessing of Jacob, in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. Both are thoroughly Rembrandtesque in effect as well as in vigour of touch, the four civic guards of 1642, and the twelve musketeers with their president in an arm-chair, in the Stadhuis, are fine specimens of composed portrait groups. Flinck here painted his own likeness to the left in a doorway, the mannered period of Flinck is amply illustrated in the Manius Curius Dentatus eating Turnips before the Samnite Envoys, and Solomon receiving Wisdom, in the Palace on the Dam at Amsterdam. Here it is that Flinck shows most defects, being faulty in arrangement, gaudy in tint and shallow in execution, Flinck was unable to finish more than the sketches.
After his death Rembrandt was asked to one of the commissions, and produced his last great history picture, the Conspriracy of Claudius Civilis. In the same year he received an acknowledgment from the town council of Cleves. Of several pictures which were painted for the Great Elector, none are preserved except the Expulsion of Hagar in the Berlin museum. Flinck at WGA Works and literature on Govert Flinck at PubHist This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
William the Silent
He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau, a wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish, declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard in Delft in 1584. William was born on 24 April 1533 at Dillenburg castle in the County of Nassau-Dillenburg and he was the eldest son of William, Count of Nassau by his second wife Juliana of Stolberg-Werningerode. Williams father had one surviving daughter by his previous marriage, and his parents had twelve children together, of whom William was the eldest, he had four younger brothers and seven younger sisters. The family was devout and William was raised a Lutheran. In 1544, Williams agnatic first cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, in his testament, René of Chalon named William the heir to all his estates and titles, including that of Prince of Orange, on the condition that he receive a Roman Catholic education.
Williams father acquiesced to this condition on behalf of his 11-year-old son, besides the principality of Orange and significant lands in Germany, William inherited vast estates in the Low Countries from his cousin. Because of his age, Emperor Charles V, who was the overlord of most of these estates. In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received a military and diplomatic education under the direction of Champagney, on 6 July 1551, William married Anna van Egmond en Buren and heiress of Maximiliaan van Egmond, an important Dutch nobleman. Annas father had died in 1548, and therefore William became Lord of Egmond, the marriage was a happy one and produced three children, one of whom died in infancy. Anna died on 24 March 1558, leaving William much grieved, being a ward of Charles V and having received his education under the tutelage of the Emperors sister, William came under the particular attention of the imperial family, and became a favorite. He was appointed captain in the cavalry in 1551 and received rapid promotion thereafter and this was in 1555, when Charles V sent him to Bayonne with an army to take the city in a siege from the French.
William was made a member of the Raad van State, in 1559, Phillip appointed William stadtholder of the provinces of Holland and Utrecht, thereby greatly increasing his political power. A stadtholdership over Franche-Comté followed in 1561, William was dissatisfied with the increasing persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands. Brought up as a Lutheran and a Catholic, William was very religious but was still a proponent of freedom of religion for all people, the opposition wished to see an end to the presence of Spanish troops. On 25 August 1561, William of Orange married for the second time, in early 1565, a large group of lesser noblemen, including Williams younger brother Louis, formed the Confederacy of Noblemen. On 5 April, they offered a petition to Margaret of Parma, from August to October 1566, a wave of iconoclasm spread through the Low Countries
The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns.
The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s.
Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, distributed throughout Europe and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority then
The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which runs through the city of Amsterdam. The rivers name is derived from Aeme-stelle, old Dutch for water-area, the well-known bridge Magere Brug in Amsterdam crosses the river, as do the bridges Blauwbrug, Hoge Sluis and Berlagebrug. The Stopera city hall and opera house and Carré theatre are located on the banks of the river. A nationally televised concert is held on the every year on Bevrijdingsdag. The rowing races Head of the River Amstel and Heineken Roeivierkamp are held on the river annually, the river forms part of the route of the Canal Parade, Amsterdams annual floating gay pride parade. Amstel beer is named after the river, the Amstel brewery, as many other breweries, was situated close to the Amstel river because river water was used to produce the beer. The river originally began where two rivers, the Drecht and Kromme Mijdrecht, joined together, a little south of Uithoorn. After the construction of a canal, the Amstel-Drecht Kanaal, the river now begins where the Drecht and another canal, tributary rivers are the Kromme Mijdrecht and Waver.
The rivers outlet is in Amsterdam, where it meets the IJ bay, during 1936 the last part of the river was filled in, so the river now ends near Muntplein square, although it remains connected to the bay through subterranean pipes. The river contains one island, Amsteleiland, at 52°17′15″N 4°53′15″E. The only road leading to it belongs to the village of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel and it has an area of about 0.05 km². Amsterdam took its name from the river, the city developed from a small fishing village named Amstelredam, built during the 13th century alongside a dam at the mouth of the river. The town was granted city rights about 1300, the hamlet developed into the small town Amsteldam, which became Amsterdam. The area through which the river passes is known as the Amstelland, the city and municipality of Amstelveen, the municipality of Ouder-Amstel, the towns of Ouderkerk aan de Amstel and Nes aan de Amstel are all named for the river as well. Amsterdam has a street named Amstel, a square named Amstelveld, in the former Dutch colonies in North America, a town was captured from the Swedes in 1655 and renamed Nieuw-Amstel.
It is now known as New Castle, the river has been depicted by many artists, Aert van der Neer Rembrandt Willem Witsen George Hendrik Breitner Piet Mondrian Media related to Amstel at Wikimedia Commons
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838.
Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814.
The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found