Milecastle 1 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. It was located near the valley of Stott's Pow, its remains are covered over, are located beneath the recreation ground at Miller's Dene. Early excavations and investigations of Turret 0B were mistakenly interpreted as Milecastle 1.. The Milecastle sits within the parish of Wallsend. Milecastle 1 was a short-axis milecastle of unknown gateway type. Short-axis milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the legio II Augusta who were based in Isca Augusta. Milecastle 1 Easting and Northing: Easting: 360162 Northing: 563796Milecastle 1 English Heritage number: 1003507. 1732 - Horsley recorded the milecastle as short-axis and its proximity to Stott's Pow.1848 - Collingwood Bruce studied the wall and wrote:1852-4 - Henry MacLauchlan surveyed the milecastle's position and recorded it as a short-axis milecastle.1928 - F G Simpson tested the site and found only Roman occupation soil and debris remained, assuming that the foundations had been robbed away.
Simpson measured from outside edge of the east gate of Segedunum to the centre of Milecastle 1 at 1,443 yards. His measurements between the centres of Milecastle 1 and Milecastle 2 was ed 1,453 yards. 1947 - The recreation ground which now covers the site of Milecastle 1 was leveled in 1947. Part of the "Wall Ditch" and traces of the milecastle were still according to Grace Simpson, she stated in her notes that the fragment of Wall Ditch had now disappeared but the trace of the milecastle was still faintly discernible. 1975 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted that:1978- Grace Simpson that the fragment of Wall Ditch had now disappeared but the "trace of the Milecastle... is still faintly discernible". Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures; these turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 1 are known as Turret 1A and Turret 1B.
Turret 1A was located near to what is now the junction of the A187 Fossway, Coutts Road. This is based on measurement, no evidence of the turret has been identified. An alternative location would be a third of a Roman mile between the site of Horsely's Milcastle 1 and Milecastle 2. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.981990°N 1.557071°W / 54.981990. This location was suggested by FG Simpson, is based on measurements from Milecastle 2. No evidence of the turret has been identified. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.981069°N 1.563253°W / 54.981069.
Milecastle 8 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains are located in what is now West Newcastle upon Tyne; the milecastle has two associated turret structures which are known as turret 8A and turret 8B. The turrets and milecastle were excavated in the 1920s, yielding some pottery and stone carvings, but have since been overlain by modern roads; the exact locations of the structures is disputed, with the road now hiding any surface traces. The Milecastle now forms part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. There is some dispute over the exact location, with one study in 1929 locating it 1,627 yards east of Milecastle 9, historian Madeleine Hope Dodds stating in 1930 that it is 1,602 yards from Milecastle 9; the Ordnance Survey uses an average of these positions on its mapping. The site of Milecastle 8 has been buried beneath the A69 dual carriageway; the milecastle was excavated in 1928. Excavations uncovered pottery and other relics but no structural remains of the milecastle were uncovered.
It is possible. Excavations near the site have uncovered two carved stone "Celtic heads" representative of local Celtic religions or imported from Europe with a unit of auxilia; the heads were discovered in 1969 and 1980. Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall has two associated turret structures; these turrets were positioned one third of a Roman mile apart and would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 8 are known as turrets 8A and 8B. Turret 8A was located in 1929 based on pottery and occupation earth finds to a position 522 yards west of Milecastle 8, beneath a modern road, there are no visible remains. However, the field reports disagree with the position of 8A given by Madeleine Hope Dodds, a separate position is given by the Ordnance Survey; the turret is now located underneath the modern A69 road in this area. Ordnance Survey location: 54.987926°N 1.707661°W / 54.987926. When it was excavated the road of the time ran alongside the turret, the south wall, 19 feet 10 inches long with a doorway set in it, was found to be two courses of stone high.
The road was realigned and now lies over the site, leaving no visible surface trace of the turret. The turret is now located underneath the modern A69 road in this area. Ordnance Survey location: 54.989291°N 1.714684°W / 54.989291.
