Dinosaur Provincial Park
Dinosaur Provincial Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located about two-and-a-half hours drive southeast of Calgary, Canada, or 48 kilometres, about a half-hour drive northeast of Brooks. The park is situated in the valley of the Red Deer River, the park is well known for being one of the richest dinosaur fossil locales in the world. Forty dinosaur species have been discovered at the park and more than 500 specimens have been removed and exhibited in museums around the globe. The renowned fossil assemblage of nearly 500 species of life, from microscopic fern spores to large carnivorous dinosaurs, the Dinosaur Provincial Park Visitor Centre features exhibits about dinosaurs and the geology and natural history of the park. There is a theater, fossil prep lab area. Public programs are offered in the summer, John Wares Cabin is a restored early 20th century cabin that was used by John Ware, an African-American cowboy and important figure in Albertas ranching history. The cabin is located near the center and is open on select days in the summer.
Established on June 27,1955 as part of Albertas 50th Jubilee Year with the goal of protecting the fossil beds, the first warden was Roy Fowler and this changed with the opening of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology 100 kilometres upstream in Midland Provincial Park adjacent to Drumheller. The park protects a complex ecosystem including three communities, prairie grasslands and riverside cottonwoods. Its ecosystem is surrounded by prairies but is unique unto itself, choruses of coyotes are common at dusk, as are the calls of nighthawks. Cottontail rabbits, mule deer, and pronghorn can all be seen in the park, the rattlesnake, bull snake. Curlews and Canada geese are among the 165 bird species that can be seen in the spring, some of the most northern species of cactus, including Opuntia and Pediocactus can be observed in full bloom during the half of June. The top of the terrestrial Oldman Formation, which outcrops at the base of the sequence, is the oldest and it is overlain by a complete section of the terrestrial Dinosaur Park Formation, which is in turn overlain by the base of the marine Bearpaw Formation.
The Dinosaur Park Formation, which contains most of the dinosaur skeletons, was laid down between about 76.5 and 74.8 million years ago. It was deposited in floodplain and coastal plain environments by river systems that flowed eastward and southeastward to the Western Interior Seaway, Dinosaur Provincial Park preserves an extraordinarily diverse group of freshwater vertebrates. Fish include sharks, paddlefish, gars, amphibians include frogs and the extinct albanerpetontids. Reptiles include lizards, a range of turtles, crocodilians. Mammal fossils from the park are rare and consist of isolated teeth, fragmentary jaws with teeth
Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, the Far North may refer to the Canadian Arctic, the portion of Canada north of the Arctic Circle and lies east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canadas total land area, for some purposes, Northern Canada may include Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. These reckonings somewhat depend on the concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called northernness that other Arctic territories share. Canada is the northernmost country in the Americas and roughly 80% of its 35 million inhabitants are concentrated along its border with the United States. Combined with the fact that all of the country experiences severely cold winters along with short and relatively cool summers. Due to the concentration of its population along the border. Southern Canada is therefore considered to be a region only when it is contrasted against or viewed from the North, as a social rather than political region, the Canadian north is often subdivided into two distinct regions based on climate, the near north and the far north.
The different climates of these two regions result in different vegetation, and therefore very different economies, settlement patterns. The near north or subarctic is mostly synonymous with the Canadian boreal forest and this area has traditionally been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, that is the First Nations, who were hunters of moose, freshwater fishers and trappers. This region was involved in the North American fur trade during its peak importance. The area was part of Ruperts Land or the North-Western Territory under the nominal control of the Hudsons Bay Company from 1670–1869. The HBCs claim was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and this opened the region to non-Native settlement, as well as to forestry and oil and gas drilling. Today several million people live in the north, around 15% of the Canadian total. The far north is synonymous with the north of the tree line. This area is home to the various sub-groups of the Inuit and these are people who have traditionally relied mostly on hunting marine mammals and caribou, mainly barren-ground caribou, as well as fish and migratory birds.
