Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae. The perch, of which three species occur in different geographical areas, lend their name to a large order of vertebrates: the Perciformes, from the Greek perke meaning perch, the Latin forma meaning shape. Many species of freshwater gamefish less resemble perch, but belong to different genera. In fact, the saltwater-dwelling red drum is referred to as a red perch, though by definition perch are freshwater fish. Though many fish are referred to as perch as a common name, to be considered a true perch, the fish must be of the family Percidae; the type species for this genus is the European perch, P. fluviatilis. Most authorities recognize three species within the perch genus: The European perch is found in Europe and Asia; this species is greenish in color with dark vertical bars on its sides with a red or orange coloring in the tips of its fins. The European perch has been introduced in New Zealand and Australia, where it is known as the redfin perch or English perch.
In Australia, larger specimens have been bred, but the species grows larger than about 6 lb. The Balkhash perch is found in Kazakhstan and China, it is similar to the European perch, grows to a comparable size. The yellow perch and paler than the European perch, is found in the United States and Canada. In northern areas, it is sometimes referred to as the lake perch; this species is prized for its food quality and has been raised in hatcheries and introduced into areas in which it is not native. Yellow perch are identical in appearance to European perch, but have a more yellow coloring; these fish only reach a size of about 15 in and 2.2 lb. The general body type of a perch is somewhat rounded. True perch have "rough" or ctenoid scales. On the anterior side of the head are the maxilla and lower mandible for the mouth, a pair of nostrils, two lidless eyes. On the posterior sides are the opercular series, which protect the gills, the lateral line system, sensitive to vibrations in the water; the kidney of the perch forms a head, caudal to the gills.
Perch have paired pectoral and pelvic fins, two dorsal fins, the first one spiny and the second soft. These two fins joined. Perch are carnivorous fish most found in small ponds, streams, or rivers; these fish feed on smaller fish, shellfish, or insect larvae, but can be caught with nearly any bait. They spawn during the spring, when the females lay strings of eggs in covered areas such as near branches or underwater plants. Perch have a wide distribution throughout the world, are plentiful in the Great Lakes Lake Erie. Perch are popular sport fish species, they are known to put up a fight, to be good eating. They can be caught with a variety of methods, including float fishing, lure fishing, legering. Perch grow to around 50 cm and 5 lb or more, but the most common size caught are around 30 cm and 1 lb or less, anything over 40 cm and 2 lb is considered a prize catch. Perch have formed a critical part of the total weight caught by an angler during a competition. In 2016, angler Ross Winfield failed to weigh a perch during a competition that cost him a top-five place.
He found the perch in his keep net. For other perch not in the genus Perca, see Perch
Sediment is a occurring material, broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea bed deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may become sandstone and siltstone. Sediments are most transported by water, but wind and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian deposition. Glacial moraine deposits and till are ice-transported sediments. Sediment can be classified based on its grain composition. Sediment size is measured on a log base 2 scale, called the "Phi" scale, which classifies particles by size from "colloid" to "boulder". Composition of sediment can be measured in terms of: parent rock lithology mineral composition chemical make-up.
This leads to an ambiguity in which clay can be used as a composition. Sediment is transported based on the strength of the flow that carries it and its own size, volume and shape. Stronger flows will increase the lift and drag on the particle, causing it to rise, while larger or denser particles will be more to fall through the flow. Rivers and streams carry sediment in their flows; this sediment can be in a variety of locations within the flow, depending on the balance between the upwards velocity on the particle, the settling velocity of the particle. These relationships are shown in the following table for the Rouse number, a ratio of sediment fall velocity to upwards velocity. Rouse = Settling velocity Upwards velocity from lift and drag = w s κ u ∗ where w s is the fall velocity κ is the von Kármán constant u ∗ is the shear velocity If the upwards velocity is equal to the settling velocity, sediment will be transported downstream as suspended load. If the upwards velocity is much less than the settling velocity, but still high enough for the sediment to move, it will move along the bed as bed load by rolling and saltating.
If the upwards velocity is higher than the settling velocity, the sediment will be transported high in the flow as wash load. As there are a range of different particle sizes in the flow, it is common for material of different sizes to move through all areas of the flow for given stream conditions. Sediment motion can create self-organized structures such as ripples, dunes, or antidunes on the river or stream bed; these bedforms are preserved in sedimentary rocks and can be used to estimate the direction and magnitude of the flow that deposited the sediment. Overland flow can transport them downslope; the erosion associated with overland flow may occur through different methods depending on meteorological and flow conditions. If the initial impact of rain droplets dislodges soil, the phenomenon is called rainsplash erosion. If overland flow is directly responsible for sediment entrainment but does not form gullies, it is called "sheet erosion". If the flow and the substrate permit channelization, gullies may form.