A burn is a watercourse. The term burn is used in Scotland and England and in parts of Ulster and New Zealand; the cognate of burn in standard English is "bourn", "bourne", "borne", "born", retained in placenames like Bournemouth, King's Somborne, Melbourne. A cognate in German is Born, meaning "well", "spring" or "source", retained in placenames like Paderborn in Germany. Both the English and German words derive from the same Proto-Germanic root. Scots Gaelic has the word bùrn cognate, but which means "fresh water".
Milecastle 33 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall, one of a series of small fortlets built at intervals of one Roman mile along the length of the UNESCO World Heritage Site in northern England. Its remains exist as visible earthworks, with the exception of part of the north gate and wall, a fragment of the south gate, which are exposed. Exposed parts survive to a maximum height of 1.2 metres. The remains are located a few metres to the north of the B6318 Military Road. Milecastle 33 was a long-axis milecastle with Type II gateways; such milecastles were thought to have been constructed by the legio XX Valeria Victrix who were based in Deva Victrix. The external dimensions of the milecastle are 78 feet by 68 feet, the large, monolithic threshold installed is of the same type installed in milecastles 13, 17, 53. 1930 - A fragment of ornamented stone with a distinct pattern of leaves is found at the North gate.1935-6 - The milecastle is excavated, the dimensions and remaining structure established.
1966 - English Heritage Field Investigation. The 1935-6 findings were reconfirmed. 1988 - English Heritage Field Investigation as part of the Hadrian's Wall Project. It was noted. Other previous findings are reconfirmed; each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison; the turrets associated with Milecastle 33 are known as Turret 33A and Turret 33B. Located in 1920, nothing now remains of Turret 33A, due to extensive stone robbing, its position was stated by Eric Birley in 1961 as "150 yds. east of the twenty-seventh milestone at the bridge crossing the Coesike". Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 55.030132°N 2.273380°W / 55.030132. It has been exposed, consolidated to a maximum height of 1.1 metres. In plan, the turret has an entrance to the east end of the south wall, with a platform in the south-west corner, a hearth at the centre.
The walls are 0.9 metres thick. It was built with broad wing walls of Standard A. Material used for the blocking of the rear recess mentioned below included an inscribed stone naming the legio VI Victrix; this suggests. There is evidence that the following changes occurred during occupation: The hearth was replaced twice The floor was raised and part-flagged The threshold of the door was lifted The turret was abandoned, reccupied following withdrawal from the Antonine Wall The door was blocked at the end of the second century, when the turret went out of use. Subsequently, the turret was demolished down to four courses and the recess in the rear of the wall blocked up. Occupation evidence includes jars and cooking pots, butchered remains of young animals, the dumping of ashes from the hearth outside the east wall. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 55.029189°N 2.281070°W / 55.029189. Daniels, Charles, "Review: Fact and Theory on Hadrian's Wall", Britannia, 10: 357–364, doi:10.2307/526069, JSTOR 526069
Milecastle 12 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains lay under Heddon-on-the-Wall, with nothing visible on the surface. Milecastle 12 is of unknown axis and gateway types. Circa 1746 - During construction of the Military Road, two inscriptions were discovered; these attest rebuilding work by the Legio VI Victrix. One reads "LEG · VI · V · P · F · REF · TER · ET · SAC · COS", referring to Sacerdos. 1752 - A large hoard of coins in wooden boxes is found here. 1820 - A small hoard of coins is found near here. These comprise coins from Emperor Maximian to Emperor Arcadius. 1926 - The north gate is recorded as having been found. 1928-29 - A further search is made, without success. 1966 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted that there were no surface indications from which the site could be established, the area was covered by modern farm buildings.1989 - English Heritage Field Investigation. It was noted that there was no surface trace of the milecastle, though its exact position is unknown.
Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures. These turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison; the turrets associated with Milecastle 12 are known as Turret 12A and Turret 12B. Turret 12A is located beside the B6318 Military Road a short distance West North West of Heddon-on-the-Wall. No surface traces are visible; the turret was located in 1928 as 548 yards west of Milecastle 12. This location was confirmed by a partial excavation in 1930, it was found that the walls were reduced to ground level beyond the edge of the roadway, but had the same plan as Turret 12B. However, the platform, was too badly robbed for any trace to remain; the mortared walls were recorded with the doorway lying to the east. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.998174°N 1.797620°W / 54.998174. It was located in 1928, 543 yards from Turret 12a and 529 yards from Milecastle 13.
It was excavated in 1930, found to be identical in plan to Turret 12A. The platform occupied the south side of the interior. Location on Ordnance Survey 1:25 000 map: 54.999264°N 1.805243°W / 54.999264.
Housesteads Roman Fort
Housesteads Roman Fort is the remains of an auxiliary fort on Hadrian's Wall. Its ruins are at Housesteads in the civil parish of Bardon Mill in Northumberland, south of Broomlee Lough; the fort was built in stone around AD 124, soon after the construction of the wall began in AD 122 when the area was part of the Roman province of Britannia. Its name has been variously given as Vercovicium, Borcovicus and Velurtion; the name of the 18th-century farmhouse of Housesteads gives the modern name. The site is in the care of English Heritage. Finds can be seen in the site museum, in the museum at Chesters, in the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle upon Tyne. Hadrian's Wall was begun in AD 122. A fort was built in stone at the Housesteads Roman Fort site around AD 124 overlying the original Broad Wall foundation and Turret 36B; the fort was repaired and rebuilt several times, its northern defences being prone to collapse. A substantial civil settlement existed to the south, outside the fort, some of the stone foundations can still be seen, including the so-called "Murder House", where two skeletons were found beneath an newly-laid floor when excavated.
In the 2nd century AD, the garrison consisted of an unknown double-sized auxiliary infantry cohort and a detachment of legionaries from Legio II Augusta. In the 3rd century, it comprised Cohors I Tungrorum, augmented by the numerus Hnaudifridi and the Cuneus Frisiorum, a Frisian cavalry unit, cuneus referring to a wedge formation; the Tungrians were still there according to the Notitia Dignitatum. By 409 AD the Romans had withdrawn. Most other early forts therefore protrude into barbarian territory, it is unusual for Britain in that it has no running water supply and is dependent upon rainwater collection. It has one of the best-preserved stone latrines in Roman Britain; the name of the fort has been given as Borcovicus and Velurtion. An inscription found at Housesteads with the letters VER, is believed to be short for Ver – the letters ver being interchangeable with bor in Latin; the name of the 18th-century farmhouse of Housesteads provides the modern name. The site is now owned by the National Trust and is in the care of English Heritage.
Finds from Vercovicium can be seen in the site museum, in the museum at Chesters, in the Great North Museum: Hancock in Newcastle upon Tyne. Housesteads is a former farm. In 1604 Hugh Nixon, "Stealer of cattle and receiver of stolen goods", became the tenant of Housesteads farm. From 1663, Housesteads was the home of a notorious family of Border Reivers. Nicholas Armstrong bought the farm in 1692, only to have to sell it again in 1694 to Thomas Gibson of Hexham for the sum of £485, they remained as tenants. They were a well-known band of horse thieves and cattle rustlers who used the old fort as a place to hold the stolen horses and cattle, they traded as far afield as the south of England. At one time every male member of the family was said to have been a'broken man', formally outlawed by English or Scottish authorities. Nicholas was hanged in 1704, his brothers fled to America; the Armstrongs lived in a typical 16th century defensive bastle house of two storeys: the ground floor for livestock and the upper level for living quarters.