This area was somewhat involved in the fur trade, but was influenced by the whaling industry. Very few non-Aboriginal people have settled in areas, and the residents of the far north represent less than 1% of Canadas total population
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve is in the Alaska panhandle west of Juneau. President Calvin Coolidge proclaimed the area around Glacier Bay a national monument under the Antiquities Act on February 25,1925, in total the park and preserve cover 5,130 square miles. Most of Glacier Bay is designated wilderness area which covers 4,164 square miles, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve occupies the northernmost section of the southeastern Alaska coastline, between the Gulf of Alaska and Canada. The parks northwestern boundary, which abuts Tongass National Forest, the preserve lands comprise a small area at Dry Bay — the majority of Glacier Bay lands are national park lands. The park boundary excludes Gustavus at the mouth of Glacier Bay, the lands adjoining the park to the north in Canada are included in Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park. No roads lead to the park and it is most easily reached by air travel, during some summers there are ferries to the small community of Gustavus or directly to the marina at Bartlett Cove.
Despite the lack of roads, the received an average of about 470,000 recreational visitors annually from 2007 to 2016. Most of the visitors arrive via cruise ships, the number of ships that may arrive each day is limited by regulation. Trips generally take six days and pass through Kluane National Park and Reserve in the Yukon, Glacier Bay National Park preserves nearly 600,000 acres of federally protected marine ecosystems in Alaska against which other less-protected marine ecosystems can be compared. Within the park and preserve there are two Tlingit ancestral homelands that are of cultural and spiritual significance to living communities today, the Alsek River serves as a route of discovery and migration from the coastal mountain range in the park to the Pacific Ocean in the preserve. There are fifteen tidewater glaciers in the park, Glaciers descending from high snow-capped mountains into the bay create spectacular displays of ice and iceberg formation. In the last century the most dramatic was probably the Muir Glacier, the calving face was nearly 2 miles wide and about 265 feet high.
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve includes nine tidewater glaciers, four of these glaciers actively calve icebergs into the bay. In the 1990s the Muir Glacier receded to the point that it was no longer a tidewater glacier, most visitors today travel to the Margerie and Lamplugh Glaciers. The advance and recession of the glaciers has been extensively documented since La Perouse visited the bay in 1786. In general the glaciers of the Fairweather Range are advancing and the Chilkat Range glaciers are receding, the region is being lifted by tectonic activity, with frequent earthquakes. Earthquake-induced landslides have been significant forces for change, inducing tsunamis that are believed to have reached 1,600 feet in height, regions of the park closest to the Gulf of Alaska have a relatively mild climate with significant rainfall and comparatively low snowfall. Lower Glacier Bay is a zone, and upper Glacier Bay is cold
The Rideau Canal, known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects the city of Ottawa, Canada, on the Ottawa River to the city of Kingston, Ontario, on Lake Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length, the name Rideau, French for curtain, is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau Rivers twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes, the Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada. The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States and it remains in use today primarily for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the open for navigation in mid-May and close in mid-October. It is the oldest continuously operated system in North America. Lawrence River, which would have severed the lifeline between Montreal and Kingston, the British built a number of other canals as well as a number of forts to impede and deter any future American invasions of Canadian territory.
The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply, westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown, southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario. The objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence bordering New York, the canal served a commercial purpose. The Rideau Canal was easier to navigate than the St. Lawrence River because of the series of rapids between Montreal and Kingston, as a result, the Rideau Canal became a busy commercial artery from Montreal to the Great Lakes. However, by 1849, the rapids of the St. Lawrence had been tamed by a series of locks, the construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers. Colonel John By decided to create a canal system instead of constructing new channels. This was an approach as it required fewer workers, was more cost effective. The canal work started in the fall of 1826, and it was completed by the spring of 1832, the final cost of the canals construction was £822,804 by the time all the costs, including land acquisitions costs, were accounted for.
Given the unexpected cost overruns, John By was recalled to London and was retired with no accolades or recognition for the tremendous accomplishment hed achieved, once the canal was constructed, no further military engagements took place between Canada and the United States. Although the Rideau Canal never had to be used as a supply route. Tens of thousands of immigrants from the British Isles travelled the Rideau in this period, hundreds of barge loads of goods were shipped each year along the Rideau, allowing Montreal to compete commercially in the 1830s and 40s with New York as a major North American port. In 1841, for instance, there were 19 steamboats,3 self-propelled barges and 157 unpowered or tow barges using the Rideau Canal, as many as one thousand of the workers died from malaria, other diseases and accidents
Herschel Island is an island in the Beaufort Sea, which lies 5 km off the coast of Yukon in Canada, of which it is administratively a part. The earliest evidence of human occupation unearthed so far by archaeological investigations is that of the Thule culture and these people are the ancestors of the present-day Inuvialuit. The Inuvialuktun word for Herschel Island is Qikiqtaruk, which means island. The first European to sight the island was explorer Sir John Franklin and it is not clear after whom the island was named. At the time of Franklins explorations there were three Inuvialuit settlements on Herschel Island, estimates of the number of people living on the island at that time ranged from 200 to 2000. The island was used as a base for hunting and whaling, in the late 19th century, whalers discovered that the Beaufort Sea was one of the last refuges of the depleted bowhead whale, which was prized for its baleen and oil. Commercial bowhead hunting in the began in 1889. In order for the short Arctic whaling season to be profitable, Herschel Island was found to have a good harbour for large whaling ships.