The major fluvial environments for deposition of sediments include: Deltas Point bars Alluvial fans Braided rivers Oxbow lakes Levees Waterfalls Wind results in the transportation of fine sediment and the formation of sand dune fields and soils from airborne dust. Glaciers carry a wide range of sediment sizes, deposit it in moraines; the overall balance between sediment in transport and sediment being deposited on the bed is given by the Exner equation. This expression states that the rate of increase in bed elevation due to deposition is proportional to the amount of sediment that falls out of the flow; this equation is important in that changes in the power of the flow change the ability of the flow to carry sediment, this is reflected in the patterns of erosion and deposition observed throughout a stream. This can be localized, due to small obstacles. Erosion and deposition can be regional. Deposition can occur due to dam emplacement that causes the river to pool and deposit its entire load, or due to base level rise.
Seas and lakes accumulate sediment over time. The sediment can consist of terrigenous material, which originates on land, but may be deposited in either terrestrial, marine, or lacustrine environments, or of sediments originating in the body of water. Terrigenous material is supplied by nearby rivers and streams or reworked marine sediment. In the mid-ocean, the exoskeletons of dead organisms are responsible for sediment accumulation. Deposited sediments are the source of sedimentary rocks, which can contain fossils of
Marlinton, West Virginia
Marlinton is a town in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,054 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Pocahontas County, is known for its scenic beauty. Marlinton is named for Jacob Marlin, along with Stephen Sewell, became the first non-native settlers west of the Allegheny Mountains, in the Greenbrier Valley in 1749. New Englanders Marlin and Sewell built a cabin in what would become Marlinton, but after various religious disputes, Sewell moved into a nearby hollowed-out sycamore tree. In 1751, surveyor John Lewis discovered the pair. Sewell settled on the eastern side of Sewell Mountain, near present-day Rainelle, WV. Located at Marlinton and listed on the National Register of Historic Places are the Frank and Anna Hunter House, IOOF Lodge Building, Marlinton Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad Station, Marlinton Opera House, Pocahontas County Courthouse and Jail, Pocahontas Times Print Shop. Located near Marlinton are Droop Mountain Battlefield and New Deal Resources in Watoga State Park Historic District.
As a result of its rural location and proximity to the facilities of the United States National Radio Quiet Zone, the town has been a late adopter of broadband Internet. A 2018 article in Motherboard explains that the nearby Snowshoe Mountain ski resort has been able to provide fast internet, WiFi, cell phone coverage by having a custom system built, specially designed so as not to interfere with radio telescopes. Marlinton is home to the Roadkill Cook-off; the first cook-off was in 1991, has become nationally known through television shows about food and travel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.53 square miles, of which, 2.44 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Marlinton has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,054 people, 467 households, 247 families residing in the town.
The population density was 432.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 658 housing units at an average density of 269.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.8% White, 1.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 467 households of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.7% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.1% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the town was 47.4 years. 18.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 45.6% male and 54.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,204 people, 552 households, 290 families residing in the town.
The population density was 539.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 653 housing units at an average density of 292.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.92% White, 1.16% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.17% of the population. There were 552 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.3% were non-families. 42.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.80. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 25.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.5 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $21,293, the median income for a family was $33,125. Males had a median income of $26,500 versus $16,477 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,957. About 17.5% of families and 24.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.0% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over. Marlinton travel guide from Wikivoyage Traveling 219: Marlinton History
In geography, a confluence occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river. Confluences are studied in a variety of sciences. Hydrology studies the characteristic flow patterns of confluences and how they give rise to patterns of erosion and scour pools; the water flows and their consequences are studied with mathematical models. Confluences are relevant to the distribution of living organisms as well; the United States Geological Survey gives an example: "chemical changes occur when a stream contaminated with acid mine drainage combines with a stream with near-neutral pH water. According to Lynch, "the color of each river is determined by many things: type and amount of vegetation in the watershed, geological properties, dissolved chemicals and biologic content – algae." Lynch notes that color differences can persist for miles downstream before they blend completely.
Hydrodynamic behaviour of flow in a confluence can be divided into six distinct features which are called confluence flow zones. These include Stagnation zone Flow deflection zone Flow separation zone / recirculation zone Maximum velocity zone Flow recovery zone Shear layers Since rivers serve as political boundaries, confluences sometimes demarcate three abutting political entities, such as nations, states, or provinces, forming a tripoint. Various examples are found in the list below. A number of major cities, such as Chongqing, St. Louis, Khartoum, arose at confluences. Within a city, a confluence forms a visually prominent point, so that confluences are sometimes chosen as the site of prominent public buildings or monuments, as in Koblenz and Winnipeg. Cities often build parks at confluences, sometimes as projects of municipal improvement, as at Portland and Pittsburgh. In other cases, a confluence is an industrial site, as in Mannheim. A confluence lies in the shared floodplain of the two rivers and nothing is built on it, for example at Manaus, described below.