Its ruins remain built up against the south gate of the Roman fort, with external stone steps and narrow loop windows. A corn drying kiln was inserted into the gate's guard chamber in the 17th century. In 1698, the farm had been sold to Thomas Gibson who turned the land around the fort to agriculture and thus ploughed up numerous Roman artefacts; the 17th-century bastle house was replaced by a farmhouse located over the Roman hospital, sketched by Stukely in 1725. Throughout the 18th Century Housesteads was farmed by a single tenant farming family. Since Hodgson recorded the presence of William Magnay as the tenant during that period this fixes the tenure. In particular, the well was documented as having been built by William, used by the family as a bath. Interest in the fort increased in the 19th century after the farm was purchased by the historian, John Clayton, in 1838, to add to his collection of Roman Wall farms; the Roman site was cleared of buildings by Clayton, the present farmhouse built about 1860.
John Maurice Clayton attempted to auction the fort in 1929. It did not reach its reserve and was donated to the National Trust in 1930; the farm was owned by the Trevelyans who gave the land for the site museum. History of Northumberland SourcesCrow, J. Housesteads Roman Fort and its Environs, Univ. of Newcastle 1994 Crow, J. Housesteads, London: Batsford Birley, Eric. Housesteads Roman Fort. London: English Heritage. Dodds, Glen Lyndon, Historic Sites of Northumberland & Newcastle upon Tyne pp 96–103 Hickey, Julia. "Carlisle and the Border Reivers". TimeTravel-Britain.com. Retrieved 8 February 2006. Gibson papers, Northumberland Record Office John Hodgson, History of Northumberland vol III part II page 288 Rivet, A. L. F; the Place-Names of Roman Britain, London: Batsford Hadrian's Wall and Housesteads Fort – National Trust History and visitor information: English Heritage
Milecastle 4 was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains exist beneath the Newcastle Arts Centre at 67-75 Westgate Road; this position is some way away from its predicted position, at these coordinates: 54.970440°N 1.608669°W / 54.970440. Milecastle 4 was a long-axis milecastle of unknown gateway type; such milecastles were thought to have been constructed by either the legio VI Victrix who were based in Eboracum, or the Legio XX Valeria Victrix who were based in Deva Victrix. The milecastle was 14.9 metres wide and 18 metres long. The excavated south wall was 2.7 metres wide and bonded with clay. Its foundations were 2.9 metres wide (as were those of the east wall and formed of flags There was evidence to suggest that the southern gateway had been blocked at some time. 1929 and 1930 - Roman pottery was discovered 1,575 yards along the line of the wall from Milecastle 3. This was taken to be the site of Milecastle 4.1961 - Birley accepts the above location.1985 - The south-west corner of the milecastle was found, further excavation took place.
No occupational layer was discovered and the foundations were sealed by a layer containing predominantly 2nd century pottery fragments, meaning it is that the milecastle was demolished before the end of the 2nd century. Each milecastle on Hadrian's Wall had two associated turret structures; these turrets were positioned one-third and two-thirds of a Roman mile to the west of the Milecastle, would have been manned by part of the milecastle's garrison. The turrets associated with Milecastle 4 are known as Turret 4A and Turret 4B, however the established milecastle position is between the supposed turret positions. Nothing is known of Turret 4A. Due to the discovery of Milecastle 4 further west than the measured position of this turret, there is no monument record or assumed position. Nothing is known of Turret 4B. Due to the discovery of Milecastle 4 further west than the measured position of Turret 4A, it is unlikely that the positions assumed by Birley were accurate. However, a monument record exists for that location.
Location: 54.993672°N 1.736733°W / 54.993672. Reprint, Newcastle upon Tyne: Society of Antiquaries, 2006. Harbottle B. Fraser R. Burton F. C. Dore J. N. Casey P. J. Huntley J. P.'The Westgate Road Milecastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies' Brittania, 19, pp. 153-162. Breeze D. J. and Dobson B. Hadrian's Wall, London: Allen Lane