In 1890 a Euro-American settlement was established at Pauline Cove, at the height of the Beaufort Sea whaling period the number of residents on the island was estimated at 1,500, making it the largest Yukon community at that time. Though several frame buildings had been constructed, most residents continued to live on whaling ships, in 1893, the Pacific Steam Whaling Company constructed a building called the Community House at Pauline Cove. With a recreation room, an office for the manager and storekeeper, and storage facilities, in 1896 the company offered the house to the Anglican church, who used the building until 1906. In 1903, Francis Joseph Fitzgerald was the first North-West Mounted Police officer assigned to the area, in 1911, the Royal North-West Mounted Police purchased all Herschel Island assets of the PSW Co. for $1,500. The Community House still stands, and is believed to be the oldest frame building in Yukon and it remains in excellent condition, and is now used as a park office and visitor centre.
The first court held in the Canadian Arctic took place at Pauline Cove in 1924 in a building known as the Bonehouse. Court officials traveled from Edmonton for the trial of two Inuvialuit men charged with murder, jury members were chosen in Fort McPherson, Arctic Red River and Herschel Island. The men were guilty, and were hanged from a tie beam in the Bonehouse. The tie beam was removed by the RCMP when they left the island in 1963, Anglican missionary Isaac Stringer first visited Herschel Island in 1893. He returned with his wife in 1896, and ministered to the people there until his departure in 1901, Stringer and other missionaries attempted to build a church on the island, but were not successful
Peace Arch Park
Peace Arch Park is an international park consisting of Peace Arch Historical State Park in the United States and Peace Arch Provincial Park in Canada. The parks central feature is the Peace Arch, the park is located at the Peace Arch Border Crossing, where Highway 99 in British Columbia and Interstate 5 in Washington State meet. The parks northern portion is about 9 hectares and is managed by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, the southern portion is about 20 acres and is managed by the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. The Peace Arch, dedicated in 1921, was the first such structure in the world to celebrate long lasting peace between two countries and it was built on the International Boundary between Canada and the United States to commemorate the lasting peace between the two countries. The Canadian side was established as a park on November 7,1939. Recreational activities include walking and picnicking as well as a playground for children, the United States Canada Peace Anniversary Association is a nonprofit association dedicated to the heritage and preservation of the international monument.
The association hosts park events and activities including the annual International Sculpture Exhibition, Washington Douglas, British Columbia International Peace Garden Clark, Richard. Sam Hills Peace Arch, Remembrance of Dreams Past, Peace Arch Provincial Park BC Parks Peace Arch Historical State Park Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission United States Canada Peace Anniversary Association Peace Arch Park
Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador
Red Bay is a fishing village and former site of several Basque whaling stations on the southern coast of Labrador in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Between 1530 and the early 17th century, Red Bay was a major Basque whaling area, the site is home to three Basque whaling galleons and four small chalupas used in the capture of whales. The discovery of these vessels makes Red Bay one of the most precious underwater archaeological sites in the Americas, since June 2013 it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Red Bay is a natural harbour residing in the bay that gives it its name, because of the sheltered harbour it was used during World War II as a mooring site for naval vessels. In the bay are Penney Island and Saddle Island, which were used by the Basques for their whaling operations, the location of the sunken vessel San Juan is near Saddle Island. Between 1550 and the early 17th century, Red Bay, known as Balea Baya, was a centre for Basque whaling operations, in 1565, a ship—believed to be San Juan—sank in the waters off Red Bay during a storm.