One other way that confluences may be employed by humans is as a sacred place in a religion. Rogers suggests that for the ancient peoples of the Iron Age in northwest Europe, watery locations were sacred sources and confluences. Pre-Christian Slavic peoples chose confluences as the sites for fortified triangular temples, where they practiced human sacrifice and other sacred rites. In Hinduism, the confluence of two sacred rivers is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Pittsburgh, a number of adherents to Mayanism consider their city's confluence to be sacred. At Lokoja, the Benue River flows into the Niger. At Kazungula in Zambia, the Chobe River flows into the Zambezi; the confluence defines the tripoint of Zambia and Namibia. The land border between Botswana and Zimbabwe to the east reaches the Zambezi at this confluence, so there is a second tripoint only 150 meters downstream from the first. See Kazungula and Quadripoint, Gallery below for image; the Sudanese capital of Khartoum is located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the beginning of the Nile.
82 km north of Basra in Iraq at the town of Al-Qurnah is the confluence of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, forming the Shatt al-Arab. At Devprayag in India, the Ganges River originates at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. Near Allahabad, the Yamuna flows into the Ganges. In Hinduism, this is a pilgrimage site for ritual bathing. In Hindu belief the site is held to be a triple confluence, the third river being the metaphysical Sarasvati. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, is where the Gombak River flows into the Klang River at the site of the Jamek Mosque; the Kolam Biru, a pool with elaborate fountains, has been installed at the apex of the confluence. The Nam Khan River flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos; the Jialing flows into the Yangtze at Chongqing in China. The confluence forms a focal point in the city, marked by Chaotianmen Square, built in 1998. In the Far East, the Amur forms the international boundary between Russia; the Ussuri, which demarcates the border, flows into the Amur at a point midway between Fuyuan in China and Khabarovsk in Russia.
The apex of the confluence is located in a rural area, part of China, where a commemorative park, Dongji Square, has been built.
Ronceverte, West Virginia
Ronceverte is a city in Greenbrier County, West Virginia, United States, on the Greenbrier River. The population was 1,765 at the 2010 census. Ronceverte might have been named "Edgar", for the high number of Edgars who lived in the town, but the name was settled by a leading entrepreneur of the area, Cecil Clay, president of the St. Lawrence Boom and Manufacturing Company. According to Clay, he saw the name on an old Jesuit map from Fort Duquesne, his argument was that the name "looked well in print and was euphonious in sound." As the owner of the town's site, Clay argued he had the right to decide on the name, but the residents could change the name to whatever they wanted once Ronceverte was established. That day has never happened. Since April 1, 1882, the town has been Ronceverte. Ronceverte is French for "Bramble Green", the Gallic equivalent for "Greenbrier". Greenbriers are a common vine, a humorous myth has it the surveyors were trapped in a thicket of the painful vines when they discovered the Greenbrier River.
French surveyors were the first cartographers for the area, although many of the details have been lost to history. The river is still inseparable from the culture of the town itself, considered one of the earliest significant river ports in the Greenbrier River watershed. Ronceverte has been impacted by the Greenbrier River flooding in 1985, 1995, 2016; the Hokes Mill Covered Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. The Ronceverte Historic District was listed in 2005. Ronceverte is a proud railroad town, a part of the C&O tracklines that connected Pocahontas County to Hinton, to Clifton Forge, Virginia. Ronceverte was part of the "Gravel Girtie" line where Hinton-based train cars were sent to the limestone quarry at Fort Spring and loaded with crushed lime; this cargo was sent to Clifton Forge. During World War II the tracklines carried German prisoners of war to areas like local farms and projects. One of the depots for the area, the Rockland Depot, has been lost to history and only the name of Rockland Road in Ronceverte remains.
Ronceverte is located at 37°44′54″N 80°28′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.73 square miles, of which, 1.70 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. Ronceverte's economic area is in the downtown section, crossed with railroad tracks for the Chesapeake & Ohio and a large floodplain that causes occasional adjustment for its citizens. Grants from Tony Hawk and the Izaak Walton League have allowed this public area to grow for the health and recreational opportunities for its citizens. A ball field, swimming pool, interpretive walk and walking track appeal to all ages adjacent to a public access point of the Greenbrier River, where picnickers are welcome; the county's recycling depot is close by, encouraging further business from a large area. The public access includes a boat launch for swimmers and fishers, an outdoor amphitheater; every June this area is inundated with the Ronceverte River Festival, where a unique raffle is held by floating hundreds of small, numbered yellow ducks into the river.