Other, smaller vessels, such as chalupas, have recovered from the waters. Another galleon was found 25–35 feet below water in 2004 and it was the fourth trans-oceanic ship to have been found in the area. A cemetery on nearby Saddle Island holds the remains of 140 whalers, many of the people buried there are thought to have died from drowning and exposure. Historians believe that a decline in whale stocks eventually led to the abandonment of the stations in Red Bay. Today, a centre in Red Bay explains the history to visitors. An attempt was made to find the treasure by residents of Carrol Cove by draining the pond, Red Bay has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada, and since 2013 it is one of seventeen Canadian sites added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Source, Statistics Canada 2001 Census Basque whaling station on Saddle Island, the location of the sunken vessel San Juan is near the wreck of the Bernier, which grounded in 1966. The story goes that a man got into a fight at a bar and was knocked unconscious.
The man drowned, and it is said that his ghost wanders at night, leaving bloody clothing for travelers who venture into the woods to show them how he died- bloody, and a fool. Reports have been made of marks made on the sand, as if something had dragged something, or someone, a hiker said that he found a bloody shirt sleeve tied to his hiking pack one night. Locals argue on the matter, and most are suspicious that the haunting is merely pranksters taking advantage of tourists. List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador Discovery in Labrador, A 16th-Century Basque Whaling Port, Basque whaling historical page Red Bay - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol
L'Anse aux Meadows
LAnse aux Meadows is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Discovered in 1960, it is the most famous site of a Norse or Viking settlement in North America, dating to around the year 1000, LAnse aux Meadows is widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It is notable for its connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly. It was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978, the site now known as LAnse aux Meadows was first recorded as Anse à la Médée on a French nautical chart made in 1862. The toponym probably referred to a named after the Greek mythological figure of Medea. The cove facing the village of LAnse aux Meadows is still named Médée Bay. How the village came to be named LAnse aux Meadows is not clear. Parks Canada, which manages the site, states that the current name was anglicized from Anse à la Médée after English speakers settled in the area, another possibility is that LAnse aux Meadows is a corruption of the French designation LAnse aux Méduses, which means Jellyfish Cove.
The shift from Méduses to Meadows may have occurred because the landscape in the area tends to be open, based on the idea that the Old Norse name Vinland, mentioned in the Icelandic Sagas, meant wine-land, historians had long speculated that the region contained wild grapes. The Ingstads doubted this theory, saying that the name Vinland probably means land of meadows. and this speculation was based on the belief that the Norse would not have been comfortable settling in areas along the American Atlantic coast. This dichotomy between the two views could have possibly been due to the two historic ways in which the first vowel sound of Vinland could be pronounced. In 1960, George Decker, a citizen of the fishing hamlet of LAnse aux Meadows. These bumps covered with grass looked like the remains of houses, Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine Ingstad carried out seven archaeological excavations there from 1961 to 1968. They investigated eight complete house sites and the remains of a ninth, though a possible Norse settlement has been found in southern Newfoundland at Point Rosee, LAnse aux Meadows is currently the only confirmed Norse site in North America.
It represents the extent of European exploration and settlement of the New World before the voyages of Christopher Columbus almost 500 years later. Historians have speculated there were other settlement sites, or at least Norse-Native American trade contacts. In 2012, possible Norse outposts were identified in Nanook at Tanfield Valley on Baffin Island, as well as Nunguvik, Willows Island and the Avayalik Islands. The archaeological excavation at LAnse aux Meadows was conducted in the 1960s by a team led by archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad under the direction of Parks Canada in the 1970s
Nahanni National Park Reserve
Nahanni National Park Reserve in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories, approximately 500 km west of Yellowknife, protects a portion of the Mackenzie Mountains Natural Region. The centrepiece of the park is the South Nahanni River, four noteworthy canyons reaching 1,000 m in depth, called First, Second and Fourth Canyon, line this spectacular whitewater river. There are several different landforms in the park that have millions of years to form. Sediment left by an ancient inland sea 500-200 million years ago had since become pressed into layers of rock and these layers were stacked about 6 kilometres deep and are peppered with fossils, remnants of these ancient sea beds. As the continents shifted, the North American and Pacific Plates collided, ridges of rock bent and broke, leaving behind the ranges seen today. This same action caused volcanic activity, sending molten lava into, while there are no volcanoes in the park, towers of heated rock called igneous batholiths were sent upwards, pushing the sediment further up.
The top layer of rock was eventually eroded away, resulting in granite towers that form the Ragged Range. Over the last 2 million years, glaciers have covered most of North America, while previous ice ages affected the park area, the most recent, the Wisconsin Ice Age touched only the most western and eastern parts of the park. This has left many geological features in the much more time to develop than most of North America had. The central feature of the park is the South Nahanni River which runs the length of the park, beginning near Moose Ponds, the South Nahanni is a rare example of an antecedent river. The mountains rose slowly enough, and the river was powerful enough that the maintained its course over its history. As the river was meandering, the canyons it carved meander, most visitors only visit the portions from Virginia Falls down. There are four main canyons that line the South Nahanni River, named by prospectors, Third canyon runs through Funeral Range, around 40 km long. Because its walls are composed of a stratum of shale and limestone this canyon has long slopes instead of steep, big Bend, a point where the river does a 45 degree turn, marks the end of Third and the beginning of Second Canyon.
At 15 km long, it runs through the Headless Range, the final canyon is considered the most beautiful. Beginning after Deadmen Valley, First Canyon boasts the highest, most vertical walls and it ends near Kraus Hotsprings, making it about 30 km long. Following this, the river slows and braids into different channels, passing through the park boundary, soon after the town, the South Nahanni River joins the Liard River. Notable mountains in the park include Mount Nirvana, officially an unnamed peak, slightly further north lies Mount Sir James MacBrien, the territories second highest peak at 2,759 m, and Lotus Flower Tower both of which form part of the Cirque of the Unclimbables
The capital cities of the four western provinces, from West to East, Victoria, Edmonton and Winnipeg. Except for Winnipeg, which is the largest city in Manitoba, Manitoba established as a province of Canada in 1870, following the enacting of the Manitoba Act. Saskatchewan, Established as province in 1905, with the implementation of the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta, In 1905, the same year as Saskatchewan, Alberta was established as province. Just like Saskatchewan had the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta had the Alberta Act and this represents 31. 5% of Canadas population. While Vancouver serves as the largest metropolitan area in Western Canada, the following is a list of these areas and their populations as of 2011. Western Canada consists of the four westernmost provinces, British Columbia, Saskatchewan. It covers 2.9 million square kilometres – almost 29% of Canada’s land area, British Columbia adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, while Manitoba has a coastline on Hudson Bay in its northeast of the province.
Both Alberta and Saskatchewan are landlocked between British Columbia and Manitoba, the Canadian Prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba. The prairies form a significant portion of the area of Western Canada. The plains generally describes the expanses of flat, arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly. In Alberta and British Columbia, the Canadian Cordillera is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. The continental divide defines much of the border between Alberta and British Columbia, the Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second- and third-largest rivers, respectively, to drain to the west coast of North America.
To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a belt of mountains. The coast of British Columbia enjoys an oceanic climate because of the influence of the Pacific Ocean. Winters are typically wet and summers relatively dry and these areas enjoy the mildest winter weather in all of Canada, as temperatures rarely fall much below the freezing mark. The mountainous Interior of the province is drier and has colder winters, Alberta has a dry continental climate with warm summers and cold winters. The province is open to cold Arctic weather systems from the north, winters are generally quite cold, though some areas can experience a phenomenon known as the chinook wind, wherein warm winds raise the winter temperatures temporarily
The Thinhorn sheep is a species of sheep native to northwestern North America, ranging from white to slate brown in colour and having curved yellowish brown horns. There are two subspecies, the nominate Dall sheep or Dalls sheep and the southern subspecies, Stone sheep. Research has shown the use of these designations are questionable. Mitochondrial DNA evidence has shown no molecular division along current subspecies boundaries, at the species level, current taxonomy is questionable because hybridization between Ovis dalli and Ovis canadensis has been recorded in recent evolutionary history. The latter half of the Latin name dalli is derived from William Healey Dall, the common name Dall sheep or Dalls sheep is often used to refer to the species Ovis dalli. The sheep inhabit the mountain ranges of Alaska, the Yukon Territory, the Mackenzie Mountains in the western Northwest Territories. Male Dall sheep have thick curling horns, the females have shorter, more slender, slightly curved horns. Males live in bands which seldom associate with female groups except during the season in late November.
During the summer when food is abundant, the sheep eat a variety of plants. The winter diet is more limited, and consists primarily of dry, frozen grass and sedge stems available when snow is blown off, lichen. Many Dall sheep populations visit mineral licks during the spring, the primary predators of Dall sheep are wolves, black bears, and grizzly bears, golden eagles are predators of the young. The Dall sheep has been known to butt wolves off the face of cliffs and Leslie Smithsonian Institution - North American Mammals, Ovis dalli