The winning duck can be a new truck. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,765 people, 753 households, 446 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,038.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 866 housing units at an average density of 509.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.7% White, 5.6% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 753 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.8% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 43.6 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 46.3% male and 53.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,557 people, 686 households, 447 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,093.7 people per square mile. There are 780 housing units at an average density of 547.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.33% White, 7.13% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.16% of the population. There were 686 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.77. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. The median income for a ho
W. E. Blackhurst
Warren Elmer "Tweard" Blackhurst was an author and a lifelong resident of the Cass community who centered on the culture of eastern West Virginia where the higher elevations supported northern pine forests. "Riders of the Flood", arguably the most well-known of Blackhurst's books, for it centers on the world of the late 19th to early 20th-century logging industry in eastern West Virginia through the Greenbrier River and its tributaries. Warren Elmer Blackhurst was born on October 10, 1904 in Arbovale, West Virginia to Rev. Harry Blackhurst and his wife Lula May née Burner, his father, an immigrant from Tunstall, came to America in 1886 with his parents Jabez and Sarah, Warren's mother was an American-born native of Pocahontas County, West Virginia. Warren was the seventh of eleven children. While a student at Green Bank High School, he fell in love with a fellow student Annie Moates, some of his schoolmates called him "Moates" to tease him about his unrequited love for Annie; the name stuck, for the rest of his life, he never went by Warren, but by either Moates or "Tweard."
Warren spent nearly his entire life close to the lumber industry, knew the intricacies of this industry like few other people. More remarkably, he was able to portray the logging workers in a realistic light. Whether they are the blustering bully about to get drunk and rip a town apart just because it is payday, or a young man trying to make something of himself, the characters sounded like actual people who one might know; as a native of West Virginia, Blackhurst knew when it would ring false. Blackhurst was a graduate of Green Bank High School and Glenville State College, attended West Virginia University and the Davis and Elkins College, he taught English and Latin for thirty-two years. He married Stella Mae Yates on June 25, 1934, they moved into a house his elder brother Henry O'Dell Blackhurst and father had built together a few years prior. On July 25, 1940, their only child, an unnamed boy, was born in Cass, only lived a few minutes before being asphyxiated by the afterbirth, he and his wife operated the Wildlife Museum in Cass.
Blackhurst devoted much of his life to collecting and writing the history of the early logging days. At the time of his birth in 1904, the lumber business was just getting underway in the Greenbrier Valley following the completion of the C&O Railway's Greenbrier Branch. One location in his books, the town of Cass, was created by the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company, Blackhurst grew up during the most active years of that company in the valley. Afterglow Mixed Harvest Riders of the Flood Published in 1954 Sawdust in Your Eyes Of Men and a Mighty Mountain Your Train Ride Through History Riders of the Flood, the outdoor drama, was written by Greenbrier County native and artist, Robert Tuckwiller, it is based on the book of the same title by the late W. E. Blackhurst of West Virginia. Set during the bygone era when logging camps were plentiful, loggers risked their lives to drive logs down the Greenbrier River, Riders of the Flood tells the tale of one young man who, down on his luck, is forced to leave the big city and start a new life.
He sets off to join a logging camp, not only to find work, but more to find himself. His journey winds its way through the Greenbrier River Valley, over Droop Mountain, in to Pocahontas County, on to the high mountain country beyond. Along the way he finds adventure and success; every September the nonprofit organization, Riders of the Flood, hosts this outdoor drama to critical success in Ronceverte. West Virginia, its sequel, "Big Dreams, Restless Spirit" is well received. The theatre is built along the banks of the Greenbrier River and occasional floods have disrupted the showtimes; the main protagonist, Duncan “Dunk” Mall is moved by his unexpected collapse in fortunes to take the next train out of Washington, D. C, he falls asleep in the freight-car of a Chesapeake & Ohio train and wakes up in Ronceverte, West Virginia. After learning of his plight, Bill Brake gives him a large meal, clothes from a dead man, a few dollars so he can get started as a man who can make his way in the logging industry.
He follows. Duncan soon falls in with the St. Lawrence Boom and Lumber Company, which owns the sawmill in Ronceverte, he soon becomes one of the crew and learns their ways, encountering colorful characters such as Windy Hammer, a man as skilled in tall tales as he is in his craft, Tad Stevens and Jim Noonan. As he learns the ways of timbering, he grows stronger in body and spirit, he falls in love with the beautiful daughter of his employer's business partner. Romantic tension is supplied by the son of a former Virginia governor. Wealthy and callous, Arthur Hennessey is a darker aspect of Duncan ’s former social rung, he is unaware that his ignorance of the so-called ‘common man’ has left him just as ignorant of the values of life. At the end of the play and his friends start up their own sawmill. Duncan marries Martha after her mother dies of consumption. Riders on the Flood is performed in the Island Park Amphitheatre of Ronceverte, West Virginia—the same town and locale that saw the true lumbering industry during the latter half of the 19th century.
Blackhurst's books resurrect the forests with a natural love of detail. The logging industry no longer depends on water-travel to deliver the logs from the headwaters to the sawmills, but during
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of